Primary Text

Whitman, Walt. Complete Poetry and Selected Prose. James E. Miller, Jr., ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1959.

__________. Leaves of Grass: The First (1855) Edition. Malclm Cowley, ed. New York: Penguin, 1959.

Secondary Texts

Marx, Leo. The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the PastoralIdeal in America. New York: Oxford UP, 1964.

Orvell, Miles. The Real Thing: Imitation and Authenticity in American Culture 1880-1940. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989.

Smith, Henry Nash. Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth. New York: Vintage Books, 1950.

Trachtenberg, Alan. The Incorporation of American: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age. New York: Hill and Wang, 1982.

Images Scanned From

Black, Mary, ed. Old New York in Early Photographs: 1853-1901 169 Prints from the Collection of The New York Historical Society. NewYork: Dover, 1973.

Whitman, Walt. The Walt Whitman Archive. Joel Myerson, ed. 3 vols. New York: Garland Publishing, 1993.