1 Anthropologist Paul Rainbow, the editor of the reader which I used in this study, is but one example of many in the social sciences who have written on the impact of Foucauldian thought in their own disciplines. However, literary critics are often quick to maintain that Foucault's most important and most dramatic influence has been in their own discipline (see Groden and Kreiswirth, 278).

2 Examples of such "(mis)readings" (24) of Foucault, and compelling arguments against such reductivisms, may be found in Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick and Adam Frank's "Shame in the Cybernetic Fold: Reading Silvan Tomkins," (15-17, 24).

3See The John Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism for concise articles on structuralism (696-701), Saussure (651-655) and a host of related -isms and thinkers, among them Foucault (277-279).

4This paragraph is a truncated version of Pierson's description of the two systems in Tocquville in America (95-98).

5As Pierson explains "the new kind of prison with the solitary cell had been called a 'penitentiary' or house of penitence and reform" (96).

6Foucault at one point refers to his book Dicipline and Punish as a "history of the modern soul on trial" (Rainbow, 170).

7The shift in the locus of punishment enabled another shift; when justice was the abuse of the transgressor's body, the transgressor - in body or soul - was not yet understood as the object of reform. The transgressor had broken the law and it was the law - and not the transgressor - which needed repair. The transgression was thus not seen as evidence of a corrupted soul, but as a corruption of the law itself. Physical violence or execution thus provided a purification ritual for the law as much as a deterrent for future transgresive acts. (Sarup, 67)

8Accounts of these visits may be found in Pierson (84-92, 100-106).

9Not to be confused with Bloomingdale's midtown department store, which houses a more recently constructed version of insanity.

10The John Hopkins Guide... links performance with Speech Act Theory and with Deconstruction. Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick's work has made progress towards a notion of performance in contemporary queer theory. See especially her "Queer Performativity: Henry James Art of the Novel."

11For example, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, in her Epistemology of the Closet quotes part of this passage from Foucault (3)