Chapter IV 
DISCONTENTS IN THE ARMY- TLASCALAN SPIES-
PEACE WITH THE REPUBLIC- EMBASSY FROM MONTEZUMA
DESIROUS to keep up the terror of the Castilian name, by leaving
the enemy no respite, Cortes on the same day that he despatched the
embassy to Tlascala, put himself at the head of a small corps of
cavalry and light troops to scour the neighbouring country. He was
at that time so ill from fever, aided by medical treatment, that he
could hardly keep his seat in the saddle. It was a rough country,
and the sharp winds from the frosty summits of the mountains pierced
the scanty covering of the troops, and chilled both men and horses.
Four or five of the animals gave out, and the general, alarmed for
their safety, sent them back to the camp. The soldiers, discouraged by
this ill omen, would have persuaded him to return. But he made answer,
"We fight under the banner of the Cross; God is stronger than nature,"
and continued his march.
It led through the same kind of chequered scenery of rugged hill
and cultivated plain as that already described, well covered with
towns and villages, some of them the frontier posts occupied by the
Otomies. Practising the Roman maxim of lenity to the submissive foe,
he took full vengeance on those who resisted, and, as resistance too
often occurred, marked his path with fire and desolation. After a
short absence, he returned in safety, laden with the plunder of a
successful foray. It would have been more honourable to him had it
been conducted with less rigour. The excesses are imputed by Bernal
Diaz to the Indian allies, whom in the heat of victory it was found
impossible to restrain. On whose head soever they fall, they seem to
have given little uneasiness to the general, who declares in his
letter to the Emperor Charles the Fifth, "As we fought under the
standard of the Cross, for the true Faith, and the service of your
Highness, Heaven crowned our arms with such success, that, while
multitudes of the infidel were slain, little loss was suffered by
the Castilians." The Spanish Conquerors, to judge from, their
writings, unconscious of any worldly motive lurking in the bottom of
their hearts, regarded themselves as soldiers of the Church,
fighting the great battle of Christianity; and in the same edifying
and comfortable light are regarded by most of the national
historians of a later day.
On his return to the camp, Cortes found a new cause of disquietude
in the discontents which had broken out among the soldiery. Their
patience was exhausted by a life of fatigue and peril, to which
there seemed to be no end. The battles they had won against such
tremendous odds had not advanced them a jot. The idea of their
reaching Mexico, says the old soldier so often quoted, "was treated
as jest by the whole army"; and the indefinite prospect of hostilities
with the ferocious people among whom they were now cast, threw a
deep gloom over their spirits.
Among the malcontents were a number of noisy, vapouring persons,
such as are found in every camp, who, like empty bubbles, are sure
to rise to the surface and make themselves seen in seasons of
agitation. They were, for the most part, of the old faction of
Velasquez, and had estates in Cuba, to which they turned many a
wistful glance as they receded more and more from the coast. They
now waited on the general, not in a mutinous spirit of resistance,-
for they remembered the lesson in Villa Rica,- but with the design
of frank expostulation, as with a brother adventurer in a common
cause. The tone of familiarity thus assumed was eminently
characteristic of the footing of equality on which the parties in
the expedition stood with one another.
Their sufferings, they told him, were too great to be endured. All
the men had received one, most of them two or three wounds. More
than fifty had perished, in one way or another, since leaving Vera
Cruz. There was no beast of burden but led a life preferable to
theirs. For when the night came, the former could rest from his
labours; but they, fighting or watching, had no rest, day nor night.
As to conquering Mexico, the very thought of it was madness. If they
had encountered such opposition from the petty republic of Tlascala,
what might they not expect from the great Mexican empire? There was
now a temporary suspension of hostilities. They should avail
themselves of it to retrace their steps to Vera Cruz. It is true,
the fleet there was destroyed; and by this act, unparalleled for
rashness even in Roman annals, the general had become responsible
for the fate of the whole army. Still there was one vessel left.
That might be despatched to Cuba, for reinforcements and supplies;
and, when these arrived, they would be enabled to resume operations
with some prospect of success.
Cortes listened to this singular expostulation with perfect
composure. He knew his men, and, instead of rebuke or harsher
measures, replied in the same frank and soldier-like vein which they
There was much truth, he allowed, in what they said. The
sufferings of the Spaniards had been great; greater than those
recorded of any heroes in Greek or Roman story. So much the greater
would be their glory. He had often been filled with admiration as he
had seen his little host encircled by myriads of barbarians, and
felt that no people but Spaniards could have triumphed over such
formidable odds. Nor could they, unless the arm of the Almighty had
been over them. And they might reasonably look for His protection
hereafter; for was it not in His cause they were fighting? They had
encountered dangers and difficulties, it was true; but they had not
come here expecting a life of idle dalliance and pleasure. Glory, as
he had told them at the outset, was to be won only by toil and danger.
They would do him the justice to acknowledge that he had never
shrunk from his share of both. "This was a truth," adds the honest
chronicler, who heard and reports the dialogue,- which no one could
deny. But, if they had met with hardships, he continued, they had been
everywhere victorious. Even now they were enjoying the fruits of this,
in the plenty which reigned in the camp. And they would soon see the
Tlascalans, humbled by their late reverses, suing for peace on any
terms. To go back now was impossible. The very stones would rise up
against them. The Tlascalans would hunt them in triumph down to the
water's edge. And how would the Mexicans exult at this miserable issue
of their vainglorious vaunts! Their former friends would become
their enemies; and the Totonacs, to avert the vengeance of the Aztecs,
from which the Spaniards could no longer shield them, would join in
the general cry. There was no alternative, then, but to go forward
in their career. And he besought them to silence their pusillanimous
scruples, and, instead of turning their eyes towards Cuba, to fix them
on Mexico, the great object of their enterprise.
While this singular conference was going on, many other soldiers
had gathered round the spot; and the discontented party, emboldened by
the presence of their comrades, as well as by the general's
forbearance, replied, that they were far from being convinced. Another
such victory as the last would be their ruin. They were going to
Mexico only to be slaughtered. Until, at length, the general's
patience being exhausted, he cut the argument short by quoting a verse
from an old song, implying that it was better to die with honour, than
to live disgraced; a sentiment which was loudly echoed by the
greater part of his audience, who, notwithstanding their occasional
murmurs, had no design to abandon the expedition, still less the
commander, to whom they were passionately devoted. The malcontents,
disconcerted by this rebuke, slunk back to their own quarters,
muttering half-smothered execrations on the leader who had projected
the enterprise, the Indians who had guided him, and their own
countrymen who supported him in it.
Such were the difficulties that lay in the path of Cortes: a
wily and ferocious enemy; a climate uncertain, often unhealthy;
illness in his own person, much aggravated by anxiety as to the manner
in which his conduct would be received by his sovereign; last, not
least, disaffection among his soldiers, on whose constancy and union
he rested for the success of his operations,- the great lever by which
he was to overturn the empire of Montezuma.
On the morning following this event, the camp was surprised by the
appearance of a small body of Tlascalans, decorated with badges, the
white colour of which intimated peace. They brought a quantity of
provisions, and some trifling ornaments, which, they said, were sent
by the Tlascalan general, who was weary of the war, and desired an
accommodation with the Spaniards. He would soon present himself to
arrange this in person. The intelligence diffused general joy, and the
emissaries received a friendly welcome.
A day or two elapsed, and while a few of the party left the
Spanish quarters, the others, about fifty in number, who remained,
excited some distrust in the bosom of Marina. She communicated her
suspicions to Cortes that they were spies. He caused several of
them, in consequence, to be arrested, examined them separately, and
ascertained that they were employed by Xicotencatl to inform him of
the state of the Christian camp, preparatory to a meditated assault,
for which he was mustering his forces. Cortes, satisfied of the
truth of this, determined to make such an example of the delinquents
as should intimidate his enemy from repeating the attempt. He
ordered their hands to be cut off, and in that condition sent them
back to their countrymen, with the message, "that the Tlascalans might
come by day or night; they would find the Spaniards ready for them."
The doleful spectacle of their comrades returning in this
mutilated state filled the Indian camp with horror and
consternation. The haughty crest of their chief was humbled. From that
moment, he lost his wonted buoyancy and confidence. His soldiers,
filled with superstitious fear, refused to serve longer against a
foe who could read their very thoughts, and divine their plans
before they were ripe for execution.
The punishment inflicted by Cortes may well shock the reader by
its brutality. But it should be considered in mitigation, that the
victims of it were spies, and, as such, by the laws of war, whether
among civilised or savage nations, had incurred the penalty of
death. The amputation of the limbs was a milder punishment, and
reserved for inferior offences. If we revolt at the barbarous nature
of the sentence, we should reflect that it was no uncommon one at that
day; not more uncommon, indeed, than whipping and branding with a
hot iron were in our own country at the beginning of the present
century, or than cropping the ears was in the preceding one. A
higher civilisation, indeed, rejects such punishments as pernicious in
themselves, and degrading to humanity. But in the sixteenth century,
they were openly recognised by the laws of the most polished nations
in Europe. And it is too much to ask of any man, still less one bred
to the iron trade of war, to be in advance of the refinement of his
age. We may be content, if, in circumstances so unfavourable to
humanity, he does not fall below it.
All thoughts of further resistance being abandoned, the four
delegates of the Tlascalan republic were now allowed to proceed on
their mission. They were speedily followed by Xicotencatl himself,
attended by a numerous train of military retainers. As they drew
near the Spanish lines, they were easily recognised by the white and
yellow colours of their uniforms, the livery of the house of
Titcala. The joy of the army was great at this sure intimation of
the close of hostilities; and it was with difficulty that Cortes was
enabled to restore the men to tranquillity, and the assumed
indifference which it was proper to maintain in the presence of an
The Spaniards gazed with curious eye on the valiant chief who
had so long kept his enemies at bay, and who now advanced with the
firm and fearless step of one who was coming rather to bid defiance
than to sue for peace. He was rather above the middle size, with broad
shoulders, and a muscular frame intimating great activity and
strength. His head was large, and his countenance marked with the
lines of hard service rather than of age, for he was but
thirty-five. When he entered the presence of Cortes, he made the usual
salutation, by touching the ground with his hand, and carrying it to
his head; while the sweet incense of aromatic gums rolled up in clouds
from the censers carried by his slaves.
Far from a pusillanimous attempt to throw the blame on the senate,
he assumed the whole responsibility of the war. He had considered
the white men, he said, as enemies, for they came with the allies
and vassals of Montezuma. He loved his country, and wished to preserve
the independence which she had maintained through her long wars with
the Aztecs. He had been beaten. They might be the strangers who, it
had been so long predicted, would come from the east, to take
possession of the country. He hoped they would use their victory
with moderation, and not trample on the liberties of the republic.
He came now in the name of his nation, to tender their obedience to
the Spaniards, assuring them they would find his countrymen as
faithful in peace as they had been firm in war.
Cortes, far from taking umbrage, was filled with admiration at the
lofty spirit which thus disdained to stoop beneath misfortunes. The
brave man knows how to respect bravery in another. He assumed,
however, a severe aspect, as he rebuked the chief for having so long
persisted in bostilities. Had Xicotencatl believed the word of the
Spaniards, and accepted their proffered friendship sooner, he would
have spared his people much suffering, which they well merited by
their obstinacy. But it was impossible, continued the general, to
retrieve the past. He was willing to bury it in oblivion, and to
receive the Tlascalans as vassals to the emperor, his master. If
they proved true, they should find him a sure column of support; if
false, he would take such vengeance on them as he had intended to take
on their capital, had they not speedily given in their submission.- It
proved an ominous menace for the chief to whom it was addressed.
The cacique then ordered his slaves to bring forward some trifling
ornaments of gold and feather embroidery, designed as presents. They
were of little value, he said, with a smile, for the Tlascalans were
poor. They had little gold, not even cotton, nor salt; the Aztec
emperor had left them nothing but their freedom and their arms. He
offered this gift only as a token of his good will. "As such I receive
it," answered Cortes, "and coming from the Tlascalans, set more
value on it than I should from any other source, though it were a
house full of gold"; a politic, as well as magnanimous reply, for it
was by the aid of this good will that he was to win the gold of
Thus ended the bloody war with the fierce republic of Tlascala,
during the course of which, the fortunes of the Spaniards, more than
once, had trembled in the balance. Had it been persevered in but a
little longer, it must have ended in their confusion and ruin,
exhausted as they were by wounds, watching, and fatigues, with the
seeds of disaffection rankling among themselves. As it was, they
came out of the fearful contest with untarnished glory. To the
enemy, they seemed invulnerable, bearing charmed lives, proof alike
against the accidents of fortune and the assaults of man. No wonder
that they indulged a similar conceit in their own bosoms, and that the
humblest Spaniard should have fancied himself the subject of a special
interposition of providence, which shielded him in the hour of battle,
and reserved him for a higher destiny.
While the Tlascalans were still in the camp, an embassy was
announced from Montezuma. Tidings of the exploits of the Spaniards had
spread far and wide over the plateau. The emperor, in particular,
had watched every step of their progress, as they climbed the steeps
of the Cordilleras, and advanced over the broad tableland on their
summit. He had seen them, with great satisfaction, take the road to
Tlascala, trusting that, if they were mortal men, they would find
their graves there. Great was his dismay, when courier after courier
brought him intelligence of their successes, and that the most
redoubtable warriors on the plateau had been scattered like chaff by
the swords of this handful of strangers.
His superstitious fears returned in full force. He saw in the
Spaniards "the men of destiny" who were to take possession of his
sceptre. In his alarm and uncertainty, he sent a new embassy to the
Christian camp. It consisted of five great nobles of his court,
attended by a train of two hundred slaves. They brought with them a
present, as usual, dictated partly by fear, and, in part, by the
natural munificence of his disposition. It consisted of three thousand
ounces of gold, in grains, or in various manufactured articles, with
several hundred mantles and dresses of embroidered cotton, and the
picturesque feather-work. As they laid these at the feet of Cortes,
they told him, they had come to offer the congratulations of their
master on the late victories of the white men. The emperor only
regretted that it would not be in his power to receive them in his
capital, where the numerous population was so unruly, that their
safety would be placed in jeopardy. The mere intimation of the Aztec
emperor's wishes, in the most distant way, would have sufficed with
the Indian nations. It had very little weight with the Spaniards;
and the envoys, finding this puerile expression of them ineffectual,
resorted to another argument, offering a tribute in their master's
name to the Castilian sovereign, provided the Spaniards would
relinquish their visit to his capital. This was a greater error; it
was displaying the rich casket with one hand, which he was unable to
defend with the other. Yet the author of this pusillanimous policy,
the unhappy victim of superstition, was a monarch renowned among the
Indian nations for his intrepidity and enterprise,- the terror of
Cortes, while he urged his own sovereign's commands as a reason
for disregarding the wishes of Montezuma, uttered expressions of the
most profound respect for the Aztec prince, and declared that if he
had not the means of requiting his munificence, as he could wish, at
present, he trusted to repay him, at some future day, with good works!
The Mexican ambassadors were not much gratified with finding the
war at an end, and a reconciliation established between their mortal
enemies and the Spaniards. The mutual disgust of the two parties
with each other was too strong to be repressed even in the presence of
the general, who saw with satisfaction the evidences of a jealousy,
which, undermining the strength of the Indian emperor, was to prove
the surest source of his own success.
Two of the Aztec mission returned to Mexico, to acquaint their
sovereign with the state of affairs in the Spanish camp. The others
remained with the army, Cortes being willing that they should be
personal spectators of the deference shown him by the Tlascalans.
Still he did not hasten his departure for their capital. Not that he
placed reliance on the injurious intimations of the Mexicans
respecting their good faith. Yet he was willing to put this to some
longer trial, and, at the same time, to re-establish his own health
more thoroughly, before his visit. Meanwhile, messengers daily arrived
from the city, pressing his journey, and were finally followed by some
of the aged rulers of the republic, attended by a numerous retinue,
impatient of his long delay. They brought with them a body of five
hundred tamanes, or men of burden, to drag his cannon, and relieve his
own forces from this fatiguing part of their duty. It was impossible
to defer his departure longer; and after mass, and a solemn
thanksgiving to the great Being who had crowned their arms with
triumph, the Spaniards bade adieu to the quarters which they had
occupied for nearly three weeks on the hill of Tzompach.
1. The effect of the medicine--though rather a severe dose, according to the precise Diaz--was suspended during the general's active exertions. Gomara, however, does not consider this a miracle. (Crónica, cap. 49.) Father Sandoval does. (Hist. de Cárlos Quinto, tom. I. p. 127.) Solís, after a conscientious inquiry into this perplexing matter, decides--strange as it may seem--against the father! Conquista, lib. 2, cap. 20.
2. "Dios es sobre natura." Rel. Seg. de Cortés, ap. Lorenzana, p. 54.
3. Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 64.
Not so Cortés, who says boldly, "Quemé mas de diez pueblos." (Ibid., p. 52.) His reverend commentator specifies the localities of the Indian towns destroyed by him, in his forays. Viaje, ap. Lorenzana, pp. ix-xi.
4. The famous banner of the Conqueror, with the Cross emblazoned on it, has been preserved in Mexico to our day.
5. "É como trayamos la Bandera de la Cruz, y puñabamos por nuestra Fe, y por servicio de Vuestra Sacra Magestad, en su muy Real ventura nos dió Dios tanta victoria, que les matámos mucha gente, sin que los nuestros recibiessen daño." Rel. Seg. de Cortés, ap. Lorenzana, p. 52.
6. "Y fué cosa notable," exclaims Herrera, "con quanta humildad, i devocion, bolvian todos alabando á Dios, que tan milagrosas victorias les daba; de donde se conocia claro, que los favorecia con su Divina asistencia."
7. "Porque entrar en México, teníamoslo por cosa de risa, á causa de sus grandes fuerças." Bernal Diaz, Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 66.
8. Diaz indignantly disclaims the idea of mutiny, which Gomara attached to this proceeding. "Las palabras que le dezian era por via de acosejarle, y porque les parecia que eran bien dichas, y no por otra via, porque siempre le siguiéron muy bien, y lealmete; y no es mucho
que en los exércitos algunos buenos soldados aconsejen á su Capitan, y mas si se ven tan trabajados como nosotros andauamos." Ibid., cap. 71.
9. This conference is reported, with some variety, indeed, by nearly every historian. (Rel. Seg. de Cortés, ap. Lorenzana, p. 55.--Oviedo, Hist. de las Ind., MS., lib. 33, cap. 3.--Gomara, Crónica, cap. 51, 52.--Ixtlilxochitl, Hist. Chich., MS., cap. 80.--Herrera, Hist. General, dec. 2, lib. 6, cap. 9.--P. Martyr, De Orbe Novo, dec. 5, cap. 2.) I have abridged the account given by Bernal Diaz, one of the audience, though not one of the parties to the dialogue,--for that reason, the better authority.
10. Diaz says only seventeen lost their hands, the rest their thumbs. (Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 70.) Cortés does not flinch confessing, the hands of the whole fifty. "Los mandé tomar á todos cincuenta, y cortarles las manos, y los embié, que dixessen é su Señor, que de noche, y de dia, y cada, y quando él viniesse, verian quien eramos." Rel. Seg. de Cortés, ap. Lorenzana, p. 53.
11. "De que los Tlascaltecas se admiráron, entendiendo que Cortés les entendia sus pensamientos." Ixtlilxochitl, Hist. Chich., MS., cap. 83.
12. Rel. Seg. de Cortés, ap. Lorenzana, pp. 56, 57.--Oviedo, Hist. de las Ind., MS., lib. 33, cap. 3.--Gomara, Crónica, cap. 53.--Bernal Diaz, Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 71, et seq.--Sahagun, Hist. de Nueva España, MS., lib. 12, cap. 11.
13. "Cortés recibió con alegría aquel presente, y dixo que se lo tenia en merced, y que él pagaria al señor Monteçuma en buenas obras." Bernal Diaz, Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 73.
14. He dwells on it in his letter to the Emperor. "Vista la discordia y desconformidad de los unos y de los otros, no huve poco placer, porque me pareció hacer mucho á mi propósito, y que podria tener manera de mas aýna sojuzgarlos, é aun acordéme de una autoridad Evangélica, que dice: Omne Regnum in seipsum divisum desolabitur: y con los unos y con los otros maneaba, y á cada uno en secreto le agradecia el aviso, que me daba, y le daba crédito de mas amistad que al otro." Rel. Seg. de Cortés, ap. Lorenzana, p. 61.
15. Herrera, Hist. General, dec. 2, lib. 6, cap. 10.--Oviedo, Hist. de las Ind., MS., lib. 33, cap. 4.--Gomara, Crónica, cap. 54.--Martyr, De Orbe Novo, dec. 5, cap. 2.--Bernal Diaz, Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 72-74.--Ixtlilxochitl, Hist. Chich., MS., cap. 83.