Only the more important titles dealt with in the present study are listed hereunder, together with selected biographical and critical material. The invaluable bibliographies in the Cambridge History of American Literature, 4 vols., New York, 1917-22, cover most of the writers considered, and the reader is referred to them.


Information will be found in the Library of Southern Literature by E. A. Alderman and others (16 vols., New Orleans, 1908-13) and in Montrose J. Moses, Literature of the South (New York, 1910). See also Carl Van Doren, The American Novel (New York, 1921).
THE OLD DOMINION. See Thomas J. Wertenbaker, Patrician and Plebeian in Virginia (Charlottesville, Va., 1910).

For the economics of Jeffersonianism, see Charles A. Beard, The Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy (New York, 1915; Chapter XII). Also Charles Gide and Charles Rist, A History of Economic Doctrines (translated by W. Smart and R. Richards, Boston).

JOHN TAYLOR: His works are out of print. Important titles are: An Inquiry into the Principles and Policy of the United States (Fredericksburg, Va., 1814). New Views of the Constitution of the United States (Washington, 1823). Correspondence (edited by W. E. Dodd, Richmond, 1908).

See "John Taylor, Prophet of Secession" (by William E. Dodd, in Branch Historical Papers, II, Richmond, 1908). See also Beard, Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy.

JOHN MARSHALL: Sufficient materials will be found in Albert J. Beveridge, Life of John Marshall (4 vols., New York, 1916-19).

For the plantation tradition, see Francis Pendleton Gaines, The Southern Plantation (New York, 1924).

WILLIAM WIRT: His works are out of print. Letters of a British Spy (Richmond, 1803). The Old Bachelor (2 vols., Richmond, 1810). Life and Character of Patrick Henry (Philadelphia, 1817; also several later editions).

See John P. Kennedy, Memoirs . . . of William Wirt (Philadelphia, 1849).

NATHANIEL BEVERLEY TUCKER: His works are out of print. George Balcombe; a Novel (2 vols., New York, 1836).--The Partisan Leader; a Tale of the Future, by Edward William Sidney (printed for the publishers, by J. Caxton, 1856 [i. e., Washington, printed by Duff Green, 1836], 2 vols.); reissued as A Key to the Disunion Conspiracy: The Partisan Leader (2 vols. in one, New York, 1861); edition issued at Richmond, 1862.

Some information about Tucker will be found in W. P. Trent, William Gilmore Simms (Boston and New York, 1892).

WILLIAM ALEXANDER CARUTHERS: The Kentuckian in New York. Or, the Adventures of Three Southerns. By a Virginian (2 vols., New York, 1834).--The Cavaliers of Virginia, or the Recluse of Jamestown. An Historical Romance of the Old Dominion (2 vols., New York, 1834­1835).--The Knights of the Horse-Shoe; a Traditionary Tale of the Cocked Hat Gentry in the Old Dominion (Wetumpka, Ala., 1845; New York, 1882, 1909).

JOHN P. KENNEDY: Works (3 vols., New York, 1854; 9 vols., New York, 1871, with life by H. T. Tuckerman, Vol. X). Swallow Barn, or a Sojourn in the Old Dominion (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1832; several later editions). Horse-Shoe Robinson; a Tale of the Tory Ascendency (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1835; numerous later editions, the latest in 1906). Rob of the Bowl; a Legend of St. Inigoe's (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1838; later editions). Quodlibet: Containing Some Annals Thereof ... (Philadelphia, 1840; 1860).

EDGAR ALLAN POE: The bibliography is extensive. See the Cambridge History of American Literature.


JOHN C. CALHOUN: Works (6 vols., Columbia, S.C., 1851; New York, 1853-55). Correspondence, edited by J. F. Jamieson (American Historical Association, Annual Report, 1899, Vol. II).

Biographies: W. E. Dodd, in Statesmen of the Old South (New York, 1911). H. von Holst, John C. Calhoun (American Statesmen Series, Boston, 1882, 1899). W. M. Meigs, Life of John Caldwell Calhoun (2 vols., New York, 1917). G. M. Pinckney, Life of John C. Calhoun (Charleston, 1903). W. P. Trent, Southern Statesmen of the Old Regime (New York, 1897).

ALEXANDER H. STEPHENS: Constitutional View of the War between the States (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1868).

See L. B. Pendleton, Alexander H. Stephens (Philadelphia, 1908).

FRANCIS LIEBER: The Stranger in America (2 vols. in one, London, 1834). Political Ethics (Philadelphia, 1838; edited by Theodore D. Woolsey, Philadelphia, 1890; with introduction by Nicholas Murray Butler, Philadelphia, 1911). Essays on Property and Labor (New York, 1841). Civil Liberty and Self-Government (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1853; London, 1859; edited by Theodore D. Woolsey, Philadelphia, 1891). Miscellaneous Writings (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1881; edited by Daniel C. Gilman, Philadelphia, 1916).

See L. R. Harley, Francis Lieber: His Life and Political Philosophy (New York, 1899).

For the southern position, see Jeannette Reid Tandy, "Pro-Slavery Propaganda in American Fiction in the Fifties" (in South Atlantic Quarterly, January-March, 1922). Francis Pendleton Gaines, The Southern Plantation (New York, 1924; Chapter III).

WILLIAM J. GRAYSON: The Hireling and the Slave (Charleston, 1856).

WILLIAM CRAFTS: A Selection in Prose and Poetry, from the Miscellaneous Writings of the Late William Crafts. With Memoir by Samuel Gilman (Charleston, 1828).

HUGH SWINTON LEGARÉ: Writings (2 vols., Charleston, 1846; with memoir).

WILLIAM GILMORE SIMMS: His works have never been collected and most of them are out of print. Border Romances (17 vols., New York, 1859, 1866, 1879; 10 vols., New York, 1882; 15 vols., Chicago, 1885; 17 vols., Chicago, 1888; 17 vols., Atlanta, 1901 [?]).

See W. P. Trent, William Gilmore Simms (New York, 1892)--an excellent study. Also see J. Erskine, Leading American Novelists (New York, 1910).


Excellent bibliographical material for western literature will be found in Ralph Leslie Rusk, The Literature of the Middle Western Frontier (2 vols., New York, 1925). See also W. H. Venable, The Beginnings of Literary Culture in the Ohio Valley (Cincinnati, 1891).
Interesting material will be found in Claude G. Bowers, Party Battles of the Jackson Period (Boston, 1922).

TIMOTHY FLINT: His works are out of print and rare. Recollections of the Last Ten Years (Boston, 1826). Francis Berrian, or the Mexican Patriot (Boston, 1826; Philadelphia and London, 1834). The Life and Adventures of Arthur Clenning (Philadelphia, 1828). George Mason, the Young Backwoodsman; or, "Don't Give up the Ship" (Boston, 1829; with changed title, London, 1833). The Shoshonee Valley; a Romance (Cincinnati, 1830).

See John Ervin Kirkpatrick, Timothy Flint, Pioneer, Missionary, Author, Editor (Cleveland, 1911)--an excellent study with bibliography.

JAMES HALL: Works (4 vols., New York, 1853-56). Legends of the West (Philadelphia, 1832, 1833; five later editions).--The Soldier's Bride; and Other Tales (Philadelphia, 1833).--The Harpe's Head; a Legend of Kentucky (Philadelphia, 1833); as Kentucky. A Tale (London, 1834, 2 vols.).--Tales of the Border (Philadelphia, 1835). The Wilderness and the War Path (New York, 1846; New York and London, 1849)

See J. L. Davis, "Judge James Hall, a Literary Pioneer of the Middle West" (in Ohio Archæological and Historical Society Publications, October, 1909).

AUGUSTUS LONGSTREET: Georgia Scenes (Atlanta, Ga., 1835; New York, 1840; several later editions).

See John Donald Wade, Augustus Longstreet, a Study of the Development of Culture in the South (New York, 1924), an excellent study with bibliographical material.

DAVY CROCKETT: Five titles are grouped under the name of Crockett: Sketches and Eccentricities of Col. David Crockett, of West Tennessee (1833). A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett, of the State of Tennessee (Philadelphia, 1834; seven editions in one year). Life of Martin Van Buren (1835). An Account of Col. Crockett's Tour to the North and Down East (1835). Col. Crockett's Exploits and Adventures in Texas (1836). The Narrative is reprinted with an introduction by Hamlin Garland, in The Modern Student's Library, under the title, The Autobiography of David Crockett (New York, 1923).

There is no life of Crockett; such so-called works are uncritical jumbles of fact and fiction. Some information will be found in John Donald Wade, "The Authorship of David Crockett's Autobiography" (Georgia Historical Quarterly, September, 1922); S. H. Stout, "David Crockett" (American Historical Magazine, Vol. VII, No. I, Jan., 1902)--uncritical; Chester T. Crowell, "Davy Crockett" (American Mercury, Vol. IV, No. 13).


For Philadelphia, see Ellis Paxson Oberholtzer, The Literary History of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, 1906). Also H. M. Ellis, "Joseph Dennie and His Circle" (University of Texas Bulletin). For the politics of New York, see Dixon Ryan Fox, The Decline of Aristocracy in the Politics of New York (New York, 1918).
CHARLES BROCKDEN BROWN: The Novels of Charles Brockden Brown. . . with a Memoir (Boston, 1827; Philadelphia, 1857, 1887). Wieland; or the Transformation (New York, 1798; best recent edition in American Authors Series, New York, 1926). Arthur Mervyn; or, Memoirs of the Year 1793 (Philadelphia, 1799; Second Part, New York, 1800; numerous later editions).

No adequate life has been written. The best is by William Dunlap, The Life of Charles Brockden Brown (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1815). See John Erskine, Leading American Novelists (New York, 1910), and Annie R. Marble, in Heralds of American Literature (Chicago and London, 1907).

ROBERT MONTGOMERY BIRD: For a list of his plays, see A. H. Quinn, A History of the American Theatre (New York, 1923).

Calavar; or, the Knight of the Conquest: a Romance of Mexico (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1834; about ten later editions).--The Hawks of Hawks­Hollow. A Tradition of Pennsylvania (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1835; two London editions).--The Infidel; or, The Fall of Mexico (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1835; London, 1835).--Nick of the Woods, or, the Jib­benainosay. A Tale of Kentucky (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1837; upward of twenty later editions).

For his life, see Clement Foust, Life and Dramatic Works of Robert Montgomery Bird (1919).

JAMES KENT: Commentaries on American Law (4 vols., New York, 1826-1830; many later editions).

For his life, see William Kent, Memoirs and Letters of James Kent (Boston, 1898).

FITZ-GREENE HALLECK: Poetical Works (New York and Philadelphia; eight editions between 1847 and 1859). Poetical Writings with Extracts from those of Joseph Rodman Drake (edited by J. G. Wilson, New York, 1869, 1885).

For a life, see J. G. Wilson, The Life and Letters of Fitz-Greene Halleck (New York, 1869). Also see W. C. Bryant, Some Notices on the Life and Writings of Fitz-Greene Halleck (New York, 1869).

WASHINGTON IRVING: The standard edition of his works is in forty volumes, New York, 1887.

The standard life is by Pierre M. Irving, The Life and Letters of Washington Irving (4 vols., London, 1864; New York, 1879, 1883).

See also The Letters of Washington Irving to Henry Brevoort (edited by George S. Hellman, 2 vols., New York, 1915). A recent study is George S. Hellman, Washington Irving, Esq. (New York, 1925).

JAMES KIRKE PAULDING: Works (15 vols., New York, 1834-1839; 4 vols., 1867-1868).--The Diverting History of John Bull and Brother Jonathan (New York, 1812). Letters from the South (2 vols., New York, 1817).--The Backwoodsman. A Poem (Philadelphia, 1818).--Salmagundi, Second Series (2 vols., New York, 1820).--Koningsmarke, the Long Finne, A Story of the New World (New York, 1823; 2 vols., New York, 1834; three London editions, and a German).--Westward Ho! A Tale (2 vols., New York, 1832, 1845; three London editions, a French and a German).--The Dutchman's Fireside. A Tale (2 vols., New York, 1831; latest edition, 1900).--The Puritan and his Daughter (New York, 1849, 1850; also London, 1849, two editions, and one German).

No adequate life has been written, but see W. I. Paulding, Literary Life of James K. Paulding (New York, 1867).

JAMES FENIMORE COOPER: The editions of Cooper's novels are numerous; as good as any is the one in thirty-two volumes (New York, 1895, 1896-97). Much of his controversial work and critical articles have not been reprinted. See Notions of the Americans; Picked up by a Travelling Bachelor (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1829). A Letter to His Countrymen (New York, 1834). The American Democrat; or Hints on the Social and Civic Relations of the United States (Cooperstown, 1838). The History of the Navy (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1839). Also his eight volumes of European travels.

No satisfactory life has been written. The best is by T. R. Lounsbury, James Fenimore Cooper (New York, 1883). See also Correspondence of James Fenimore-Cooper (edited by his grandson, James Fenimore Cooper, 2 vols., New Haven, 1922). W. C. Brownell, in American Prose Masters (New York, 1909). Carl Van Doren, in The American Novel (New York, 1921).

WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT: The standard edition is edited by Parke Godwin (6 vols., New York, 1883-1889: 1-2, Biography, 1883; 3-4, Poetical Works, 1883, 1901; 5-6, Prose Writings, 1884-1889). Much information on his work in journalism will be found in Allan Nevins, A Century of Journalism (New York, 1921).

HORACE GREELEY: His works have not been collected. See Hints towards Reform (New York, 1850). Recollections of a Busy Life (New York, 1868). Essays Designed to Elucidate the Science of Political Economy (Boston, 1870). The American Conflict (Hartford and Chicago, 1864-1866).

For his life, see James Parton, The Life of Horace Greeley (Boston, 1868). Charles Sotheran, Horace Greeley (New York, 1915). See also John R. Commons, "Horace Greeley and the Working-Class Origins of the Republican Party" (Political Science Quarterly, Vol. XXIV, pp. 468­488).

HERMAN MELVILLE: The best edition is The Standard (16 vols., London, 1922-23). Also see Works (4 vols., edited by A. Stedman, New York, 1892, 1896; Boston, 1900, 1910). Convenient editions of Typee, Omoo, and Moby-Dick are plentiful.

The indispensable life is Raymond Weaver's Herman Melville: Mariner and Mystic (New York, 1921), with bibliography. Also see John Freeman, Herman Melville (in English Men of Letters Series, New York, 1926).


For the political backgrounds, see A. E. Morse, The Federalist Party in Massachusetts to the Year 1800 (Princeton, 1909). W. A. Robinson, Jeffersonian Democracy in New England (New Haven, 1916). Samuel Eliot Morison, Life and Letters of Harrison Gray Otis (2 vols., Boston, 1913).

FISHER AMES: Works (with memoir by J. T. Kirkland, Boston, 1809). Works, with a Selection from his Speeches and Correspondence (edited by his son, Seth Ames, 2 vols., Boston, 1854).

ROBERT TREAT PAINE: Works in Prose and Verse (with memoir, Boston, 1812).

JOSEPH STORY: Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States (3 vols., Boston, 1833; numerous later editions).

See W. W. Story, Life and Letters of Joseph Story (2 vols., Boston, 1851).

DANIEL WEBSTER: The best edition of his works is The National­-The Writings and Speeches of Daniel Webster (18 vols., Boston, 1903). Private Correspondence of Daniel Webster (2 vols., Boston, 1857). Letters (edited by C. H. Van Tyne, New York, 1902).

See George Ticknor Curtis, Life of Daniel Webster (2 vols., New York and London, 1870). For a critical contemporary estimate see Theodore Parker, Discourse Occasioned by the Death of Daniel Webster (Boston, 1853). See also Charles A. Beard, The Economic Basis of Politics (New York, 1922).


UNITARIANISM: See George Willis Cooke, Unitarianism in America: A History of its Origin and Development (Boston, 1902). Williston Walker, A History of the Congregational Churches in the United States (New York, 1894).

WILLIAM ELLERY CHANNING: Works (5 vols., Boston, 1841; sixth volume added in 1843; numerous later editions).

An excellent life is J. W. Chadwick, William Ellery Channing, Minister of Religion (Boston, 1903). See also William H. Charming, Memoir of William Ellery Channing (3 vols., Boston, 1848).

PERFECTIONISM: For materials see Garrison, Life of William Lloyd Garrison (4 vols., New York, 1885-1889).

BROOK FARM: See Lindsay Swift, Brook Farm; Its Members, Scholars and Visitors (New York, 1906; contains bibliography). J. T. Codman, Brook Farm: Historic and Personal Memoirs (Boston, 1894). Nathaniel Hawthorne, Blithedale Romance.

ABOLITIONISM: Sufficient materials will be found in Garrison, Life of William Lloyd Garrison (4 vols., New York, 1885-1889). See also Catherine N. Birney, Sarah and Angelina Grimké (Boston, 1885); and James G. Birney and His Times, by His Son, William Birney (New York, 1890).

WILLIAM LLOYD GARRISON: See Garrison, Life of William Lloyd Garrison (4 vols., New York, 1885-1889).

JOHN G. WHITTIER: The Writings of John Greenleaf Whittier (Riverside Edition, 7 vols., Boston, 1885-1889).

See G. R. Carpenter, John Greenleaf Whittier (in American Men of Letters Series).--T. S. Pickard, Life and Letters of John Greenleaf Whittier (2 vols., Boston, 1894).--F. H. Underwood, John Greenleaf Whittier. A Biography (Boston, 1884).

HARRIET BEECHER STOWE: Works (Riverside Edition, 16 vols., Boston, 1896; with life by Mrs. Field, 17 vols., 1898).

See Mrs. J. T. Fields, The Life of Harriet Beecher Stowe (Boston, 1897)


TRANSCENDENTALISM: The literature is abundant. See The Dial (4 vols., Boston, 1840-1844).--The Harbinger (4 vols., New York, 1844­1848).--Harold Clarke Goddard, Studies in New England Transcendentalism (New York, 1908).--O. B. Frothingham, Transcendentalism in New England. A History (New York, 1876).--See also Sylvester Judd, Margaret. A Tale of the Real and Ideal (2 vols., Boston, 1845; revised edition, 1851).

RALPH WALDO EMERSON: Works (Riverside Edition, edited by James Eliot Cabot, 12 vols., Boston, 1884-1893; London, 1884-1893; Centenary Edition, with biographical introduction and notes by E. W. Emerson, 12 vols., Boston, 1903-04; London, 1904).--Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson, with Annotations (edited by Edward Waldo Emerson and Waldo Emerson Forbes, 10 vols., Boston, 1909-1914).--Uncollected Writings. Essays, Addresses, Poems, Reviews and Letters by Ralph Waldo Emerson (New York [1912]).

See George Willis Cooke, Bibliography of Ralph Waldo Emerson (Boston, 1908). James Eliot Cabot, A Memoir of Ralph Waldo Emerson (2 vols., Boston, 1887). George Willis Cooke, Ralph Waldo Emerson; His Life, Writings, and Philosophy (Boston, 1881). Oscar W. Firkins, Ralph Waldo Emerson (Boston, 1915). W. C. Brownell, American Prose Masters (New York, 1909).

HENRY DAVID THOREAU: Works (Riverside Edition, 11 vols., Boston, 1894; Manuscript Edition, 20 vols. [Vols. VII-XX contain the Journals], Boston, 1906).

See Francis H. Allen, A Bibliography of Henry David Thoreau (Boston and New York, 1908). William E. Charming, Thoreau, the Poet­Naturalist (Boston, 1873, 1902). F. B. Sanborn, Henry D. Thoreau (in American Men of Letters Series, Boston, 1882, 1910); The Personality of Thoreau (Boston, 1901); The Life of Henry David Thoreau (Boston and New York, 1917). Léon Bazalgette, Henry Thoreau­-Bachelor of Nature (translated by Van Wyck Brooks, New York, 1924).

THEODORE PARKER: Collected Works (edited by F. P. Cobbe, 14 vols., London, 1863-71). The Critical and Miscellaneous Writings of Theodore Parker (Boston, 1843). Speeches, Addresses and Occasional Sermons (2 vols., Boston, 1876). The American Scholar (with notes by George Willis Cooke, Boston, 1907).

An excellent study is J. W. Chadwick, Theodore Parker, a Biography (Boston, 1900), containing a bibliography. John Weiss, Life and Correspondence of Theodore Parker (2 vols., New York, 1864)--indispensable.

MARGARET FULLER: Her works have not been collected. Important titles are: Woman in the Nineteenth Century (New York and London, 1845; with additional papers and introduction by Horace Greeley, New York, 1855). Life Without and Life Within (Boston, 1860; New York, 1869). Papers on Literature and Art (2 vols., New York and London, 1846).

An excellent study is Katharine Anthony, Margaret Fuller: A Psychological Biography (New York, 1920). See also R. W. Emerson, W. H. Charming, and J. F. Clarke, Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli (z vols., Boston, 1852). Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Margaret Fuller Ossoli (in American Men of Letters Series, Boston, 1884), containing bibliography.


HENRY W. LONGFELLOW: The Writings of ... with Bibliographical and Critical Notes (11 vols., Boston, 1886 [Vols. I-VI, Poetical Works; VII-VIII, Prose Works; IX-XI, Dante]).

See Samuel Longfellow, Life of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (3 vols., Boston and New York, 1891). T. W. Higginson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (in American Men of Letters Series, Boston and New York, 1902).

NATHANIEL HAWTHORNE: Works (12 vols., Boston, 1871-76; Fireside Edition, 12 vols., Boston, 1879; Riverside Edition, 12 vols., Boston, 1883; Standard Library Edition, 15 vols., Boston, 1891 [contains Nathaniel Hawthorne and his Wife, by Julian Hawthorne]; New Wayside Edition, 13 vols., Boston, 1902).

The best-known life is Julian Hawthorne, Nathaniel Hawthorne and His Wife (2 vols., Boston, 1885). Henry James, Nathaniel Hawthorne (in English Men of Letters Series, London, 1879; New York, 1885,1887). See also W. B. Brownell, American Prose Masters (New York, 1909). John Erskine, Great American Novelists (New York, 1910). Carl Van Doren, The American Novel (New York, 1921); Stuart P. Sherman, Americans (New York, 1923).

OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES: Works (Riverside Edition, 13 vols., Boston, 1891, additional volume, 1892; Autocrat Edition, 13 vols., Boston and New York, 1904).

See George B. Ives, A Bibliography of Oliver Wendell Holmes (Boston and New York, 1907).--John T. Morse, Life and Letters of Oliver Wendell Holmes (2 vols., Boston and New York, 1896).--Lewis W. Townsend, Oliver Wendell Holmes. Centenary Biography (London, 1909).

JAMES RUSSELL LOWELL: Works (Riverside Edition, 13 vols., Boston and New York, 1902 [contains Scudder's Life]; Elmwood Edition, 16 vols., Boston, 1904 [four volumes of letters]). Anti-Slavery Papers (2 vols., Boston and New York, 1902). Letters of James Russell Lowell (edited by Charles Eliot Norton, 2 vols., New York, 1893; 3 vols., Boston, 1904). Early Prose Writings of ... (2 vols., New York, 1903).

G. W. Cooke, A Bibliography of James Russell Lowell (Boston and New York, 1906). H. E. Scudder, James Russell Lowell: A Biography (2 vols., Boston, 1901). Ferris Greenslet, James Russell Lowell: A Biography (2 vols., Boston, 1901). Ferris Greenslet, James Russell Lowell: His Life and Work (Boston, 1905). See also C. Hartley Grattan, "Lowell" (The American Mercury, Vol. II, p. 69); Harry Hayden Clark, Lowell's Criticism of Romantic Literature ("Publications of the Modern Language Association," March, 1926); W. D. Howells, Literary Friends and Acquaintances (New York, 1902); Henry James, Essays in London and Elsewhere (New York, 1893); J. J. Reilly, James Russell Lowell as a Critic (New York, 1915); and John M. Robertson, Lowell as a Critic (North American Review, February, 1919).