Charlottesville

Railroad Stations: Union Station, Main and 7th Sts. for Southern Ry. and Chesapeake and Ohio Ry.; Water St. at Monticello Rd. for Chesapeake and Ohio Ry.

Bus Stations: Water and 5th Sts. and at University Book Store, The Comer, Main St. and University Ave. for Virginia Stage Lines, and Scottsville Bus Line.

Taxis: Fare 25 0 within city limits. Local Busses: Fare 50

Traffic Regulations: Numbered cross streets are one-way thoroughfares, alternately N and S.

Accommodations: 3 hotels; tourist homes in city and university; country inns near by.

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, Monticello Hotel, Courthouse Square; Monticello Hotel Office.

Motion Picture Houses: Four.

Golf: McIntire Municipal Park, Rugby Ave. between Park St. and Rugby Rd., 9 holes, greens fee 25 cents  per hour, 50 cents per day; Farmington Country Club, 3 In. W. on US 250, 18 holes, adm. by arrangement, greens fee; University of Virginia Golf Club, 7 holes, greens fee 25 cents

Swimming: Fry's Springs, W. end of Fry's Springs Rd., fee 250, children 150; Farmington Country Club, 3 m. W. on US 25o, adm. by arrangement, fee 250; Seminole Club, 7 m. W. on US 29 (L), fee 250; Blue Ridge Pool, 7 m. W. of university on County 678 (R) Off US 250, fee 250, children 150.

Tennis: McIntire Municipal Park, Rugby Ave. between Park St. and Rugby Rd., 13 courts, free; university courts, adm. free by arrangement; Washington Park, NE. corner Preston Ave. and ioth St. for Negroes, 3 courts, free.

Annual Events: Founder's Day (Jefferson's birthday) Apr. 13 (State holiday); Jefferson Day, July 4; Institute of Public Affairs, two weeks early in July; horse shows at intervals; fox and drag hunting with packs near by, early Sept. to late Mar.

CHARLOTTESVILLE (48o alt., I8,245 pop.), Thomas Jefferson's city and home of the University of Virginia, is situated among the red clay foothills of the Blue Ridge Mountains near the Rivanna River. As the seat of Albemarle County, it has been an important crossroads since late Colonial times. Its Main Street follows Three Chopt Road, one of the first trails from Tidewater to the West. Roads approaching the city roll and wind between wooded hills and fertile pastures, orchards and tilled land. In spring the hillsides are bright with apple trees in bloom, for the county surrounding Charlottesville rivals the Shenandoah Valley in fruit growing and is the home of the luscious Albemarle pippin, Queen Victoria's favorite apple. The best view of the city is from the crest of Pantops, the last and steepest hill on the new road coming from the east. Thickly planted with trees, Charlottesville in its natural bowl appears as an immense many-pavilioned garden. 'Downtown,' the compact business district around the east end of Main Street, is filled with unhurried shoppers, local housewives doing the day's marketing between gossiping pauses in street or store, and country folk 'in for the day.' On court days and on Saturdays, 'downtown' is crowded until late evening, for the city is market and convivial gathering place for much of the county. Here, close by a hodgepodge of brick store fronts, are a few old buildings that were in the center of eighteenth-century Charlottesville. At the western end of Main Street, which has reached out to the once distant university, hatless students predominate. In spite of several small factories, Charlottesville is primarily a university and residential city. Most of its streets, lined with small, attractive houses and thickly shaded by trees, remain undisturbed by the bustle of commerce. The number of fine statues in squares and parks is remarkable for a city of this size. Along the railroad tracks, however, and at the edges of the city are slum sections, where most of the Negroes and folk from the surrounding mountains live. The majority of Charlottesville Negroes are employed as domestic servants. In 1735, following the first patents for land hereabout in 1727, Abraham Lewis received 8oo acres that embraced the present grounds of the university, and Nicholas Meriwether, 1,02o acres including land on which the eastern part of Charlottesville stands. Two years later William Taylor patented 1,2oo acres between the Meriwether and Lewis grants, owned later by Richard Randolph. Meanwhile, Peter Jefferson acquired the estates of Shadwell and Monticello. Few patentees, however, settled upon their estates. Thomas Jefferson said that his father 'was the third or fourth settler, about the year 1737, of the part of the county in which I live.' In 1761 the county purchased a 1,ooo acre tract from Richard Randolph, built a new courthouse, and laid Out 5o acres in streets and lots adjacent to the courthouse square. In 1762, when it was 'represented' that (a town for the reception of traders . . . would be of great advantage to the inhabitants' of the county, the general assembly 'established a town,' which was named for Queen Charlotte, wife of George III. The county sold the town lots, and taverns and stores sprang up around the courthouse. Other acres of public grounds were sold as 'outlots,' for agricultural use by town residents. Until well into the nineteenth century the Rivanna River was Charlottesville's chief avenue for commercial traffic. The tumult of war has never seriously disturbed Charlottesville, although the Revolution touched it immediately on two occasions. The establishment of 'The Barracks' near by for the'Convention Troops,' about 4,000 prisoners taken when Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga in 1777, aroused no bitter feeling. These troops English officers and soldiers and a large number of Hessian mercenaries arrived in January 1779 and remained until October 178o, but many of the Germans escaped into the mountains, where their names survive among mountain folk today. Colonel Banastre Tarleton's raid in 1781 was a more serious business. Corn\-wallis hoped to capture the most important Revolutionary leaders and send them to England. Ex-governor Jefferson, Acting Governor Fleming, and members of the general assembly, warned in the nick of time by Jack Jouett, hastily fled to Staunton. Tarleton and his men destroyed military stores, clothing, and tobacco, raided the county courthouse, and destroyed all the order books. Court records, dating from 1748, escaped destruction.

In its youth Charlottesville and the county of which it was social and commercial center produced several men, besides Thomas Jefferson, whose lives contributed richly to the Nation. In order to be near Jefferson, James Monroe came to Charlottesville in 1789 and later moved to Ashlawn (see Tour 23A) close by Monticello. James Madison was a frequent visitor here. Two men whose expeditions identify Charlottesville with the opening of the great West were George Rogers Clark, born at Buena Vista, two miles east, and Meriwether Lewis, born near Ivy, about seven miles west. Though situated on one of the main east-west roads, Charlottesville remained a small social center until after the first quarter of the nineteenth century. Thomas Jefferson said in 1822: 'In our village . . . there is a good degree of religion, with a small spice of fanaticism. We have four sects, but without either church or meeting house. The courthouse is the common temple, one Sunday in the month to each. Here Episcopalian and Presbyterian, Methodist and Baptist meet together. . . . listen with attention and devotion to each others preachers, and all mix in society in perfect harmony.' Construction of the first church in the town was begun in 1824. When the university was opened a year later Charlottesville contained 'a courthouse, a half finished church, and three or four taverns, which constitute the whole of its public buildings,' and its inhabitants numbered about 6oo. The War between the States only brushed Charlottesville. Most of the university buildings were turned into hospitals, and temporary structures were erected, in which university doctors looked after the wounded. During the last year of the war Union forces under Sheridan occupied the town, but did little damage. After the Virginia Central Railroad, now the Chesapeake and Ohio, reached Charlottesville in 1848, putting an end to river traffic, industries were established on a modest scale. One of these, the Charlottesville Woolen Mills, reorganized in 1868, still survives. In 1800 Charlottesville was chartered as a town. In 1888 it was chartered as a city, its population then being 4,200. Charlottesville now has several factories, employing about 2,000 workers, with a $I,5oo,ooo annual pay roll. The large woolen mill produces 'cadet gray,' the material used for uniforms by the United States Military Academy at West Point and other military institutions. Smaller textile mills produce underwear and artificial silk goods. The university and the lively influence of the 'Sage of Monticello,' who is still called 'Mr.Jefferson,'have made Charlottesville and the surrounding section a cultural center. With its hospitality and peaceful beauty the community has attracted visitors who never leave people who enjoy contemplation or working, not too hard, or simply good living.

POINTS OF INTEREST

1.ALBEMARLE COUNTY COURTHOUSE (open 9-5 Mon.-Fri. 9-1 Sat.), NW. corner Jefferson and Park Sts., is a large red brick building Made with a tall white portico in Ionic style. Half of the structure was built in 1803, the front part was erected in 186o, and the portico was added in the early '70s. The archives contain some of Jefferson's correspondence. The north wing was used at first as a church, 'the common temple' to which Jefferson referred. Madison, Monroe, and Jefferson worshiped here. Old red brick buildings, in which judges and lawyers of Charlottesville still have offices, once crowded more completely around the square and the streets leading out from it on the south side. Albemarle County was cut from Goochland in 1744 and embraced a wide area on both sides of the James River. Its first seat, established near Scottsville to the south, served until 1761, when the present site was chosen. The legislature met in the first courthouse in 1781-Pillory, stocks, and a whipping post stood in the square when it was enclosed in 1792.

2. The SITE OF THE OLD SWAN TAVERN (private), NE. corner Jefferson and Park Sts., is now occupied by the Red Land Club in a small red brick structure. The tavern was built about 1773 by John Jouett, father of Jack, whose warning saved Thomas Jefferson and the assembly. Jack Jouett moved to Kentucky in 1782. His father died in 1805

3. JACKSON MONUMENT, NE. corner Jefferson and E.4th Sts., is an exceptionally vigorous figure of Stonewall Jackson on Little Solrel, bending forward in his saddle, his strong chin thrust forward. The work of Charles Keck, it was unveiled in 1921.

4. The McINTIRE PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-6 Mon.-Fri.; 9-5 Sat., 7-9 P.m. Mon. and Fri.), SE. corner Jefferson and E.2nd Sts., is a small, well-proportioned pink brick building with a semicircular portico in free classical style. Designed by Walter Dabney Blair and built in 1920, it was given to the city by Paul Goodloe McIntire. The library contains about 8,ooo volumes.

5. LEE MONUMENT, Jefferson St. between 1st and E.2nd Sts., begun by H.M.Schrady and finished after his death by Leo Lentelli, was dedicated in 1924. This figure on Traveller convincingly portrays Lee's calm serenity and patient wisdom.

6. The OLD ARMORY OF THE MONTICELLO GUARDS (open daylight hours), Market St. between E.5th and E.7th Sts., is a large brick hall built in 1895. The Monticello Guard is successor to the Albemarle County Militia, organized in 1745 with Peter Jefferson as lieutenant colonel, and has taken part in many battles. In 18 24, when LaFayette visited Monticello, the organization was rechristened the La Fayette Guard. On ceremonial occasions the guard turns out in its Colonial uniform with cocked hats, knee breeches, and leggings. The old armory has been superseded by a new building two blocks eastward.

7. THE FARM (private), E. end of Jefferson St., erected in 1825, is a square brick house with a flat-roofed, one-story portico. Close by is a small stucco-covered house with large end chimneys, built before the Revolution on the Nicholas Meriwether estate. The older house was the home of Meriwether's heir and grandson, Colonel Nicholas Lewis. Tarleton, dashing up from the ford where the woolen mill now stands, greeted Mrs.Lewis with,'Madam, you dwell in a little paradise.'He established headquarters here for the single night he spent in Charlottesville sleeping wrapped in his cloak on the parlor floor.

8. The LEWIS AND CLARK MEMORIAL, Ridge and Main Sts. unveiled in igig, is a group in bronze by Charles Keck. The two explorer are gazing into the distance, while behind them crouches Sacajawea, the Indian woman who guided them in the Northwest. Pending negotiation on the Louisiana Purchase (1803), Jefferson sent his secretary, Meriwethe Lewis, and the latter's close friend, William Clark, to explore the vast ne'A territory beyond the Mississippi.

9. The GEORGE ROGERS CLARK MEMORIAL, Main St. anc Fry's Springs Rd., is a bronze group by Robert Aitken, unveiled in 1921 commemorating the conquest of the Northwest Territory. George Roger., Clark, astride his horse, is shown among scouts and Indians.

The UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA, W. end of Main St., founded by Thomas Jefferson in 1818, occupies a large, roughly triangular tract o rising ground between the convergence of Fry's Springs and Ivy Roads Most of its fine buildings are designed in a classical style peculiarly American. In spite of quantities of ancient trees shading the grounds, every white portico of nearly ioo red brick structures is framed at some angle by a vista. In the center on the highest ground are Jefferson's buildings set in four parallel lines separated by lawns and gardens. A rotunda joining the northern end of the terraced central rectangle serves as focal point. Jefferson's 'quadrangle' was closed by the erection of Stanford White's group at the south end of the Lawn in 1898. In 1814 Jefferson, then retired from public life at Monticello and able to give most of his time to educational interests, was elected a trustee of the Albemarle Academy, a school for boys incorporated in 1803. As early as 1779 he had sponsored a bill to establish a university. Under the pressure of his friend, Joseph Carrington Cabell, the general assembly authorized in 1816 the establishment of Central College at a point just west of Charlottesville. The cornerstone of the first building, now Pavilion VII on West Lawn, was laid on October 6, 1817. In 1818 Jefferson's bill to provide a university, though much mutilated, passed the general assembly, and a commission was named to select the site. Under Jefferson's influence, the commission recommended Central College as the place for the university and the legislature in 18ig confirmed the decision. The official corporate name of the university, chosen then, remains 'The Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia.' Jefferson, rector of the board of visitors until his death, was the builder, administrator, and dominating power of the institution. When the first session opened in March 1825 there were 40 students and 7 faculty members. Before Jefferson's death on July 4, 1826, the number of students had increased to more than 140, the two lawns and two ranges were complete, and the rotunda was nearly finished. Jefferson introduced several innovations. For the first time in America higher education was independent of a church. 'The institution will be based on the illimitable freedom of the human mind. For here we are not afraid to follow the truth wherever it may lead or to tolerate any error so long as reason is left free to combat it.' He replaced the customarily prescribed curriculum with the elective system, giving the widest choice of subjects or 'schools' taught in any American university at that time. The university was one of the first to include music and the liberal arts among its curricula. The conventional grouping of students into classes was disregarded. Discipline was reduced to a minimum, though before his death Jefferson found it necessary to modify this principle. Instead of a president, there was a rotating chairman of the faculty, and final authority was vested in a board of seven visitors. Jefferson expected students from all social strata to take their places on equal terms and to obtain a degree of cultivated intelligence in harmony with the architectural environment. In accordance with his prohibitions, the university has never conferred an honorary degree. He counseled: 'Enlighten the people generally and tyranny and oppressions of body and mind will vanish like spirits at the dawn of day.' Aided by the honor system, introduced in 1842, university students outgrew their early taste for violence and insubordination. The honor committee, composed of the presidents of the five principal schools, still administers the code; any student proved guilty of violating his pledged word or of knowing and failing to report such violation is dismissed. This system frees the student body from strict surveillance and keeps individual liberty from degenerating into license. Its operation extends to student relations with residents of Charlottesville. The university became almost at once the most important in the South and grew steadily until the War between the States, during which it was kept open for a few students. It suffered the crushing effects of Reconstruction, but by 1904 renewed growth led the board of visitors to discard Jefferson's executive pattern and choose, as first president, Edwin Anderson Alderman, who was succeeded after his death in 1931 by John Lloyd Newcomb. The plant has been enlarged since 1904 by nearly two dozen principaf buildings. Women were admitted to the winter session in I 92o, as a result of efforts led by Mary Cooke Branch Munford (I938), who in 1926 was appointed a member of the board of visitors. With an enrollment (1938-39) Of 2,920, including less than 200 women, the university is coeducational in only the graduate and professional schools.  The summer session is wholly coeducational.

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