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Notes to Chapter IX

* Volume and page numbers in parentheses refer to the two-volume edition published by Little, Brown and Company, Boston, 1893.

1. The phrase is Sir Henry Maine's. Quoted in Watt Stewart, "George Bancroft," The Marcus W. Jernegan Essays in American Historiography (Chicago, 1937), p. 23.

2. A Half-Century of Conflict, although written several years after Montcalm and Wolfe, covers the decades preceding the Seven Years' War.

3. The errors in Parkman's interpretation of Braddock's defeat have received considerable attention in recent years. The essential criticisms of earlier scholars are summarized conveniently in Otis Pease, Parkman's History, pp. 70-76.

4. Parkman assumes that "the Quakers" controlled the assembly, and he treats them consistently as a bloc.

5. R. W. B. Lewis, The American Adam: Innocence, Tragedy, and Tradition in the Nineteenth Century (Chicago, 1955), p. 170.

6. Bancroft himself had written of Louis XV, Madame de Pompdour, Newcastle, Pitt, Wolfe, Braddock, Amherst, Loudon, Townshend, Frederick, George III, Washington, and others.

7. Lewis, The American Adam, p. 166.

8. The French, for example, regarded the Acadians as mere "tools of policy, to be used, broken, and flung away," Montcalm and Wolfe, I, 245. "Shirley's grand scheme for cutting New France in twain had come to wreck," ibid., p.417. And autumn was "that festal evening of the year, when jocund Nature disrobes herself, to wake again refreshed in the joy of her undying spring," ibid., p.433.

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9.See La Salle, p.168; and Parkman's letter to the Boston Advertiser, September 4, 1861. In both passages trite metaphors seem the more ludicrously mixed because of the heroic rhythm and blunt emphasis.

10. Correspondence, I, 237 (May 30, 1858).

11. See, for example, Montcalm and Wolfe, I, 494-95; II, 53, 94-95, 200.

12. See above, pp.134-135. See Montcalm and Wolfe, I, 321-22.