1. "War of the Succession in Spain," in Works, V, 639.
2. See Joseph Haroutunian, Piety versus Moralism: the Passing of the New England Theology (New York, 1932). Notebooks V (February 15, 1829), Prescott Papers, MHS, pp. 72-87.
3. Notebooks VIII (June 1837), pp. 12, 37, 39, 37, 43-44. Ibid. (July 1837), pp. 46-47, 48. Prescott Papers, MHS.
4. Ibid., p. 49; Ferdinand and Isabella, I, lxx.
5. Letter to Samuel A. Eliot, November 23, 1823, Bancroft Papers, MHS.
6. Boorstin, Lost World, p. 111. Motley, John of Barneveld, 1, 4, 339. Motley did emphasize (as I have shown in Chapter II) the religious motive for the Dutch rebellion, but he considered that motive as a passion for a religion which contained the germs of liberty. This kind of loyalty--an opposition to tyranny and the corruption of religion--he could understand, even though the Protestants were themselves dogmatic. In the volumes on Barneveld, however, he distorted the evidence to show that Maurice's motives were personal rather than religious. Listing contemporary charges against Maurice which were based on hearsay--and against which he had defended Maurice in the last volume of United Netherlands--he accepted them as fact in later explanations of Maurice's conduct toward Barneveld. See United Netherlands, IV, 294-95, 475-76. Cf. John of Barneveld, I, 45-46, 329-30; II, 51-53. Notice, too, that Motley attributes motives of social ambition to the masses who supported Maurice. They "found in membership of the oligarchy of Heaven a substitute for those democratic aspirations on earth which were effectively suppressed between the two millstones of burgher aristocracy and military discipline." Ibid., II, 114-15.
7. Ibid., I, 139 (cf. p. 264), 141, 334, 336, 337-38, 344, 355.
8. United Netherlands, II, 121; Parkman, Pioneers, p. 427.
9. Letter to George Ripley, September 12, 1857, Bancroft Papers, MHS. For his interpretation of Edwards, Bancroft was chosen by "several" of the Edwards "family connection" to write the chapter on Edwards for Appleton's new Cyclopedia. Bancroft, Mr. T. Edwards said, was the one man qualified to write such a study! T. Edwards to Bancroft, January 20, 1858, Bancroft Papers, MHS. History, IX, 499-501. Cf. Perry Miller, "Jonathan Edwards to Emerson," New England Quarterly, XIII (1940), 589-617.
10. Half-Century, II, 104, 130-31.
1l. Ibid., pp. 133, 154, 97-98, 153.
In John of Barneveld (1, 338-39), Motley summed up the popular interest in theology in one comic paragraph: "In burghers' mansions, peasants' cottages, mechanics' back-parlours, on board herring smacks, canal boats, and East India men; . . . wherever and whenever human creatures met each other, there was ever to be found the fierce wrangle of Remonstrant and Contra-Remonstrant, the hissing of red-hot theological rhetoric, the pelting of hostile texts. The blacksmith's iron cooled on the anvil, the tinker dropped a kettle halfmended, the broker left a bargain unclinched, the Scheveningen fisherman in his wooden shoes forgot the cracks in his pinkie, while each paused to hold high converse with friend or foe on fate, free will, or absolute foreknowledge; losing himself in wandering mazes whence there was no issue. Province against province, city against city, family against family; it was one vast scene of bickering, denunciation, heartburnings, mutual excommunication and hatred."
12. Motley, John of Barneveld, I, 39; Bancroft, History, IV, 276-77. Bancroft said explicitly: "Protestantism is not humanity; its name implies a party struggling to throw off some burdens of the past, and ceasing to be a renovating principle when its protest shall have succeeded." Ibid., 271. Cf. IV, 154.
13. Bancroft, Journal, Bancroft Papers, MHS. Prescott to Wm. Gardiner, March (n.d.) 1816; quoted in Ticknor, Prescott, p. 39. Wade, Parkman's Journals, I, 132.
14. Parkman, Jesuits, p. 207.
15. Dutch Republic, I, 188; II, 433-34, 450.
16. Parkman, Pioneers, pp. 14, 132, 150; Bancroft, History, I, 44-45, 37, 51, 34, 57. Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, II, 145.
17. Dutch Republic, I, 72; United Netherlands, III, 64-65, 65 n.44, 264-65.
18. Dutch Republic, I, 553, 572. Cf. United Netherlands, II, 83-84.
19. Bancroft, History, X, 181-203. Cooper, The Pioneers; or the Sources of the Susquehanna (New York, 1859), pp. 344-46. Cooper, The Prairie, pp. 197-99.
20. Mexico, II, 88.
21. Jesuits, pp. 88-89.
22. Ibid., p. 96.
23. Ibid., pp. 114, 115, 120, 125.
24. Ibid., p. 90.
25. Ibid., pp. 96-97, 98, 117.
26. Frontenac, pp. 374-75 (cf. Montcalm and Wolfe, I, 101), 376, 376 n. 1, 377.
27. Ibid., p. 405.
28. History, III, 291-92; I, 49, 51, 45-46, 47, 54-55. Cf. I, 73.
29. United Netherlands, IV, 358, 355, 358. Apparently Motley refers to the Immaculate Conception of Mary, not to her mother's "origin." The Immaculate Conception was defined as Catholic doctrine in 1854.
30. See, for example, Bancroft, History, X, 83; Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe, I, 355; Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, I, lxx; and Motley, United Netherlands, I, iii-iv.
31. Ibid., I, 38; Dutch Republic, I, 138-39.
32. Ibid., III, 542-43.
33. Ibid., p. 539.
34. John of Barneveld, I, 346, 340. Prescott to Bancroft, n.d. (Endorsed "May 1840"), Bancroft Papers, MHS.
35. Jesuits, pp. 159-60.
36. Ibid., pp. 99, 100, 109, 50, 176 77.
37. Ibid., pp. 177, 178, 179.
38. Ibid., p. 185.
39. Ibid., pp. 201-2.
40. Schiller, "Revolt of the Netherlands," in Works, p.40 (italics mine).
41. Prescott explicitly makes an exception of one monk: the chaplain who restrains Cortés on several occasions. Mexico, I, 479-81.
42. "Irving's Granada," in Biographical Miscellanies, p. 89; Ferdinand and Isabella, I, 247, 260 n. 46.
43. Ferdinand and Isabella, III, 419, 425-26.
44. United Netherlands, IV, 302-14; Morton's Hope, II, 216. United Netherlands, II, 422, 424; IV, 339, 13; I, 41. Dutch Republic, III, 599.
45. Praz, Romantic Agony, p. 190. On Machiavelli, see examples cited below, pp. 121, 123. Prescott's comment on the Neapolitans appears in his Diary (January 28, 1817), MHS, p. 85; cf. Ferdinand and Isabella, II, 258-59, 259 n. 1. See, for example, F. O. Matthiessen, American Renaissance: Art and Expression in the Age of Emerson and Whitman (New York, 1941).
46. Parkman, Vassal Morton, chap. xxxi, p. 170; cf. ibid., p. 185. Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, I, 5, 6, 8, 24-25, 26. See, for example, Motley, "Peter the Great," in Essays from the N.A.R., pp. 178-79; United Netherlands, III, 273.
47. Dutch Republic, I, 367, 367-68. Cf. ibid., p. 366.
48. Ibid., pp. 431, 438. John of Barneveld, I, 6-7; II, 262. For Motley's emphasis on Maurice's jealousy, see his use of the evidence in ibid., I, 45 46. Prescott makes a slight effort to sustain a comparison of Gonzalo Pizarro and Macbeth. Peru, II, 324, 368.
49. John of Barneveld, I, 323; II, 152.
50. United Netherlands, III, 444-45. Motley claims that Champagny's request for more mendicant friars was intended as a "remedy" for the province's economic ills. Champagny did not ask for "more Jesuits." He asked for more mendicant friars to catechize the city's children; if not enough friars were available, he said, perhaps Jesuits could be sent to do the job. He then suggested that Jesuits from Antwerp be the first ones to be sent. (I have taken this version from Motley's own account, III, 23.)
51. Parkman, Jesuits, p. 97 (cf. Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, I, 245); The Old Régime in Canada (Boston, 1893), p. 8.
52 Ibid., p. 35; Jesuits, p. 172; Montcalm and Wolfe, I, 68. Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, III, 336. Motley, United Netherlands, III, 443. Montcalm and Wolfe, I, 205. Prescott, Peru, I, 418. Montcalm and Wolfe, I, 101-4, 107. The name of the honorable priest was Girard.
53. Motley's statement that the "devilish arts of the Jesuits" changed the character of Philip William, son of William of Orange.
54. Montcalm and Wolfe, I, 114.
55. Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, II, 137-38. Parkman noted that priests, and especially French priests, had studied "the art of kindling the flames of zeal"--and controlling them--in the "female mind" (Jesuits, p. 198).
56. Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, I, 268-69. Parkman, Jesuits , pp. 146-47. Parkman noted that the saints, "so human, yet so divine, in whom their faith impersonated and dramatized the great principles of Christian truth . . ., hovered over them, and held before their raptured sight crowns of glory and garlands of immortal bliss." And as he described the Jesuits' departure "from out a living martyrdom" for "perils yet more appalling" in "the blood-stained dens of the Iroquois," he asked: "But, in this exaltation and tension of powers, was there no moment when the recoil of Nature claimed a temporary sway?" This question introduced a paragraph emphasizing the loneliness of suffering in the forest and expressing the hypothesis that the Jesuit sometimes thought nostalgically of the "ancient centre of his faith" and "rekindled [his] fervors to his stern apostleship" by experiencing an overpowering vision of the Virgin (pp. 147-48).
57. Jesuits, p. 351; Montcalm and Wolfe, I, 104, 116. Motley, United Netherlands, II, 30-32.
58. Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, I, 246. Parkman, Frontenac, p. 150.
59. Parkman, La Salle, pp. 28-29, 140-41; Frontenac, p. 25; Half-Century, I, 16-17; Frontenac, p. 374. Motley, United Netherlands, II, 424. Prescott, Ferdinand and Isabella, I, 336. Frontenac, p. 397; Montcalm and Wolfe, I, 16-17, 355. Motley, John of Barneveld, I, 54.
60. Parkman, Half-Century, I, 2; Montcalm and Wolfe, I, 355.
61. Prescott, Philip II, I, 74. Motley, United Netherlands, III, 531, 534, 531.
62. Letter to his father, March 3, 1855, in Correspondence, I, 172. United Netherlands, II, 356; III, 412; I, 439. Dutch Republic, II, 4. United Netherlands, III, 535.
63. "Maintaining over all Christendom a gigantic system of bribery, corruption, and espionage, keeping the noblest names of England and Scotland on his pension-list of traitors, and impoverishing his exchequer with the wages of iniquity paid in France to men of all degrees, from princes of blood like Guise and Mayenne down to the obscurest country squires, he ever felt that these base and bloody deeds were not crimes, but the simple will of the godhead of which he was a portion." Ibid.
64. Ibid., pp. 534-35, 540-41.
65. Ibid., p. 535 (italics mine).
66. Prescott (1847): "Yet whatever the vices of the Castilian cavalier, hypocrisy was not among the number" (Peru, I, 409). Parkman (1865): "Those who take this for hypocrisy do not know the Spaniard of the sixteenth century" (Pioneers, p. 99). Cf. Dutch Republic, II, 203; United Netherlands, IV, 443-44.
67. August 16, 1856, Prescott Papers, MHS.
68. Ferdinand and Isabella, II, 122. Letter to Motley, April 28, 1856, Prescott Papers, MHS. Letter to Bancroft, n.d. (endorsed "May 1840"), Bancroft Papers, MHS. See Mexico, III, 361-62.
69. Notebooks VII, Prescott Papers, MHS, pp. 109-10.
70. Letter to Motley, April 28, 1856, in Correspondence of . . . Motley, I, 192. Cf. Motley to his wife (May 28, 1858) criticizing Prescott's Philip. Ibid., p. 228.
71. Motley, Dutch Republic, III, 137-40. See, for example, ibid., I, 184. Prescott, Philip II, III, 447-48; I, 130. Dutch Republic, II, 4; I, 145: "Certainly if he had not possessed a feeling for art, he would have been a monster." Ibid., I, 188; Prescott, Philip II, II, 248. Dutch Republic, I, 145; United Netherlands, I, 273. Philip II, I, 486-87.
72. "Peter the Great," in Essays from the N.A.R., p. 192.
73. Dutch Republic, I, 124. Motley to his father, May 18, 1852, in Correspondence, I, 142: "It is a comfort, as I can't make speeches or write articles in the newspapers (if I wished) against General Haynau, or Emperor Nicholas, or President Bonaparte, to be able to pitch into the Duke of Alva and Philip the Second to my heart's content. It is quite satisfactory to express sentiments, which if I had the advantage of living three hundred years ago, and had had the audacity to express myself as freely, would have entitled me to be burned alive on an average twice a day, and to know that the only martyrdom I am likely to experience is that of not finding a publisher for my treason, for fear that it won't pay; the only rack that of being roasted on the gridiron of some singeing, scorching, red-hot review."
74. History, IV, 278 (cf. X, 82); II, 453; III, 132-34, 138-39, 141, 149, 157-60; IX, 99-100.
75. See his letters to Samuel Osgood, February 21, 1868; to C. C. Perkins, June 12, 1869; to Mrs. J. C. Bancroft Davis, September 4, 1870--all in Howe, Bancroft, II, 203-41. See also his letter to Department of State, December l, 1870, Bancroft Papers, MHS.
76. Letter to Professor Nippoli, March 5, 1869, Bancroft Papers, MHS. Bancroft recognized his diplomatic obligation to avoid meddling in German politics, but he told Nippoli that "my opinions as published belong to anyone who wishes to use them."
77. Parkman, Jesuits, p. 320.
78. Parkman, Pioneers, p. 97; Frontenac, p. 395.