On Eakins:
Cooper, Helen A. Thomas Eakins; The Rowing Pictures. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.

Fried, Michael. Realism, Writing, Disfiguration; on Thomas Eakins and Stephen Crane. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1987.

Goodrich, Lloyd. Thomas Eakins. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982. 2 volumes.

Johns, Elizabeth. Thomas Eakins; The Heroism of Modern Life. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1983.

McKinney, Roland. Thomas Eakins. New York: Crown Publishers, 1942.

Schendler, Sylvan. Eakins. Boston: Little Brown and Company, 1967.

Sellin, David. The First Pose; 1876: Turning Point in American Art; Howard Roberts, Thomas Eakins, and a Century of Philadelphia Nudes. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1976.

Memorial Exhibition of the Works of the Late Thomas Eakins. Philadelphia: Press of J. B Lippincott Company, 1918.

On The Gilded Age:
Trachtenberg, Alan. The Incorporation of America; Culture and Society in the Gilded Age. New York: Hill and Wang, 1982.

On Perception:
Berger, John. Ways of Seeing. London: British Broadcasting Corporation, 1972.