QUERY XXI
 
        _The weights, measures, and the currency of the hard money?
Some details relating to the exchange with Europe?_

        Weights, Measures, Money
        Our weights and measures are the same which are fixed by acts
of parliament in England. -- How it has happened that in this as well
as the other American states the nominal value of coin was made to
differ from what it was in the country we had left, and to differ
among ourselves too, I am not able to say with certainty.  I find
that in 1631 our house of burgesses desired of the privy council in
England, a coin debased to twenty-five per cent: that in 1645 they
forbid dealing by barter for tobacco, and established the Spanish
piece of eight at six shillings, as the standard of their currency:
that in 1655 they changed it to five shillings sterling.  In 1680
they sent an address to the king, in consequence of which, by
proclamation in 1683, he fixed the value of French crowns, rixdollars
and pieces of eight at six shillings, and the coin of New-England at
one shilling.  That in 1710, 1714, 1727, and 1762, other regulations
were made, which will be better presented to the eye stated in the
form of a table as follows:

                                        1710.   1714.   1727.    1762.
 Guineas                                -- --   26s

 British gold coin not milled,          -- --   5s the
  coined gold of Spain and France,              dwt.
  chequins, Arabian gold, moidores of
  Portugal

 Coined gold of the empire              -- --   5s the  -- --    4s3 the
                                                 dwt.             dwt.

 English milled silver money, in        -- --   5s10    6s3
  proportion to the crown, at

 Pieces of eight of Mexico, Seville,    3 3/4   -- --   4 d.
  and Pillar, ducatoons of Flanders,    d. the          the
  French ecus, or silver Louis,  dwt.           dwt.
  crusados of Porrtugal

 Peru pieces, cross dollars, and        3 1/2   -- --   3 3/4
  old rixdollars of the empire          d. the          d. the
                                        dwt.            dwt.

 Old British silver coin not milled     -- --   3 3/4
                                                d. the
                                                dwt.

 
        The first symptom of the depreciation of our present
paper-money, was that of silver dollars selling at six shillings,
which had before been worth but five shillings and ninepence.  The
assembly thereupon raised them by law to six shillings.  As the
dollar is now likely to become the money-unit of America, as it
passes at this rate in some of our sister-states, and as it
facilitates their computation in pounds and shillings, & e converso,
this seems to be more convenient than it's former denomination.  But
as this particular coin now stands higher than any other in the
proportion of 133 1/3 to 125, or 16 to 15, it will be necessary to
raise the others in the same proportion.