QUERY XV
 
        _The colleges and public establishments, the roads, buildings,
&c.?_

        Colleges, Buildings, Roads, &c.
        The college of William and Mary is the only public seminary of
learning in this state.  It was founded in the time of king William
and queen Mary, who granted to it 20,000 acres of land, and a penny a
pound duty on certain tobaccoes exported from Virginia and Maryland,
which had been levied by the statute of 25 Car. 2. The assembly also
gave it, by temporary laws, a duty on liquors imported, and skins and
firs exported.  From these resources it received upwards of 3000 l.
communibus annis.  The buildings are of brick, sufficient for an
indifferent accommodation of perhaps an hundred students.  By its
charter it was to be under the government of twenty visitors, who
were to be its legislators, and to have a president and six
professors, who were incorporated.  It was allowed a representative
in the general assembly.  Under this charter, a professorship of the
Greek and Latin languages, a professorship of mathematics, one of
moral philosophy, and two of divinity, were established.  To these
were annexed, for a sixth professorship, a considerable donation by
Mr. Boyle of England, for the instruction of the Indians, and their
conversion to Christianity.  This was called the professorship of
Brafferton, from an estate of that name in England, purchased with
the monies given.  The admission of the learners of Latin and Greek
filled the college with children.  This rendering it disagreeable and
degrading to young gentlemen already prepared for entering on the
sciences, they were discouraged from resorting to it, and thus the
schools for mathematics and moral philosophy, which might have been
of some service, became of very little.  The revenues too were
exhausted in accommodating those who came only to acquire the
rudiments of science.  After the present revolution, the visitors,
having no power to change those circumstances in the constitution of
the college which were fixed by the charter, and being therefore
confined in the number of professorships, undertook to change the
objects of the professorships.  They excluded the two schools for
divinity, and that for the Greek and Latin languages, and substituted
others; so that at present they stand thus:

        A Professorship for Law and Police:
                Anatomy and Medicine:
                Natural Philosophy and Mathematics:
                Moral Philosophy, the Law of Nature and Nations, the Fine
Arts:
                Modern Languages:
                For the Brafferton.

        And it is proposed, so soon as the legislature shall have
leisure to take up this subject, to desire authority from them to
increase the number of professorships, as well for the purpose of
subdividing those already instituted, as of adding others for other
branches of science.  To the professorships usually established in
the universities of Europe, it would seem proper to add one for the
antient languages and literature of the North, on account of their
connection with our own language, laws, customs, and history.  The
purposes of the Brafferton institution would be better answered by
maintaining a perpetual mission among the Indian tribes, the object
of which, besides instructing them in the principles of Christianity,
as the founder requires, should be to collect their traditions, laws,
customs, languages, and other circumstances which might lead to a
discovery of their relation with one another, or descent from other
nations.  When these objects are accomplished with one tribe, the
missionary might pass on to another.

        The roads are under the government of the county courts,
subject to be controuled by the general court.  They order new roads
to be opened wherever they think them necessary.  The inhabitants of
the county are by them laid off into precincts, to each of which they
allot a convenient portion of the public roads to be kept in repair.
Such bridges as may be built without the assistance of artificers,
they are to build.  If the stream be such as to require a bridge of
regular workmanship, the court employs workmen to build it, at the
expence of the whole county.  If it be too great for the county,
application is made to the general assembly, who authorize
individuals to build it, and to take a fixed toll from all
passengers, or give sanction to such other proposition as to them
appears reasonable.

        Ferries are admitted only at such places as are particularly
pointed out by law, and the rates of ferriage are fixed.

        Taverns are licensed by the courts, who fix their rates from
time to time.

        The private buildings are very rarely constructed of stone or
brick; much the greatest proportion being of scantling and boards,
plaistered with lime.  It is impossible to devise things more ugly,
uncomfortable, and happily more perishable.  There are two or three
plans, on one of which, according to its size, most of the houses in
the state are built.  The poorest people build huts of logs, laid
horizontally in pens, stopping the interstices with mud.  These are
warmer in winter, and cooler in summer, than the more expensive
constructions of scantling and plank.  The wealthy are attentive to
the raising of vegetables, but very little so to fruits.  The poorer
people attend to neither, living principally on milk and animal diet.
This is the more inexcusable, as the climate requires indispensably a
free use of vegetable food, for health as well as comfort, and is
very friendly to the raising of fruits. -- The only public buildings
worthy mention are the Capitol, the Palace, the College, and the
Hospital for Lunatics, all of them in Williamsburg, heretofore the
seat of our government.  The Capitol is a light and airy structure,
with a portico in front of two orders, the lower of which, being
Doric, is tolerably just in its proportions and ornaments, save only
that the intercolonnations are too large.  The upper is Ionic, much
too small for that on which it is mounted, its ornaments not proper
to the order, nor proportioned within themselves.  It is crowned with
a pediment, which is too high for its span.  Yet, on the whole, it is
the most pleasing piece of architecture we have.  The Palace is not
handsome without: but it is spacious and commodious within, is
prettily situated, and, with the grounds annexed to it, is capable of
being made an elegant seat.  The College and Hospital are rude,
mis-shapen piles, which, but that they have roofs, would be taken for
brick-kilns.  There are no other public buildings but churches and
court-houses, in which no attempts are made at elegance.  Indeed it
would not be easy to execute such an attempt, as a workman could
scarcely be found here capable of drawing an order.  The genius of
architecture seems to have shed its maledictions over this land.
Buildings are often erected, by individuals, of considerable expence.
To give these symmetry and taste would not increase their cost.  It
would only change the arrangement of the materials, the form and
combination of the members.  This would often cost less than the
burthen of barbarous ornaments with which these buildings are
sometimes charged.  But the first principles of the art are unknown,
and there exists scarcely a model among us sufficiently chaste to
give an idea of them.  Architecture being one of the fine arts, and
as such within the department of a professor of the college,
according to the new arrangement, perhaps a spark may fall on some
young subjects of natural taste, kindle up their genius, and produce
a reformation in this elegant and useful art.  But all we shall do in
this way will produce no permanent improvement to our country, while
the unhappy prejudice prevails that houses of brick or stone are less
wholesome than those of wood.  A dew is often observed on the walls
of the former in rainy weather, and the most obvious solution is,
that the rain has penetrated through these walls.  The following
facts however are sufficient to prove the error of this solution.  1.
This dew on the walls appears when there is no rain, if the state of
the atmosphere be moist.  2. It appears on the partition as well as
the exterior walls.  3. So also on pavements of brick or stone.  4.
It is more copious in proportion as the walls are thicker; the
reverse of which ought to be the case, if this hypothesis were just.
If cold water be poured into a vessel of stone, or glass, a dew forms
instantly on the outside: but if it be poured into a vessel of wood,
there is no such appearance.  It is not supposed, in the first case,
that the water has exuded through the glass, but that it is
precipitated from the circumambient air; as the humid particles of
vapour, passing from the boiler of an alembic through its
refrigerant, are precipitated from the air, in which they were
suspended, on the internal surface of the refrigerant.  Walls of
brick or stone act as the refrigerant in this instance.  They are
sufficiently cold to condense and precipitate the moisture suspended
in the air of the room, when it is heavily charged therewith.  But
walls of wood are not so.  The question then is, whether air in which
this moisture is left floating, or that which is deprived of it, be
most wholesome?  In both cases the remedy is easy.  A little fire
kindled in the room, whenever the air is damp, prevents the
precipitation on the walls: and this practice, found healthy in the
warmest as well as coldest seasons, is as necessary in a wooden as in
a stone or a brick house.  I do not mean to say, that the rain never
penetrates through walls of brick.  On the contrary I have seen
instances of it.  But with us it is only through the northern and
eastern walls of the house, after a north-easterly storm, these being
the only ones which continue long enough to force through the walls.
This however happens too rarely to give a just character of
unwholesomeness to such houses.  In a house, the walls of which are
of well-burnt brick and good mortar, I have seen the rain penetrate
through but twice in a dozen or fifteen years.  The inhabitants of
Europe, who dwell chiefly in houses of stone or brick, are surely as
healthy as those of Virginia.  These houses have the advantage too of
being warmer in winter and cooler in summer than those of wood, of
being cheaper in their first construction, where lime is convenient,
and infinitely more durable.  The latter consideration renders it of
great importance to eradicate this prejudice from the minds of our
countrymen.  A country whose buildings are of wood, can never
increase in its improvements to any considerable degree.  Their
duration is highly estimated at 50 years.  Every half century then
our country becomes a tabula rasa, whereon we have to set out anew,
as in the first moment of seating it.  Whereas when buildings are of
durable materials, every new edifice is an actual and permanent
acquisition to the state, adding to its value as well as to its
ornament.