Chapter 4|Chapter 5|Chapter 6|Chapter 7
Scholars have produced a spate of works on Gilded Age economic growth, politics, immigration and labor, cities, towns and farms, but, relatively few efforts at interpretive synthesis. Robert H. Wiebe, The Search for Order, 1877-1920 (New York, 1967) remains the most prominent work of synthesis: a challenging argument that Americans experienced a loss of bearings as their society of "island communities" began to break up after the Civil War. More concerned with emerging patterns of popular life, Daniel Boorstin focuses on the "democratizing" influences of new technologies and institutions in The Americans: The Democratic Experience (New York, 1973), which also contains bibliographical notes indispensable for a cultural history of the period. H. Wayne Morgan's volume in the Pelican History of the United States (Vol. 4), Unity and Culture: The United States 1877-1900 (Middlesex, England, 1971), is a useful brief survey of developments in industry, politics, culture, and diplomacy. Lewis Mumford's Brown Decades: A Study of the Arts of America 1865-1895 (New York, 1931) remains unsurpassed as an interpretation of styles and currents in architecture, city design, painting, literature and philosophy. Howard Mumford Jones provides an invaluable panorama of the era in The Age of Energy: Varieties of American Experience 1865-1915 (New York, 1971). Two valuable collections of contemporary documents, with interpretative introductions, are Alan Trachtenberg, ed., Democratic Vistas 1865-1880 (New York, 1970) and, Neil Harris, ed., The Land of Contrasts 1880-1901 (New York, 1970).
For a basic history of the period, W. R. Brock's essay on the United States in Vol. XI of The New Cambridge Modern History: Material Progress and World-Wide Problems 1870-1898 (Cambridge, England, 1962) is an excellent introduction. Still the most useful general treatment of indus-
trialization and its social effects is Thomas C. Cochran and William Miller, The Age of Enterprise (rev.ed., NewYork, 1961). For a lucid survey of the economic history of the era, see Stuart Bruchey, Growth of the Modern American Economy (New York, 1975). The relevant chapters of William Appleman Williams, The Contours of American History (Cleveland, 1961) and Gabriel Kolko, Main Currents in Modern American History (New York, 1976) should be consulted for important discussions of the relations among economic interest, politics, and ideology. Valuable essays by major scholars on business, politics, labor, and culture are included in H. Wayne Morgan, ed., The Gilded Age: A Reappraisal (Syracuse, 1970). Robert Higgs, The Transformation of the American Economy, 1865-1914 (New York, 1971) is also useful and illuminating for the nonspecialist. Large economic patterns and their social, political, and cultural ramifications are treated in Carl Degler's excellent brief introduction, The Age of the Economic Revolution 1876-1900 (Glenview, Illinois, 1967).
For a world perspective on the developments in the United States in the early part of this period, see E. J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Capital 1848-1875 (New York, 1975). Karl Polyani, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (New York, 1944) is an essential work on the emergence of a marketplace economy and its effects upon nineteenth-century European thought.
A continuing subject of controversy, Frederick Jackson Turner's "Frontier Thesis" has provided the single most important view of the West in American historiography. In Turner and Beard: American Historical Writing Reconsidered (New York, 1960), especially Part II, "The Historical Background of Turner's Frontier Essay," Lee Benson views the thesis in the intellectual and social setting of the late nineteenth century, stressing the importance of changes in transportation and communication on Turner's conception of the frontier. Richard Hofstadter, The Progressive Historians Turner, Beard, Parrington (New York, 1968) also places Turner in relation to the intellectual climate of his times and examines his influence on historiography. The most influential discussion of Turner as mythmaker and of the West as a whole as a cultural symbol has been Henry Nash Smith, Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth (Cambridge, 1950). For general narrative accounts of the Western movement, see R. A. Billington, Westward Expansion (4th ed., New York, 1974) and Richard A. Bartlett, The New Country: A Social History of the American Frontier 1776-1890 (New York, 1974). The authoritative account of the influence of terrain and climate upon settlement is W. P. Webb, The Great Plains (New York, 1931). For a comprehensive discussion of government and railroad surveys and expeditions, and the role of the military in these undertakings, see William H. Goetzmann, Exploration and Empire: The Explorer and the Scientist in the Winning of the American West (New York, 1966). The politics and cultural multiplicity
of the Southwestern Territories receive definitive treatment in Howard R. Lamar, The Far Southwest, 1846-1912: A Territorial History (New Haven, 1966). For more particular aspects of regional settlement and enterprise, see F. A. Shannon, The Farmer's Last Frontier 1860-1897 (New York, 1945); E. S. Osgood, The Days of the Cattleman (Minneapolis, 1929); Lewis Atherton, The Cattle Kings (Bloomington, 1961); Eugene Gressley, Bankers and Cattlemen (New York, 1966); and W. S. Greever, The Bonanza West: The Story of the Western Mining Rushes 1948-1900 (Norman, Oklahoma, 1963).
An important study of the role of the West in the experience of Eastern intellectuals is G. Edward White, The Eastern Establishment and the Western Experience: The West of Frederick Remington, Theodore Roosevelt , and Owen Wister (New Haven, 1968). Christopher Lasch's well-known essay, "The Moral and Intellectual Rehabilitation of the Ruling Class," in The World of Nations (New York, 1973), is relevant. For the imperial motives within the Western settlement, see Frederick Merk, Manifest Destiny and Mission in American History: A Reinterpretation (New York, 1963). Lively and cogent discussion of the evangelical aspects of the rhetoric of the West can be found in E. L. Tuveson, The Redeemer Nation: The Idea of America's Millenial Role (Chicago, 1968). Sacvan Bercovitch's original interpretation of the Protestant elements in the idea of America as a whole is developed with clarity and force in The American Jeremiad (Madison, 1978).
For a provocative discussion of the cultural meanings of the "Western," see John G. Cawelti, The Six-Gun Mystique (Bowling Green, 1975); see also Cawelti's more theoretical discussion of the genres of popular writing, Adventure, Mystery, and Romance (Chicago, 1976). On dime-novel Westerns in particular, see Merle Curti, "Dime Novels and the American Tradition," in Probing Our Past (New York, 1955); and Dixon Wecter, "The Dime Novel and Buffalo Bill," in The Hero in America (New York, 1941). A more general treatment of the figure of the cowboy is William W. Savage, Jr., The Cowboy Hero: His Image in American History and Culture (Norman, Oklahoma, 1979).
For general histories of the North American Indian, see Paul Radin's The Story of the American Indian (rev. ed., New York, 1944); John Collier, The Indians of America (New York, 1947); and Jennings C. Wise (ed. and rev. by Vine Deloria, Jr.), The Red Man in the New World Drama: A Politico-Legal Study with a Pageantry of American Indian History (New York, 1971). Important recent anthropological studies can be found in Eleanor Burke Leacock and Nancy Oestreich Lurie, eds., North American Indians in Historical Perspective (New York, 1971). Eleanor Burke Leacock's edition of Lewis Henry Morgan's Ancient Society (New York, 1963) provides an invaluable introduction and headnotes. A standard work on the image of the Indian in American cultural history is Roy Harvey Pearce, Savagism and Civilization: A Study of the Indian and the American Mind (Baltimore, 1953); an excellent recent treatment of the same theme in a broader historical perspective is Robert F. Berkhofer, The White
Man's Indian: Images of the American Indian from Columbus to the Present (New York, 1978). The authoritative study of Indian policy in these years is Francis P. Prucha, American Indian Policy in Crisis: Christian Reformers and the Indian 1865-1900 (Norman, Oklahoma, 1976), and also by Prucha, the indispensable collections, Documents of Indian Policy (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1975) and Americanizing the American Indian: Writings of the 'Friends of the Indian' 1880-1900 (Cambridge, 1973).
On the whole, scholars have concerned themselves more with specific technological innovations than with the cultural effects of technological change. The work from which this chapter takes its title, Siegfried Giedion's Mechanization Takes Command (New York, 1948), remains the foremost examination of the impact of mechanical process on human activities and perceptions; although the book is global in its coverage, it draws many of its primary examples from the American experience, especially in regard to the assembly line, the industrialization of agriculture and meat production, the interiors of railroads and households, the mechanization of bathrooms and bathing. Concerned less with actual mechanization than with the place of technology in the cultural imagination (both popular and literary), Leo Marx's The Machine in the Garden: Technology and the Pastoral Ideal in America (New York, 1964) maintains that Americans in general have tended to view machines in the light of inherited landscape values: as instruments either of fulfillment or of destruction of the pastoral ideal. Although the book deals chiefly with antebellum writers, its discussions of Mark Twain and Henry Adams are pertinent to these years. For a suggestive study of the role of machinery in European popular culture in the same years, see Dolf Sternberger, Panorama of the 19th Century, (New York, 1977). For an excellent study of generally favorable responses to the machine, see John Kasson, Civilizing the Machine: Technology and Republican Values in America 1776-1900 (New York, 1976), especially the chapters on machine design and on utopian writings. The changing place of advanced technology in the world's fairs of the period is charted usefully by John Cawelti in "America on Display: The World's Fairs of 1876, 1893, 1933," in Frederic C. Jaher, ed., The Age of Industrialism in America (New York, 1968). And for more general responses to industrialization in the later years of the period, see the helpful summary in Samuel P. Hays, The Response to Industrialism 1865-1914 (Chicago, 1957).
A good place to begin further reading on the processes of mechanization itself, in industrial production and in transportation, is David S. Landes, The Unbound Prometheus: Technological Change and Industrial Development in Western Europe from 175O to the Present (Cambridge, England, 1969), which draws often on American materials. A useful overview can be found in Edward C. Kirkland, Men, Cities, and Transportation: A Study
in New England History 1820-1900 (Cambridge, 1948). Indispensable for its treatment of the role of railroads in fostering industrialization in the earlier period is George R. Taylor, The Transportation Revolution 1815-1860 (New York, 1951). For a concise account of railroads, the major mechanized industry of the era, see Taylor and Irene D. Neu, The American Railroad Network (Cambridge, 1956). In Railroads and American Economic Growth (Baltimore, 1964), Robert Fogel challenges the conventional wisdom regarding the exact role of railroads in American economic growth in these years. For a factual account of the introduction of standard time zones, see W. F. Allen, Short History of Standard Time and Its Adoption in North America in 1883 (New York, 1904). An original discussion of the culture of the railroad in the nineteenth century, with a brilliant chapter on the American experience, is Wolfgang Schivelbusch, The Railway Journey: Trains and Travel in the 19th Century (New York, 1979). VV
An important comparative discussion of the incentives toward technological change is H. J. Habakkuk, American and British Technology in the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, England, 1962). The writings of Nathan Rosenberg on the role of technology in American economic history are original and indispensable. See especially his Technology and American Economic Growth (New York, 1972), Perspectives on Technology (New York, 1976), especially "Technological Change in the Machine Tool Industry 1840-1910," and his "Technological Interdependence in the American Economy," Technology and Culture (1979), 25-49. Useful discussions of the application of electrical power can be found in Richard B. Du Boff, "The Introduction of Electric Power in American Manufacturing," Economic History Review (December 1967), 509-18; and Thomas P. Hughes, "The Electrification of America: The System Builders," Technology and Culture (1979), 124-61. On Thomas A. Edison, see Matthew Josephson's biography, Edison (New York, 1959) and Wyn Wachhorst, Thomas Alva Edison: An American Myth (Cambridge, 1981). For a critical study of the role of the engineering profession in shaping corporate capitalism, see David F. Noble, America by Design: Science, Technology, and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism (New York, 1977). In his review of Noble's book, Richard Du Boff continues the argument against the notion of a "neutral" technology; see "The 'Bias' of Technology: Corporate Capital and the Engineers, 1880-1930," Monthly Review (October 1978), 19-28. For additional essays on the changing role of formal science in industry in these years, see George H. Daniels, ed., Nineteenth-Century American Science: A Reappraisal (Evanston, 1972), especially Edwin Layton, "Mirror-Image Twins: The Communities of Science and Technology," and Carroll Pursell, "Science and Industry." Also, Alexandra Oleson and John Vos, eds., The Organization of Knowledge in Modern America 1860-1920 (Baltimore, 1979), especially John Rae, "The Application of Science to Industry," and Louis Galambos, "The American Economy and the Reorganization of the Sources of Knowledge." On the effects of mechanization
under corporate conditions, Harry Braverman's Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the 20th Century (New York, 1974) is of vital importance.
For discussions of the place of technology within utopian thought and science fiction, see Neil Harris, "Utopian Fiction and Its Discontents," in Richard Bushman et al., eds., Uprooted American: Essays to Honor Oscar Handlin (Boston, 1979); John L. Thomas, "Utopia for an Urban Age: Henry George, Henry Demarest Lloyd, Edward Bellamy," Perspectives in American History (1972); H. Bruce Franklin, Future Perfect: American Science Fiction of the Nineteenth Century (New York, 1966); Darko Suvin, Metamorpboses of Science Fiction: On the Poetics and History of a Literary Genre (New Haven, 1979).
The authoritative discussion of the free-labor ideology which guided the Republican Party is Eric Foner, Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War (New York, 1970). The changing relations among labor, business, and the Republican Party after the Civil War are subjected to close and searching scrutiny in David Montgomery, Beyond Equality: Labor and the Radical Republicans 1862-1872 (New York, 1967). C. Vann Woodward, Reunion and Reaction: The Compromise of 1877 and the End of Reconstruction (Boston, 1951) is indispensable for its analysis of the link between economic policy and national party politics, especially the role of corporate businessmen in resolving the Presidential deadlock in 1877. For a broad summary of economic policy and practices, see Edward C. Kirkland, Industry Comes of Age: Business, Labor and Public Policy 1860-1897 (New York, 1961).
Changes in the popular free-labor doctrine are examined by Daniel T. Rodgers in The Work Ethic in Industrial America 185O-1920 (Chicago, 1978). See also Irvin G. Wylie, The Self-Made Man in America (New York, 1954) and John Cawelti, Apostles of the Self-Made Man: Changing Concepts of Success in America (Chicago, 1965); Moses Rischin, ed., The American Gospel of Success, Individual and Beyond (Chicago, 1965); Sigmund Diamond, The Reputation of the American Businessman (Cambridge, 1955).
For a lively, critical account of the most prominent men of business, see Matthew Josephson, The Robber Barons. The Great American Capitalists 1861-1901 (New York, 1934). Entrepreneurial historians have questioned Josephson's influential portrait. See Thomas C. Cochran, "The Legend of the Robber Barons," Explorations in Entrepreneurial History (May, 1949), 1-7; William Miller, ed., Men in Business (Cambridge, 1952); John Chamberlain, The Enterprising Americans., A Business History of United States (New York, 1963); L. M. Hacker, The World of Andrew Carnegie 1865-1901 (Philadelphia, 1967). The relations between old and new wealth are examined in a particular case by Gabriel Kolko in "Brahmins and Business, 1870-1914: A Hypothesis on the Social Basis of
Success in American History," in Kurt H. Wolff and Barrington Moore, Jr., eds., The Critical Spirit: Essays in Honor of Herbert Marcuse (Boston, 1967). For the life and business activities of John D. Rockefeller, see Allan Nevins, John D. Rockefeller, 2 vols. (New York, 1940), and Ida M. Tarbell, The History of the Standard Oil Company (New York, 1904). Leading ideas held by businessmen are succinctly explored in Edward C. Kirkland, Dream and Thought in the Business Community 1860-1900 (Ithaca, 1956). The standard study of the "survival of the fittest" theme is Richard Hofstadter, Social Darwinism in American Thought (rev. ed., Boston, 1955). See also Sidney Fine, Laissez Faire and the General Welfare State: A Study of Conflict in American Thought 186S-1901 (Ann Arbor, 1956). For economic thought in general, the definitive study is Joseph Dorfman, The Economic Mind in American Civilization, Vol. III (New York, 1949).
On the emergence of corporate forms of business organization, Alfred D. Chandler, The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business (Cambridge, 1977) is thorough, incisive, and lucid. Thomas C. Cochran discusses significant changes prior to the Civil War in "Business Organization and the Development of an Industrial Discipline," in Harold F. Williamson, ed., The Growth of the American Economy (New York, 1944). A clear and useful account of the financial situation after the Civil War, pertinent to incorporation, can be found in Sidney Ratner, James H. Sollow, Richard Sylla, The Evolution of the American Economy: Growth, Welfare, and Decision-Making (New York, 1979), especially chap. 15, "The Financial System under Stress." For a very helpful general essay on incorporation, see Edward S. Mason, "Corporation," in International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (New York, 1968). For background essential to this period, see Oscar Handlin and Mary F. Handlin, "Origins of the American Business Corporation," Journal of Economic History (1945), 1-23. George Heberton Evans, Jr., Business Incorporations in the United States 1800-1943 (National Bureau of Economic Research, 1948) provides basic statistical information. An excellent, rather theoretical review of the legal and political status of corporations is James Willard Hurst, The Legitimacy of the Business Corporation in the Law of the United States 1780-1970 (Charlottesville, 1970).
For a succinct and pithy narrative of labor in these years, see David Montgomery, "Labor in the Industrial Era," in Richard B. Morris, ed., U.S. Department of Labor History of the American Worker (Washington, D.C., 1976). A suggestive overview of the character of class conflict in these years is provided by Leon Fink in "Class Conflict in the Gilded Age: The Figure and the Phantom," Radical History Review (Fall/Winter, 1975), 56-73. Although dated, Norman Ware's The Labor Movement in the United States 1860-1895 (New York, 1929) remains a good general study of the period, as does the recent brief study, Melvyn Dubofsky's Industrialism and the American Worker 1865-1920 (New York, 1975). Gerald N. Grob, Workers and Utopia: A Study of Ideological Conflict in the American Labor Movement 1865-1900 (Evanston, 1961) interprets the labor
movement in these years in light of the conflict between reformism and trade unionism, while David Montgomery, in Workers' Control in America: Studies in the History of Work, Technology, and Labor Struggles (Cambridge, England, 1979), calls into question the validity of such polarization by focusing on specific struggles for control of the work place in the late nineteenth century, suggesting that a principled rejection of the wage system remained a strong current even in trade-union actions, an argument he continues in "Strikes in Nineteenth Century America," Social Science History (February 1980), 81-104, and "Labor and the Republic in Industrial America 1860-1920," Le Mouvement Social (April-May, 1980). For an excellent account of changing work-place conditions and forms during the nineteenth century, see Daniel Nelson, Managers and Workers: Origins of the New Factory System in the United States 1820-1920 (Madison, 1975). And for descriptions and discussions of major labor conflicts of the period, see Robert V. Bruce, 1877: Year of Violence (Indianapolis, 1959); Philip S. Foner, The Great Labor Uprising of 1877 (New York, 1977); Henry David, The History of the Haymarket Afair: A Study in the American Social-Revolutionary and Labor Movements (New York, 1936); and Leo Wolff, Lockout: The Story of the Homestead Strike of 1892 (New York, 1965).
A major impetus toward study of working-class cultures under the strain of industrialization and urbanization is found in the work of Herbert Gutman, especially his essays collected in Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing America (New York, 1977). A first-rate example of recent community studies which attend to issues of ethnicity as well as class is Alan Dawley, Class and Community: The Industrial Revolution in Lynn (Cambridge, 1976). See also Eric Foner, "Class, Ethnicity, and Radicalism in the Gilded Age: The Land League and Irish-America," Marxist Perspectives (Summer, 1978), 6-55; Harmut Keil and Heinz Ickstadt, "Elemente einer deutschen Arbeiterkultur in Chicago zwischen 1880 und 1890," Gescbicte und Geseltscbaft (1979), 103-24, and "A Forgotten Piece of Working-class Literature: Gustav Lyser's Satire of the Hewitt Hearing of 1878," Labor History (Winter, 1979), 127-40. On immigration in general in these years, the standard works are M. L. Hansen, The Immigrant in American History, (Cambridge, 1948); Oscar Handlin, The Uprooted (Boston, 1951); and for reactions on the part of older Americans, John Higham, Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism 1860-1925 (New Brunswick, 1953).
On black Americans as members of the industrial working class, see S. D. Spero and A. L. Harris, The Black Worker: The Negro and the Labor Movement (1931), and the early selections in Julius Jacobson, ed., The Negro and the American Labor Movement (New York, 1968). Philip S. Foner's Women and the American Labor Movement (New York, 1979) is a comprehensive study of women and unions. See also Carol Hymowitz and Michaele Weissman, A History of Women in America (New York, 1978) and W. Elliot Brownlee and Mary M. Brownlee, Women in the American Economy: A Documentary History 1675-1929 (New Haven, 1976).
A. M. Schlesinger, The Rise of the City 1878-1898 (New York, 1933) remains a basic study of urban life in these years. Among the more recent general histories of American cities, Blake McKelvey, The Urbanization of America 1860-1915 (New Brunswick, 1963) is particularly useful. It is still essential to consult the pioneering work in urban statistics, Adna F. Weber, The Growth of Cities in the 19th Century (New York, 1899). Sam Bass Warner, Jr., The Urban Wilderness (New York, 1972) is particularly good on the impact of industrialization on urban form. See also his Streetcar Suburbs: The Process of Growth in Boston 1870-1900 (Cambridge, 1962). For a readable text with valuable photographic documents, see Harold M. Mayer and Richard C. Wade, Chicago: Growth of a Metropolis (Chicago, 1969). For more particular social histories, stressing relations of class and immigrant groups, see Stephan Thernstrom, Poverty and Progress: Social Mobility in a 19th Century City (Cambridge, 1964); Richard Sennett, Families against the City: Middle Class Homes of Industrial Chicago 1872-1890 (Cambridge, 1970); Virginia Yans McLaughlin, Family and Community: Italian Immigrants in Buffalo 1880-1930 (Ithaca, 1977); and Stephan Thernstrom and Richard Sennett, eds., Nineteenth Century Cities (New Haven, 1969). A very useful discussion of responses to urban poverty is contained in Part One of Robert H. Bremner's From the Depths: The Discovery of Poverty in the United States (New York, 1956). On the accommodation of the churches to the city, consult the excellent study by Henry F. May, Protestant Churches and Industrial America (New York, 1949). For an important study of efforts by reformers toward social control, see Paul Boyer, Urban Masses and Moral Order in America 1820-1920 (Cambridge, 1978). Among the early investigations by sociologists, Robert E. Park and Ernest W. Burgess, The City (Chicago, 1925) still offers pertinent insights.
A concise and illuminating overview of evolving city forms in the nineteenth- century industrial world can be found in Francoise Choay, The Modern City: Planning in the l9th Century (New York, 1969). For a brief summary of major American trends and patterns, see Christopher Tunnard and Henry Hope Reed, American Skyline: The Growth and Form of Our Cities and Towns (New York, 1953). Predominantly a topographical discussion, John W. Reps, The Making of Urban America: A History of City Planning in the United States (Princeton, 1965) is indispensable. For an astute historical discussion of the city-parks movement, see Francesco Dal Co, "From Parks to the Region: Progressive Ideology and the Reforms of the American City," in Giorgio Ciucci et al., The American City: From the Civil War to the New Deal (Cambridge, 1979). Ross Miller offers an interesting argument about the anti-urban strain in Olmsted's work in "The Landscaper's Utopia Versus the City: A Mismatch," New England Quarterly (June 1976), 179-93. Useful selections (with introductions) of Olmsted's own writings are available in Albert Fein, ed., Landscape into Cityscape (Ithaca, 1968) and S. B. Sutton, ed., Civilizing American
Cities: A Selection of Frederick Law Olmsted's Writings on City Landscapes (Cambridge, 1971). On Central Park in particular, see F. L. Olmsted, Jr., and Theodora Kimball, eds., Frederick Law Olmsted: Landscape Architect 1822-1903: Central Park (New York, 1928).
For descriptive accounts and discussions of main currents in urban architecture in these years, see James Marston Fitch, American Building: The Historical Forces That Shaped It (Boston, 1966); Edgar Kaufman, Jr., ed., The Rise of an American Architecture (New York, 1970); and Carl Condit, The Chicago School of Architecture (Chicago, 1963). On specific urban forms, see Carroll Meeks, The Railroad Station: An Architectural History (New Haven, 1956) and Alan Trachtenberg, Brooklyn Bridge: Fact and Symbol (New York, 1965). David P. Handlin, The American Home: Architecture and Society 1815-1915 (Boston, 1979) is a comprehensive study of changing patterns of domestic architecture and interiors. More specialized in range but an excellent discussion of the cultural implications of domestic building is Gwendolyn Wright, Moralism and the Model Home: Domestic Architecture and the Cultural Conflict in Chicago 1873-1913 (Chicago, 1980). On the application of modern technology to the home, see Reyner Banham's superb The Architecture of the Well-Tempered Environment (London, 1969) and May N. Stone, "The Plumbing Paradox: American Attitudes toward Late Nineteenth-Century Sanitary Arrangements," Winterthur Portfolio (Autumn, 1979), 283-310.
For a provocative and compelling conception of "spectacle" in relation to consumerism, see Guy Debord, Society of the Spectacle (Detroit, 1970). Neil Harris's discussion of the changing form of circuses in these years appears in his Humbug: The Art of P. T. Barnum (Boston, 197 3). John Kasson's Amusing the Million: Coney Island at the Turn of the Century (New York, 1978) is an excellent account of the emergence of the urban amusement park as a response to new social realities. On the new city journalism, see Frank Luther Mott, American journalism: A History 1860-1960 (New York, 1962) and Peter C. Marzio, The Men and Machines of American journalism (Washington, D.C., 1973). On Stephen Crane's newspaper stories, see Alan Trachtenberg, "Experiments in Another Country: Stephen Crane's City Sketches," Southern Review (April 1974), 265-85. For historical accounts of advertising, see Frank Presbrey, The History and Development of Advertising (Garden City, 1929) and Frank Luther Mott, A History of American Magazines, Vol. 3 (Cambridge, 1938). Critical discussions of the place and effect of advertising in American culture can be found in David Potter, People of Plenty: Economic Abundance and the American Character (Chicago, 1954); Daniel Boorstin, The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America (Chicago, 1961); Marshal McLuhan, The Mechanical Bride (New York, 1951); and Leo Spitzer, "American Advertising Explained as Popular Art," in Essays on English and American Literature (Princeton, 1962). For a history of the department store, see H. Pasadermadjian's useful The Department Store: Its Origins, Evolution and Economics (London, 1954); Ralph M. Hower, History of Macy's of New York 1858-1919 (Cambridge, 1943); and Harry E. Resseguie, "Alexander Turney
Stewart and the Development of the Department Store 1823-1876," Business History Review (Autumn, 1965). An excellent recent discussion is Susan Porter Benson, "Palace of Consumption and Machine for Selling: The American Department Store 1880-1940," Radical History Review(Fall, 1979), 199-221.
Notoriously difficult to define to everyone's satisfaction, the word "culture" as used by social scientists tends to mean the whole way of life of a society, its everyday values and manners as well as its arts and religion, while humanists tend to use the word in the more restricted sense of the received tradition in the fine arts, literature, philosophy, and religion. Yet this distinction is not hard and fast. In his path-breaking book in literary and intellectual history, Culture and Society 1780-195O (New York, 1958), Raymond Williams traces the evolution of the term among writers and intellectuals in England, charting its changes in meaning as responses to industrialization. Williams's Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society (New York, 1976) offers compact biographies of words such as "culture" which have undergone similar changes in the modern era. See also his Marxism and Literature (New York, 1977), especially "Cultural Theory," for an important discussion of dominant, residual, and emergent cultures. For an extremely useful compendium of meanings chiefly in the social sciences, see Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions (New York, 1952), by A. L. Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn. Robert Berkhofer provides a useful survey and analytical discussion of the uses of the culture concept in historiography in "Clio and the Culture Concept: Some Impressions of a Changing Relationship in American Historiography," in Louis Schneider and Charles Bonjean, eds., The Idea of Culture in the Social Sciences (Cambridge, England, 1973).
The changing perceptions and roles of intellectuals between the Civil War and World War I has received considerable attention recently, notably in T. J. Jackson Lears's magisterial No Place of Grace: The Quest for Alternatives to Modern American Culture 1880-1920 (New York, 1981). George Fredrickson, in The Inner Civil War: Northern Intellectuals and the Crisis of the Union (New York, 1965), examines responses to the Civil War, particularly the emergence of elitist and anti-democratic currents. While his view of the period is based on an older notion of status anxiety, Stow Persons, in The Decline of American Gentility (New York, 1973), casts light on an implicit theory of mass society in the writings of genteel critics. The standard study of leading genteel editors and intellectuals is John Tomsich, A Genteel Endeavor: American Culture and Politics in the Gilded Age (Stanford, 1971). For the influence of English figures, see John Henry Raleigh, Matthew Arnold and American Culture (Berkeley, 1961) and Roger B. Stein, John Ruskin and Aesthetic Thought in America, 1840-1900 (Cambridge, 1967). For an excellent biography of one of the leading spokesmen for genteel values, see Kermit Vanderbilt, Charles Eliot Nor-
ton: Apostle of Culture in a Democracy (Cambridge, 1959). Although largely concerned with antebellum figures, Ann Douglas's The Feminization of American Culture (New York, 1977) is a valuable investigation of the alliance of middle-class women and ministers in the formation of popular cultural values. John Higham's deservedly well-known essay, "The Reorientation of American Culture in the 1890s," in John Weiss, ed., The Origins of Modern Consciousness (Detroit, 1965), remains a useful treatment of major patterns in that decade.
For relevant discussions of education, see L. A. Cremin, The Transformation of the School Progressivism in American Education 1876-1957 (New York, 1961), and the more critical recent study by Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintes, Schooling in Capitalist America (New York, 1976). For a useful account of higher education, see Frederick Rudolph, The American College and University: A History (New York, 1962). Richard Hofstadter and W. P. Metzger, The Development of Academic Freedom in the United States (New York, 1955) is an essential study, as is Richard Hofstadter, Anti-Intellectualism in American Life (New York, 1950). For a lively general study of professionalism and the adjustment it required in traditional individualist values, see Burton J. Bledstein, The Culture of Professionalism: The Middle Class and the Development of Higher Education in America (New York, 1976). More narrowly focused, Thomas L. Haskell links the rise of social science to deep changes within the economic structure in The Emergence of Professional Social Science: The American Social Science Association and the Nineteenth Century Crisis of Authority (Urbana, 1977). See also Dorothy Ross, "Socialism and American Liberalism: Academic Social Thought in the 1880s," Perspectives on American History (1977-78).
On the establishment of new cultural institutions, see the important study by Helen L. Horowitz, Culture and the City: Cultural Philanthropy in Chicago from the 1880s to 1917 (Lexington, Kentucky, 1976). Neil Harris has been concerned with cultural change and its context in a number of valuable essays, including "The Gilded Age Revisited: Boston and the Museum Movement," American Quarterly (Winter, 1962), 545-66; "Iconography and Intellectual History: The Half-Tone Effect," in John Higham and Paul K. Conkin, eds., New Directions in American Intellectual History (Baltimore, 1979); "The Lamp of Learning: Popular Lights and Shadows," in Olsen and Voss, eds., The Organization of Knowledge in Modern America 1860-1920 (Baltimore, 1979). Also useful in the latter volume is John Y. Cole's "Storehouses and Workshops: American Libraries and the Uses of Knowledge."
For a clear and comprehensive survey of politics and policy making, see Morton Keller, Affairs of State: Public Life in Late Nineteenth Century America (Cambridge, 1977). Matthew Josephson's The Politicos (New York, 1938) is a colorful and detailed account of the ties between party politics and big business. For conventional party politics, see the excellent treatment by Robert D. Marcus, Grand Old Party: Political Structure in the Gilded Age 1880-1896 (New York, 1971) and H. Wayne Morgan's more comprehensive From Hayes to McKinley: National Party Politics 1877-
1896 (Syracuse, 1969). And on the 1896 campaign, see Paul W. Glad, McKinley, Bryan, and the People (New York, 1964).
There has been a recent flood of studies of the major parties and electoral politics in these years, with a strong emphasis on cultural (chiefly ethnic and religious) factors. See the general interpretative essay by Samuel P. Hays, "Political Parties and the Community-Society Continuum," in William Nisbet Chamber and Walter Dean Burnham, eds., The American Party System (New York, 1975), as well as Geoffrey Blodgett, "A New Look at the Gilded Age: Politics in a Cultural Context," in Daniel W. Howe, ed., Victorian America (Philadelphia, 1976); Richard L. McCormick, "Ethno-Cultural Interpretations of Nineteenth Century American Voting Behavior," Political Science Quarterly (June 1974), 3 5 177; Robert Kelley, "Ideology and Political Culture from Jefferson to Nixon," American Historical Review (June 1977), 531-62. Important recent books on cultural aspects of electoral politics include Walter Dean Burnham, Critical Elections and the Mainspring of American Politics (New York, 1970); Paul Kleppner, The Cross of Culture: A Social Analysis of Midwestern Politics 185O-1900 (New York, 1970) and The Third Electoral System 1853-1892: Parties, Voters, and Political Culture (Chapel Hill, 1979); Robert Kelley, The Cultural Pattern in American Politics (New York, 1979).
General studies of reform in these years can be found in Eric Goldman, Rendezvous with Destiny (New York, 1952) and Richard Hofstadter, The Age of Reform (New York, 1955). On the role of blacks in party politics, see R. W. Logan, The Negro in American Life and Thought: The Nadir, 1877-1901 (New York, 1954). The place of "men of culture" in reform movements is treated intelligently by John G. Sproat, "The Best Men"- Liberal Reformers in the Gilded Age (New York, 1968). See also Alexander B. Callow, Jr., The Tweed Ring (New York, 1966); Seymour Mandelbaum, Boss Tweed's New York (New York, 1965); and Morton Keller's abundantly illustrated study of Tweed's nemesis, The Art and Politics of Thomas Nast (New York, 1968). The definitive study of civil service reform is Ari Hoogenboom, Outlawing the Spoils: A History of the Civil Service Reform Movement 1865-1883 (Urbana, 1968). On battles over monetary policy, see Irwin Unger, The Greenback Era: A Social and Political History of American Finance 1865-1979 (Princeton, 1964). On third parties, Fred E. Haynes, Third Party Movements since the Civil War (Iowa City, 1916) is still a useful survey. An illuminating discussion of fusion politics can be found in Peter H. Argersinger, " 'A Place on the Ballot': Fusion Politics and Antifusion Laws," American Historical Review (April 1980), 287-306. For the Henry George mayoral campaign of 1886, see the contemporary account by Louis F. Post and Fred C. Leubuscher, Henry George's 1886 Campaign (reprint, New York, 1961) and Allan Nevins, Abram S. Hewitt (New York, 1935).
The standard narrative work on Populism is J. D. Hicks, The Populist Revolt (Minneapolis, 1931). For essential background to Populism and the Farmer's Alliance, see Chester McArthur Destler, American Radicalism 1865-1901: Essays and Documents (New London, 1946). Lawrence
Goodwyn's recent reappraisal, Democratic Promise: The Populist Moment in America (New York, 1976), is likely to establish itself as the definitive account. Goodwyn's sympathetic treatment of rural radicalism owes a good deal to C. Vann Woodward's earlier treatment in Origins of the New South 1877-1913 (Baton Rouge, 1951). See also Woodward's important essay, "The Populist Heritage and the Intellectual," in The Burden of Southern History (Baton Rouge, 1960).
There are several good introductions to realism as a movement in European and American fiction, including F. W. J. Hemmings, ed., The Age of Realism (Pelican Book, 1974) and Damian Grant, Realism (London, 1970). For a useful collection of documents, see George J. Becker, ed., Documents of Modern Literary Realism (Princeton, 1963). The classic study of the concept of "reality" in relation to literary convention is Eric Auerbach, Mimesis: The Representation of Reality in Western Literature (Princeton, 1953). And the major Marxist discussion, which sees realism as the essential mode of the novel, is Georg Lukacs, Studies in European Realism (London, 1950), a discussion continued as a polemic against literary modernism in The Meaning of Contemporary Realism (London, 1962). Other useful general discussions include Harry Levin, "What Is Realism?" in Comparative Literature (1951), and Rene Wellek, "The Concept of Realism in Literary Scholarship," in Concepts of Criticism (New Haven, 1963).
For a superb study of realism in European (chiefly French) painting, and of its cultural setting, see Linda Nochlin, Realism (Middlesex, England, 1971). See also Axel von Saldern, Triumph of Realism (New York, 1967). For an excellent and incisive general survey, see the relevant chapters in Joshua C. Taylor, The Fine Arts in America (Chicago, 1979); also Oliver Larkin, Art and Life in America(New York, 1949). Patricia Hills, The Painters' America: Rural and Urban Life, 1810-1910 (New York, 1974), contains valuable discussions of industrial and urban themes. A standard brief work on Winslow Homer is Lloyd Goodrich, Winslow Homer (New York, 1944). See also John Wilmerding's excellent monograph, Winslow Homer (New York, 1972). For a study of Thomas Eakins, see Lloyd Goodrich, Thomas Eakins, His Life and Work (New York, 1933).
Although left incomplete at his death in 1929, Vol. Three of Vernon L. Parrington's Main Currents of American Thought (New York, 1927, 1930), "The Beginnings of Critical Realism in America," remains the most comprehensive treatment of the social and political ideas informing literary realism in America. For a briefer general introduction, see Jay Martin, Harvests of Change: American Literature, 1865-1914 (New York, 1967). Bernard Bowron's essay, "American Realism," in Comparative Literature (1951), remains the best brief discussion of features distinctive to American writing. Warner Berthoff, in The Ferment of Realism:
American Literature 1884-1919 (New York, 1965), offers a comprehensive and intelligent survey of writers and ideas, as does Larzer Ziff in The American 1890s (New York, 1966). The opening chapter of Alfred Kazin, On Native Grounds (New York, 1942), is also relevant.
On the literary culture of the post-Civil War years, see Henry Nash Smith, "The Scribbling Women and the Cosmic Success Story," Critical Inquiry (September 1974), 47-70, and Democracy and the Novel (New York, 1978). The chapter on Howells in the latter work is especially instruc- tive. Smith's concern is largely with the demands of the literary market- place on the serious efforts of Howells, Mark Twain, and Henry James. For discussions of the marketplace itself, see William Charvat (Matthew J. Bruccoli, ed.), The Profession of Authorship in America 1800-1870 (Colum- bus, Ohio, 1968), especially chap. 14 and 15. On best sellers, the standard works are James D. Hart, The Popular Book (Berkeley, 1961); Frank Lu- ther Mott, Golden Multitudes (New York, 1947); and Donald Sheehan, This Was Publishing: A Chronicle of the Book Trade in the Gilded Age (Bloom- ington, 1952). For Howells's own critical writings, consult the useful selection in Edwin H. Cady, ed., W. D. Howells as Critic (London, 1973). See also Everett Carter's valuable discussion in Howells and the Age of Realism (1954). For biographical studies of Howells, see Edwin Cady's two volumes, The Road to Realism (Syracuse, 1956) and The Realist at War (Syracuse, 1958), and Kenneth S. Lynn's William Dean Howells: An Ameri- can Life (New York, 1971). On the political meanings of Billy Budd, see Michael Rogin's forthcoming book on Melville.
On international exhibitions in Europe and America in the nine- teenth century, see Frederick P. Pittera, The Art and Science of Interna- tional Fairs and Erbibitions (1961) and Fairs of the World (1970). Useful historical discussions can also be found in Pittera's article on "Exhibi- tions and Fairs" in the Encyclopedia Britannica (1973), and in Guy Stanton Ford's "International Exhibitions" in the Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences (New York, 1933). On the American entries at various fairs, see Merle Curti's summary in "America at the World Fairs, 1851-1893," Probing Our Past (New York, 195 5). The World's Columbian Exposition in Chi- cago in 1893 has as yet inspired only a modest body of scholarship. Two recent books with valuable materials are David F. Burg, Chicago's White City (Lexington, Kentucky, 1976) and R. Reid Badger, The Great American Fair: The World's Columbian Exposition and American Culture (Chicago, 1979), the latter an interesting effort to place the fair in the context of cultural values in crisis. Burnham's role, and the implicit political vision of his plan, is discussed perceptively by Mario Manieri-Elia in "Toward an'Imperial City': Daniel Burnham and the City Beautiful Movement," in Giorgi Ciucci et al., The American City: From the Civil War to the New Deal (Cambridge, 1979). For a fuller discussion of Burnham in his career, see Thomas S. Hines, Burnham of Chicago: Architect and Planner (New
York, 1974). A handy selection of views of the architecture of the fair is available in William A. Coles and Henry Hope Reed, Jr., eds., Architecture in America: A Battle of Styles (New York, 1961). For the prevalence of academic classicism in the architecture, sculpture, painting, and interior design of the period as a whole, see The Brooklyn Museum, The American Renaissance 1876- 1917 (New York, 1979).
In "The White City: The Beginnings of a Planned Civilization in America," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (April 1934), 71-93, Maurice F. Neufeld discusses several of the social and political implications of the fair. The exclusion of blacks is discussed by August Meier and Elliot Rudwick in "Black Man and the 'White City': Negroes and the Columbian Exposition, 1893," Phylon (1965), 354-61, and by Robert W. Rydell in "The World's Columbian Exposition of 1893: Racist Underpinnings of a Utopian Artifact," Journal of American Culture (Summer, 1978), 253-75. See also Justus D. Doenecke, "Myths, Machines and Markets: The Columbian Exposition of 1893," Journal of Popular Culture (Winter, 1972), 535-49.
For a fulsome and provocative treatment of the Chicago school of architecture, the effect of the fair, and the ideas of Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright, see Hugh Dalziel Duncan, Culture and Democracy: The Struggle for Form in Society and Architecture in Chicago and the Middle West during the Life and Times of Louis H. Sullivan (Totowa, New Jersey, 1965). A standard work on Sullivan's career is Hugh Morrison, Louis Sullivan (New York, 1935). See also the brief introduction to Sullivan, with excellent photographic illustrations, by Albert Bush-Brown, Louis Sullivan (New York, 1960), and the intellectual biography by Sherman Paul, Louis Sullivan: An Architect in American Thought (New York, 1962). For H. H. Richardson's work and career, consult Henry-Russell Hitchcock, The Architecture of H. H. Richardson and His Times (rev. ed., New York, 1961). On the Pullman community, its design and its social structure, see Stanley Buder, Pullman: An Experiment in Industrial Order and Community Planning, 1880-1930 (New York, 1967); and on the strike, Almont Lindsey, The Pullman Strike (Chicago, 1942).