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Key: Politics and Society, Science and Technology, Arts and Culture, World

Year in Review

 

Politics & Society

  • Jan 1 Dr. Francis E. Townsend of Long Beach, CA announces an Old Age Revolving Pensions Plan, a.k.a The Townsend Plan, giving all those over 60 years of age $200 to spend.
  • Jan 4 Roosevelt asks for $10,500,000,000 to advance his recovery program for the next 18 months.
  • Jan 30 Congress passes Gold Reserve Act, empowering the president to regulate the value of the U.S. dollar.
  • Jan 31 Roosevelt signs the Farm Mortgage Refinancing Act, to
    help farmers pay their mortgages with easier credit terms.
  • Feb 2 Roosevelt establishes the Export-Import Bank of Washington to encourage commerce between the U.S. and foreign nations.
  • Feb 4 2000 rampaging Taxi drivers, in their 3rd day of strike, terrorized NYC from Wall St to Times Square when Mayor LaGuardia was not available for their petitions.
  • Feb 9 Air Contracts Cancelled, Army ordered to carry the mail.
  • Feb 15 Congress passes Civil Works Emergency Relief Act, allotting new funds for Federal Emergency Relief Administration to run new programs of civil works and direct relief.
  • Feb 16 Thousands of Socialists battled Communists at a rally in New York's Madison Square Garden.
  • Feb 23 Congress passes the Crop Loan Act.
  • Mar 13 Henry Ford restores $5.00 per day minimum wage.
  • Mar 17 Thousands battle the police in New York protesting the Scottsboro trial.
  • Mar 24 Congress passes Tydings-McDuffie Act granting independence to the Phillipines. Complete independence not proclaimed til 1946.
  • Apr 7 Congress adopts the Jones-Connally Farm Relief Act, extending the number of agricultural commodities controlled by the Agricultural Adjustment Administration.
  • Apr 12 Senate establishes a committee to investigate the manufacture and sale of munitions in the U.S., specifically the extent to which the trade influenced and profited from the role taken by the U.S. in WWI.
  • Apr 13 Congress passes an act forbidding loans to any government in default on payments to the U.S.A.
  • Apr 21 Congress passes the Cotton Control Act calling for mandatory controls on cotton crops, with a tax placed on every pound over the quotas allocated to the various cotton growing states, counties, and farmers.
  • Apr 28 Roosevelt signs Home Owners Loan Act, designed to stimulate home building.
  • May 9 San Francisco Waterfront Strike begins.
  • May 9 Congress passes the Jones-Costigan Act, authorizing controls on both cane and beet sugar produced in the U.S. as well as on the amount of sugar imported.
  • May 11-13 A severe dust storm blows much of the topsoil of Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas and Colorado to the Atlantic.
  • May 18 Congress passes Lindbergh Law, making kidnaping across state lines a federal offense.
  • May 29 U.S. and Cuba sign sign a treaty releasing Cuba from the Platt Amendment of 1903 that had made Cuba a U.S. protectorate after the Spanish-American War.
  • Jun 6 Roosevelt signs Securities Exchange Act, establishing Securities and Exchange Commission. The first chairman of the SEC is Joseph Kennedy.
  • Jun 7 Congress passes the Corporate Bankruptcy Act which allows a corporation facing bankruptcy to reorganize itself if 2/3rd of its creditors agree.
  • Jun 12 Roosevelt signs Trade Agreements Act, authorizing President to cut tariffs by as much as 50% for countries honoring the U.S. with most-favored nation status.
  • Jun 18 Congress passes Indian Reorganization Act.
  • Jun 19 Congress passes Communications Act, establishing the FCC to regulate all national and international telegraph, cable, or radio communication.
  • Jun 19 The National Archives and Records Administration established.
  • Jun 26 The Federal Credit Union Act passed.
  • Jun 28 Roosevelt signs Federal Farm Bankruptcy Act, establishing a moratoriam on farm mortgage foreclosures.
  • Jun 28 Roosevelt signs National Housing Act, which establishes Federal Housing Administration.
  • Southern Tenant Farmer's Union organized in Arkansas.
  • Jul 5 San Francisco strike police fire into crowd of strikers at Steaurt and Mission streets, killing 2 men.
  • Jul 11 President Roosevelt first chief executive to travel through the Panama Canal while in office.
  • Jul 16 The first general strike in U.S. history takes place in San Francisco in support of 12,000 striking members of International Longshoreman's Assoc.
  • Aug 6 The last of U.S. Marines leave Haiti, where they have been since 1915.
  • Aug 9 Roosevelt nationalizes silver and says the federal government will purchase it at 50.01 cents an ounce.
  • Aug 11 Alcatraz maximum security prison opens in San Francisco Bay. Until 1937, prisoners are not allowed to talk.
 
  • Nov 6 Democrats win nine senate seats in congressional elections for a 69-27 majority.
  • Dec 3 Supreme Court upholds the right of land-grant colleges to require military training of their students.
  • Dec 18 Woodrow Wilson appears on largest note ever issued in the U.S. Only issued until Jan 9, 1935, the bill was used for transactions between Federal Reserve Banks.
Science and Technology        
  • May 23 Nylon first produced by Dr. Wallace H. Carothers, a research chemist at Dupont.
     
  • Oct 25 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded jointly to George R. Minot, William P. Murphy, and George H. Whipple for their discovery of liver therapy to combat anemia.
  • Nov 15 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Harold Clayton Urey for his discovery in December 1931 of deuterium, or heavy hydrogen, an isotope of hydrogen used in fission experiments to slow neutrons; a major advance in atomic physics.
 
1934 January 1934 February 1934 March 1934 April 1934 May 1934 June 1934 July 1934 August 1934 September 1934 October 1934 November 1934 December 1934
Arts and Culture
  • Jan 1 College football game results are Duquesne 33, Miami 7 in the Orange Bowl; Columbia 7, Stanford 0 in the Rose Ball.
  • Jan 7 Rev. Dr. William Ashley Sunday, a.k.a. Billy Sunday, begins intensive 2-week revival campaign in NYC.
  • Jan 8 Days Without End by Eugene O'Neill opens at Henry Miller's Theatre in NYC.
  •   The 30s Jukebox
  • Feb 8 Four Saints in Three Acts by Gertrude Stein, music by Virgil Thompson, presented by the Friends and Enemies of Modern Music at Hartford, CT.
  • Gable and Colbert
  • Feb 22 "It Happened One Night," starring Clark Gable and Claudette Colbert, opens at Radio City Music Hall.
  • film clip 
  • Mar 10 U.S. Figure Skating Championship won by Suzanne Davis, women's singles; Roger Turner, men's singles; Grace E. Madden and James L. Madden, pairs.
  • Mar 16 Academy Awards presented. Outstanding picture of 1932-33 is Cavalcade, Charles Laughton is best actor for Henry VIII, and Katherine Hepburn is best actress for Morning Glory. Walt Disney wins an award for cartoon Three Little Pigs.
  •   Mar 21 Calling All Cars, recreation of the capture of John Dillinger.
  • Mar 25 First annual Masters golf tournament held in Augusta GA is won by Horton Smith who defeated Craig Wood by one stroke.
  • Apr 1 Bonnie & Clyde kill 2 police officers.
  • Apr 3-10 NHL Stanley Cup won by Chicago Black Hawks, who beat the Detroit Red Wings three to one.
  • Apr 12 Tender Is The Night published by Scribner's, NY.
  • Apr 16 The Adventures of Babe Ruth
  • Apr 19 Shirley Temple appears in her first movie Bright Eyes and sings On the Good Ship Lollipop.
  • Apr 19 Boston Marathon won by Dave Komonen of Canada who won in 2 hrs, 32 min, and 53.8 seconds.
  • newsreelMay 5 Kentucky Derby won by Cavalcade in 2:04 with Jockey Mack Garner.
  • May 7 Pulitzers awarded to Caroline Miller for Lamb in His Bosom (fiction); Tyler Bennett for John Hay (biography); Herbert Agar for The People's Choice (history); Robert Hillyer for Collected Verse (poetry); Sidney Kingsley for Men in White (drama).
  • May 23 Bonnie and Clyde shot.
  • May 12 Preakness Stakes won by High Quest in 1:58 1/5 with Jockey Robert Jones.
  • May 28 The Dionne Quintuplets born. newsreel
  • May 30 Bill Cummings wins Indianapolis 500 with an average speed of 104.86 mph.newsreel
  • Jul 4 Joe Louis wins first professional fight.
  • Jul 10 American League wins 2nd annual baseball all-star game, 9-7.
  • July 14 Babe Ruth hits 700th homer.
  • Jul 22 John Dillinger shot to death by federal agents outside Chicago's Biograph Theater. FBI agent Murray Faulkner, brother of William Faulkner, helped in the killing.
  • Jul 29 Paul Runyan wins PGA golf tournament.
  • Aug 7 U.S. Court of Appeals upholds a lower court ruling striking down the government's attempt to ban the controversial James Joyce novel "Ulysses."
  • Aug 13 "Li'l Abner," created by Al Capp, makes its debut.
  • Aug 19 U.S. Lawn Tennis singles championships won by Helen Hull Jacobs in women's and Frederick Perry of Great Britain in men's (Sept. 12).
  • Sep 8 134 people lose their lives in a fire aboard the liner Morro Castle off the New Jersey coast. The crew of the cruise ship let a small blaze get out of control and commandeered most of the spots in the lifeboats.
  • Sep 17-25 America's Cup defended by the U.S. yacht Rainbow, which defeated the British challenger Endeavour four races to two.
  • Sep 19 Bruno Hauptmann arrested for the kidnapping and murder of the Lindbergh baby.
  • newsreelOct 3-9 World Series won by St. Louis Cardinals, who ousted the Detroit Tigers four games to three.
  • newsreelOct 8 Bruno Hauptmann, a carpenter and illegal alien, is indicted for murder of the infant son of Charles A. Lindbergh.
  • Oct 22 Bank robber Charles "Pretty Boy" Floyd shot to death by federal agents at a farm in East Liverpool, Ohio.
    Books Published in 1934
  • Goodbye, Mr. Chips by James Hilton
  • Tender is the Night by F. Scott Fitzgerald
  • The Thin Man by Dashiell Hammett
  • Murder in Three Acts by Agatha Christie
  • The Postman Always Rings Twice by James M. Cain
  • Exiles Return: A Literary Odyssey of the 1920s by Malcolm Cowley
  • ...... wins Academy Award for Best Picture, ...... Best Actor in ......; ...... as Best Actress in ......
  • Nov 9 Carl Sagan born.
  • Nov 17 Lyndon Baines Johnson marries Claudia Alta Taylor, better known as "Lady Bird."
  • Nov 21 A court rules Gloria Vanderbilt unfit for custody of her daughter.
  • Nov 21 Anything Goes opens at the Alvin Theatre in NYC and becomes the musical hit of the season.
  • Aaron Douglas paints 5 murals in the Aspects of Negro Life series for the N.Y. Public Library
  • Dec 9 NY Giants win NFL championship, routing the Chicago Bears 30-13.
    Films Released in 1934
  • Babes in Toyland with Laurel and Hardy
  • Puttin' on the Ritz
  • The Thin Man (RealAudio clip)
  • Cleopatra
  • Little Women
  • Of Human Bondage
World        
  • Jun 30 Night of Long Knives: Hitler eliminates embarrassing friends and foes alike: 77 people executed, including SA leader Ernst Roehm, General Von Schleicher and his wife, former premier Gregor Starsser, a radical Nazi, and Erich Klausenere, a prominent Catholic.
  • Jul 25 Unrest in Austria; Dolfus Assasinated. The Nazis stage a coup in Austria and kill Chancellor Dolfus.
  • Jul 30 Kurt von Schuschnigg replaces Dolfus as Premier of Austria until the Nazis seize the government in 1938. Schuschnigg is then interned in a concentration camp.
  • Aug 2 Pres. Paul von Hindenburg of Germany dies and is succeeded by Adolf Hitler as Reichsfuhrer, an office that combines the duties of president and chancellor.
 
  • newsreelOct 9 King Alexander of Yugoslavia assasinated in Marseilles. After arriving in France for a state visit, both the King and French Foreign minister Louis Barthou are assasinated by a Croatian assassin while riding in a motorcade. The two had been on a tour of European capitols in quest for an alliance against Nazi Germany.
  • Oct 16 Mao sets off on Long March.
  • Oct 24 Ghandi, called Mahatma or Great Soul, resigns from Congress in India.
  • Nov 23 U.S. and Britain agree on a 5-5-3 naval ratio; Japan denounced the treaty.
  • Dec 1 Sergei Kirov Shot; Stalin Begins Purges Sergei Kirov, a close associate of Stalin, assassinated in Leningrad, prompting Stalin to institute another great purge. In the previous year, Stalin had purged the Communist Party of close to 1,000,000 members. This time, many of the older leaders of the party, such as Zinoviev and Kamenev, were arrested and tried for treason. Before the purges ended, close to 8 million people were killed, imprisoned or sent to Siberia.
  • Dec 5 Italian and Ethiopian troops clash at the Ualual on disputed Somali-Ethiopian border.
  • Dec 29 Japan renounces the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.