Richmond

Railroad Stations: Main Street Station, 15th and Main Sts., for Chesapeake and Ohio . and Seaboard Air Line Ry.; Broad Street Station, Broad St. between Davis Ave. and Robinson St. for Atlantic Coast Line R.R., Norfolk & Western Ry., and Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac R.R.; Hun Street Station, 2nd and Hull Sts., for Southern Ry.

Bus Stations: Union Bus Depot, 412 E.Broad St., for Atlantic Greyhound, James River Bus Line, Richmond Greyhound, and Peninsula Transit Corp. Line; Richmond Bus Center, 9th and Broad Sts., for Carolina Coach Co., Richmond-Ashland Bus, and Virginia Stage Lines.

Airport: Richard Evelyn Byrd Flying Field, 4.3 m. E. of city limits on side road (L) off Charles City Rd. (R) off US 6o, for Eastern Air Lines; taxi $i.5o. Taxis: Fare 350 within city limits.

Pier: S. end 32nd St., Fulton, East Richmond, for Buxton Lines to Norfolk (and James River landings); excursions down river in warm season on Robert E. Lee.

Streetcars and Local Busses: Fare $0.07 on streetcars, $0.07 and $0.08 on busses.

Traffic Regulations: No U-turns in congested district, speed limit 25 m.p.h., in business district 15 m.p.h.

Accommodations: 16 hotels, including 2 for Negroes; tourist homes.

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, State Planters Bank Bldg., 9th and Main Sts.; Richmond News Leader 110 N.4th St.; Richmond Times-Dispatch, 107 S. 7th St.; Auto Club of Virginia, 111 N.5th St.

Radio Stations: WRTD, (1500 kc.), WMBG (1350 kc.), WRVA (1110, kc.), WRNL (88o kc.).

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Lyric Theater, 9th and Broad Sts.; The Mosque (auditorium), Main and Laurel Sts.; City Auditorium, Cary and Linden Sts.; 26 motion picture houses, including 6 for Negroes.

Baseball: Tate Field, Mayo Island, S. end of 14th St., Richmond 'Colts' of Piedmont League.

Golf: Laurel Golf Club, 5.2 M. W. of city limits on US 33, 18 holes, greens fees $0.35 for 9, $0.75 for 18 holes Mon.-Fri., $0.65 and $1.00 Sat., Sun., and holidays; Glenwood Golf Club, 0.5 m. NE. of city limits on Creighton Rd. (L), off State 33, 18 holes, greens fees $0.50 for 9, $0.75 for 18 holes Mon.-Fri. $0.65 and $1.00 Sat., Sun., and holidays; Chesterfield Golf Club, 4.8 m. SW. of city limits off County 68 1 (R), off County 679 (L), off State 147 (L), 9 holes, greens fees $0.50 Mon.-Fri., $0.75 Sat., Sun., and holidays.

Swimming: Shields Lake, Byrd Park, S. end of Boulevard at Idlewood Ave., open summer months, free; Negro pool, Sledd and High Sts. and Old Chamberlayne Ave., open summer months, free.

Tennis: Powhatan Hill, Williamsburg Rd. and Northampton Ave., 3 courts; Hotchkiss Field, 700 Brookland Park Blvd., 6 courts; William Byrd Park, Boulevard and Idlewood Ave., 12 courts; Carter Jones Park, 28th and Bainbridge Sts., 6 courts; Luck's Field, Rogers and T Sts., 4 courts; Oakwood, 31st and Kuhn Sts., 4 courts for Negroes; all open daylight hours, free.

Skeet: Richmond Skeet Club, 3.8 m. W. Of City limits Off US 250 (L).

Annual Events: Deep Run Hunt Race Meet, Curles Neck Farm, early Apr.; Garden Club Week, Apr. or May; Virginia Kennel Club Show, Apr. or May; National Motorcycle Races and Hill Climb, May; Deep Run Horse Show, Broad Street Rd., May; Virginia State Fair, Boulevard and Hermitage Rd., late Sept. or Oct.

RICHMOND (115 alt., 182,929 pop.), capital of Virginia, at the head of navigation on the James, has spread from its seven hills to include a vast territory along the rocky course of the river and across rolling country to the north and south. The westward trend of population left old Richmond forlorn and deserted, and caused a new city to be built and old houses to be razed in order that the uses of business might be served. So today the former capital of the Confederacy has the appearance of a modern city with a residential section reaching toward fashionable suburbs and slum areas, with retail streets and factory districts progressive and far from distinctive. Parks and playgrounds provide the city with a decorative fringe.

From Church Hill, the heart of old Richmond, six long streets extend to the west end of the city, where they open fanwise to include many shorter streets. Handsome residences and apartment houses extend from Monroe Park to the city limits and southward on the Boulevard. Across the river South Richmond, formerly Manchester but now a part of the city and connected with the north side by four highway and four railroad bridges, retains its business districts and separate community life. Suburban areas extend westward along both sides of the river and northward across rolling terrain.

The largest Negro district spreads in a southeasterly direction from Union University through a section known as Jackson Ward, although it is no longer a political subdivision. This is largely a district of squalid houses, but along Marshall and Clay Streets, once outside of the ward but now a part of it, are many fine old residences occupied by well-to-do Negro families.

The principal retail district is concentrated on Broad, Grace, and Franklin Streets between 1st and 9th Streets. The financial district is on Main Street between 7th and 12th Streets; and, for many blocks east of 10th Street, Cary Street is given over to commission merchants and manufacturers of tobacco.

In the river near by, Belle Isle-the site of a Confederate prison and now occupied by an iron mill-Mayo's Island, and numerous smaller islands and jutting boulders block navigation beyond the intermediate turning basin near Nicholson Street. A combined Federal and city outlay of $5,690,000 has provided three cut-off canals and a river channel 25 feet deep and 300 feet wide. Richmond is a United States Customs Port of Entry, and handles annually some 2,000,000 tons with a valuation in excess of $90,000,000.

The beauty of an earlier day survives on Capitol Square in a few buildings that have escaped the wreckers' tools-and in the memory of old Richmonders. Despite the inroads of progress, the city has inexplicably retained its atmosphere. Although outwardly its traditional exclusiveness no longer exists, Richmond still has its inner circle. But there is a paradox in the liberal attitude of old Richmonders. Social discriminations have not precluded social justice. From old circles have come leaders who are intent upon bringing about better civic conditions, and who work with people of all races, creeds, and previous conditions.

Richmond's Negro population, constituting nearly one-third of the whole, is made up chiefly of laborers and domestics, though a fairly stable business and professional class is developing with the aid of rapidly improving educational facilities. Negro men and women prominent in business and the professions have found sincere co-operation among 'the best white people.' Negroes operate a hospital, two successful insurance companies, a bank, a Y.M.C.A., and a Y.W.C.A.

The city's social season, from late fall to Ash Wednesday, retains its old ritual, with the Monday germans as highlights. Tea in darkened drawing rooms, dinners served by tradition-trained butlers, frosted mint juleps in ancient goblets, and Smithfield ham and beaten biscuits are part of the ceremonial that has continued with no deviation. It is still proper in old Richmond to refer to a guest as So-and-So's granddaughter or the descendant of a founding father. The very broad a and the added y are indispensable to good breeding. Guests come by street and motor cyar to have tea in the gyarden at hd1f Past five, and no tomatoes are served in Richmond.

The city pursues culture through groups that promote the arts by cultivating creative and appreciative faculties and through clubs that dwell upon Richmond's contribution to history. On Capitol Square and in hotels close by the political pot is continually boiling. Yet citizens of Richmond take only mild interest in government affairs and pay small attention to legislators who congregate biennially for sessions of the general assembly.

The industries of Richmond are diversified. Annual sales of manufacturers reach $250,000,000, and the capital investment in 300 manufacturing enterprises is $97,690,000. More than 2,600 retail stores and 413 wholesale houses bring the annual pay roll to $61,000,000. The city has one of the largest fertilizer plants and one of the largest cigar factories in the world, several book manufacturing and paper plants, and a flour mill with a capacity of 600,000 barrels a year. As the seat of the Fifth Federal Reserve Bank, Richmond is the financial center of five States and the District of Columbia. Tobacco, however, is the staple product. Downtown Richmond is fragrant with the odor of the cured leaves being converted into cigars, cigarettes, and smoking and chewing tobacco. The city has its own water and gas companies and a municipally-owned plant generates electricity for lighting streets and public buildings.

A week after the English landed at Jamestown in 1607, Captain Christopher Newport set out to explore the James River. On the '27th daye of May,' coming upon some falls, the party set up a cross on a small island near the foot of the present 9th Street. Two years later, sent by John Smith, Captain Francis West purchased a site at the falls from the Indians and erected a fort that he called Fort West. After trouble with the Indians the settlement was abandoned. In 1610 Lord Delaware led an expedition to the falls, vainly sought minerals, and returned to Jamestown. In 1637 Thomas Stegg established a trading post at the head of navigation on the James and was later granted lands about the falls. His son, Thomas Stegg II, who had acquired property on both sides of the river, in 1670 left his holdings to William Byrd I, a nephew, then only 18.

After the massacre of 1644 the settlers established Fort Charles at the head of navigation and offered freedom from taxation to anyone who would establish a home near by. Young Nathaniel Bacon had taken up land near the falls. In this neighborhood the Susquehannock incited other Indians to the depredations that precipitated Bacon's Rebellion in 1676. The settlement at Fort Charles, encouraged by 'certain privileges' granted William Byrd I for inducing able-bodied men to live there as a defense against the Indians, became a trading post for furs, tobacco, and other commodities and was known as Byrd's Warehouse or Shocco.

In 1733 William Byrd II `laid the foundation of two Citys': Petersburg and Richmond. Colonel Byrd combined truth with prophecy when he wrote: '. . . these two places being the uppermost Landing of James and Appamattux Rivers, are naturally intended for Marts, where the Traffick of the Outer Inhabitants must Center.' Four years later Major William Mayo plotted on what is now Church Hill 3 2 squares for Richmond 'with Streets65 Feet wide,' and named the place after Richmond on the Thames. In 1742, when the population was 250, the general assembly enacted that the 'piece or parcel of land . . . at the falls of the James River . . . be . . . constituted . . . a town.' Ten years later, the assembly appointed nine trustees 'to lay off and regulate the streets and to settle the bounds of the lots in the said town.' In 1769 William Byrd III 'laid out another parcel of his lands, on the north side of the James river . . . at a place called Shoccoes.' That year, moreover, a town later called Manchester was established at Rocky Ridge on the south side of the river.

During the next two decades Richmond grew slowly, with vicissitudes that included the destructive 'great freshet' Of 1771. In 1775 three epoch-making conventions met in the town. The First Virginia Convention, held in Williamsburg in August 1774, had elected delegates to the First Continental Congress and adopted a system of nonintercourse with Great Britain. The Second Convention opened on March 20, 1775, at St. John's Church in Richmond. Patrick Henry made his impassioned plea for liberty or death and put through his resolution for 'embodying, arming, and disciplining' the militia. The Third Convention, meeting in Richmond in July, appointed the Committee of Safety, proposed the enlisting of recruits, and inaugurated a plan for financing the war; and the Fourth Convention was organized in Richmond but adjourned to Williamsburg.

In 1779 Richmond was made the capital of Virginia. The following year, when Governor Jefferson moved into a rented house and the assembly convened in temporary quarters, there were but 684 people living in Richmond. The town played an important part in the last days of the Revolution, suffered pillaging by Benedict Arnold in January 1781, was rescued from the British under Arnold and Phillips the following April by the arrival of La Fayette, and in June was on Cornwallis's line of march eastward.

With peace came a new era of growth. The Virginia Gazette was moved from Williamsburg to Richmond, and three other newspapers were established in the new capital. In 1782 Richmond was incorporated as a town, though it was called a city in deference to its status as capital. William Foushee was elected mayor. The general assembly held sessions that led to a convention of other States for the framing of a Federal Constitution, which-amid verbal fireworks-Virginia ratified in 1788. Thomas Jefferson's beautiful building went up on Capitol Square. By 1790 the population had increased to 3,761, and by 1800 had reached 5,730.

In 1802 Benjamin Henfry, a Scotsman, demonstrated lighting by gas before citizens in Haymarket Garden, present terminus of the Atlantic Coast Line Railway, and heard his 'tea kettel apparatus' ridiculed; Richmond missed the opportunity of being the first American city to install street lighting. In 1803 came Tom Moore, Irish poet, 'whose songs were sung to every guitar and harpsichord in Richmond.' In 1807 Aaron Burr was tried for high treason behind the portico of the Jeffersonian capitol. In 18iii a theater fire took the lives Of 73 people. That year the Allans of Richmond adopted Edgar Allan Poe, an orphaned baby. His youth here and his later connection with the Southern Literary Messenger are justification for Poe's declaring, 'I am a Virginian. At least, I call myself one.'

Like most cities Richmond grew with the development of transportation. Though it was not until 1840 that freight was shipped by canal between Richmond and Lynchburg, a canal was proposed by the Reverend Robert Rose in 175o. The general assembly passed an act in 1764'for extending navigation of the James River from Westham (seven miles) downward through the Falls.' In 1784 the James River Navigation Company was chartered, and the following year George Washington was elected its president. In 1790 the canal was opened from Richmond to Westham, and in 1836 the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad carried its first passengers out of Richmond, at the terrifying speed of 10 miles an hour. When the James River and Kanawha Canal was completed in 1840, Richmond was linked with the Piedmont country.

The city became as gay and fashionable as Williamsburg had been in its heyday. Hostesses vied with each other in elaborate entertaining. In 1842, the year that Richmond became a city in reality as well as in name, Charles Dickens at a dinner given in the Exchange Hotel was toasted as 'the artful dodger' because he had 'dodged Philadelphia and Baltimore,' but not Richmond. Theaters presented stars of the European and American stage-the Booths, Joe Jefferson, jenny Lind.

But the 'Fiery Epoch' had begun. Sectional misunderstanding had thwarted a movement within the State for the emancipation of slaves. The capital city was caught up in the excitement of war. On the night of April 19, 1861, Richmond blazed with fireworks and 'ten thousand hurrahing men and boys carried torches' to celebrate Virginia's secession. On May 29, the Confederate capital was moved from Montgomery, Alabama, to Richmond.

For a time the city was headily gay. Officers, resplendent in new uniforms, strolled beside hoop-skirted beauties, whose very curls danced with patriotism. Sewing circles culminated in 'danceable teas,' and pretty heads were forever planning balls, parties, and theatricals. But there was bickering, too. Richmond ladies were critical of the wives of new officialdom. 'This Cabinet of ours,' wrote Mary Boykin Chestnut On July 27, (are in such bitter quarrels among themselves-everybody abusing everybody.'

As the war years deepened Richmond was the center of political wrangling and the objective of an invading army. Privation stifled gaiety and feuds. Wounded soldiers were brought to hurriedly equipped hospitals. In May 1862, McClellan came within sight of Richmond. Defeated in the Seven Days' Campaign, he changed his base from the York to the James, where he remained until recalled in midsummer.

Foremost among the war heroines was Sally Tompkins, who as head of a hospital was commissioned captain in the Confederate army. Elizabeth Van Lew heroically toiled for the Union and emancipation, sending daily communications to Federal officers and helping blue-clad soldiers to escape from crowded Libby Prison, a ship chandlery and tobacco warehouse built by William Libby in 1845 at Twentieth and Cary Streets. On February 9, 1864, she aided Colonel Thomas E. Rose and 108 Federals in a daring break from the prison. On April 3, 1865, Richmond was evacuated and burned by its own people.

After the war Richmond began the slow task of rebuilding. Elizabeth Van Lew became postmaster-the only woman ever to hold so important a government post in the city; the canal was reopened; railroads were repaired; a system of public education was established; and the emancipated Negro began to find his place in the economic scheme. In 1887 horsedrawn streetcars, which had been running since 186 1, were supplanted by electric cars.

A romantic literature, characterized by nostalgia for bygone days, gave place in time to the writing of history and realism. Mary Johnston became America's foremost historical novelist; Ellen Glasgow held the mirror before the people she knew-too close for their happiness; and James Branch Cabell created a medieval realm in which he ridiculed the Philistia about him. Edward V. Valentine, Sir Moses Ezekiel, Dugald Stewart Walker, and others achieved National recognition in the world of art. John Powell took front rank among musicians. Schools and colleges increased in number and size and strengthened their curricula. Richmond became a hospital center for Virginia and other Southern States. In 1910 Manchester across the river was annexed as a unit of greater Richmond. Women, under such leaders as Lila Meade Valentine and Mary Cooke Branch Munford, began to participate in public affairs. Negroes set out to learn the use of new tools that freedom and education had given them. Commerce and the arts built a new Richmond, which while celebrating its bicentennial in 193 7, refreshed its memory by means of a historical pageant.

POINTS OF INTEREST

CAPITOL SQUARE, bounded by Bank, N.9th, Capitol, and Governor Sts., is shaded by large trees, patterned by worn brick walks, and inhabited by tame squirrels. Half its 12 acres slope steeply. The act by which the capital was moved from Williamsburg set apart 'six whole squares' for public buildings, provided for the erection of a 'house' for use of the general assembly, and for temporary buildings elsewhere. The grounds were laid out in 1816 by Maximilian Godefroy.

The WASHINGTON MONUMENT, NW. corner of the Square, is probably Richmond's finest sculptural group. A bronze equestrian statue of George Washington stands on an elaborate stone base flanked by nine-foot bronze figures of George Mason, Patrick Henry, General Andrew Lewis, John Marshall, Thomas Nelson, and Thomas Jefferson. Around the base are female figures seated on trophies of victory.

Public subscriptions for a monument were first raised in 1817 by a committee under John Marshall. The 6o-foot monument, unveiled in 1858, was completed with the figure of Marshall in 1867. Thomas Crawford executed all the figures except those of Nelson and Lewis, which were done by Randolph Rogers after Crawford's death. The base and pedestal were designed by Robert Mills.

The STATE CAPITOL (open 8-5 Mon.-Fri., 8-4 Sat.) raises a proud Ionic portico above the trees on the steep hill. Robert Mills, one of America's first professional architects, wrote: 'I remember the impression it made on my mind when first I came in view of it coming from the South. It gave me an idea of the effect of those Greek temples which are the admiration of the world.' The lofty portico and the rectangular mass of the main block are tied together by an unbroken cornice and pilaster treatment, which continues the effect of columns around the sides and back. Short passages lead to side wings-modified miniatures of the older building.

Thomas Jefferson sent from France a plaster model he had prepared in collaboration with the French architect, Charles Louis Clarisseau, as a modified design of the Maison Carre, late Roman temple at Nimes. The capitol antedated by more than 20 years the Madeleine in Paris, first example in Europe of similar quasi-literal temple architecture. The cornerstone was laid in 1785 but the capitol was not completed in time to house the ratification convention in June, 1788, although the general assembly met in the unfinished building in October. The original portion was finished in 1792 under the supervision of Samuel Dobie and the brick was covered with stucco in 1798. The wings and the long flight of steps were built in 1904-05.

Here, where one of the world's oldest representative legislatures still meets, events of National importance have taken place: in 1807 the dramatic trial of Aaron Burr on charges of treason; in 1861 the secession convention, which met here for part Of 54 days of bitter debate; sessions of the Congress of the Confederate States of America, 1861-65; and a notable tragedy, the 'Capitol Disaster' in 1870, when the floor of the old Hall of the House of Delegates collapsed, killing 63 persons and injuring 60.

Beneath the dome of the rotunda stands the noted marble FIGURE OF GEORGE WASHINGTON, by Jean Antoine Houdon. Washington is portrayed in military uniform, a plowshare and small implements of war about his feet, his left arm resting on a fasces. One day while Houdon was following Washington about Mount Vernon to catch a characteristic pose, he watched him bargaining for a yoke of oxen. When Washington, his arm on a fence post, explosively protested about the price, Houdon went at once to mold his figure. Niches in the encircling wall are occupied by busts of the seven other Virginia-born Presidents of the United States and Houdon's bust of La Fayette. A marble plaque in memory of Lila Meade Valentine (1865-1921), Virginia's leader in the fight for enfranchisement of women, is in the House of Delegates.

Along the north side of Capitol Square are three bronze figures: The STATUE OF GOVERNOR WILLIAM SMITH, a work of W.L.Sheppard, unveiled in 1906; the STATUE OF GENERAL THOMAS J. JACKSON, by J.H.Foley,R.A., presented in 1875 by Beresford Hope as a gift of English admirers of 'Stonewall'; the STATUE OF DR.HUNTER HOLMES McGUIRE, a work of William Couper, unveiled in 1904. Dr.McGuire (1835-1900), born in Winchester, was an eminent physician.

The GOVERNOR'S MANSION (private), NE. corner of the Square, a two-story brick house painted white, is designed in simplified early Federal style, with a single-story Doric portico and four chimneys rising from the ridge corners of the deck roof. Built in 1813, it was the second governor's house on this site. When Richmond became the capital, the State made no provision for the executive's residence, and Governor Jefferson was forced to rent one. Nineteen years later, however, the State erected on this site a four-room makeshift, which was dubbed `The Palace' and made to serve until pleas-especially those of Governor Tyler-convinced the legislature that a more appropriate one should be 6uilt. Virginia's governors, from James Barbour to James H. Price, have occupied this mansion. In more expansive times it was customary during legislative sessions to keep a huge bowl always full of toddy. Here the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII), Marshal Foch, Winston Churchill, several Presidents of the United States, and other notables have been entertained.

The VIRGINIA STATE LIBRARY (open 9-5 Mon.-Fri., 9-12:30 Sat..), E. side of the Square, is cramped in an undistinguished pale yellow brick building with gray stone trim, but is soon to be moved to a new building being erected (1930) near by. A library bill presented by Jefferson in 1779, the first attempt to obtain a public library for Virginia, was unsuccessful. An act of the Virginia Assembly in 1823 provided the meager proceeds from the sale of Hening's Statutes at Large for a library to be used by the court of appeals, general court, and general assembly. In 1828 'the room in the southeast corner of the Capitol' was chosen for a library. The present building was completed in 1892 and enlarged in 1908 and in 1920.The library contains more than 250,000 volumes, files of old newspapers, historical maps and charts, and more than 1,000,000 manuscripts. Here also are a bronze bust of Commodore Matthew Fontaine Maury by Edward Valentine, a very early map of Virginia (1590), and several early portraits and copies. Source material of inestimable value is made available to research workers by a staff that guards the irreplaceable books and documents. Wilmer Hall is the librarian, and Coralie H. Johnston has been in charge of the reading room since 1916.

The OLD BELL TOWER (open by arrangement with park keeper), near SW. comer of the Square, is a mellowed red brick building. The little thickset square tower was built in 1824, replacing one of wood. Calls to the colors have pealed from both towers.

2. ST.PAUL'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH (open 10-4 Mon.-Fri., 10-12 Sat.; Sun. services), SW. corner N.9th and E.Grace Sts., of brick stuccoed dark gray, was designed in classical style by Thomas Stewart of Philadelphia and dedicated in 1845. A wide Corinthian portico is surmounted by a towering cupola. St.Paul's is known as the 'Church of the Confederacy,' associated as it is with Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee, who worshipped there during the War between the States. Jefferson Davis was confirmed in this church and was attending services there when he received news on April 2, 1865, of the proposed evacuation of Petersburg and Richmond. The Lee Memorial Window is noteworthy. A mosaic reproduction of Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper above the altar is illuminated upon request.

3. The JOHN MARSHALL HOUSE (open 9-5 Mon.-Fri., 9-2 Sat.; adm. 250), NW. corner N.9th and E.Marshall Sts., is a square brick building of post-Colonial simplicity, designed and built soon after 1789 by Chief justice John Marshall, who lived here until his death in 1835. The gable, above one of two little formal porches that flank the outer corner, is pedimented. The interior, including high mantels, simple paneling, and cornices with plaster relief, is characterized by classical serenity.

John Marshall (1755-1835), born near Germantown (see Tour 4a), was related through his mother, Mary Randolph, to Thomas Jefferson and the Lees. After taking an active part in the Revolution, he went to the College of William and Mary in 1780 to study briefly under George Wythe. In 1782 Marshall was elected to the Virginia Legislature and moved to Richmond, where he married Mary Ambler in 1783 and hung out his shingle. He exerted great influence in the ratification convention of 1788, championed Washington's administration and Hamilton's financial measures, and became the Federalist leader in Virginia. He was elected to Congress in 1799, served as President Adams's Secretary of State, and in 18oi became Chief justice of the Supreme Court. Bitter antagonist of his cousin, Thomas Jefferson, he made precedent-setting conservative decisions for 34 years. By his decision in the case of Marbury v. Madison he established the Supreme Court's power of judicial review of National legislation. Marshall presided in 1807 at the trial of Aaron Burr.

4. The VALENTINE MUSEUM (open 10-5 weekdays), SW. corner E.Clay and N. 11th Sts., a two-story house of brick stuccoed gray, conceals a terraced garden dotted with trees and shrubbery. It was designed by Robert Mills for John Wickham, chief attorney for Aaron Burr, and built in 1812. A sweeping stairway and a parlor, proudly retaining every detail of furnishing in lushest Victorian style, stand out among the rooms.

Mann S. Valentine purchased the house and left it to the city in 1892; it was restored and opened to the public in 1930. In the garden at the rear is the original carriage house, used for 30 years as a studio by Edward Virginius Valentine, and acquired by the city in 1937. The museum houses the Mann S. Valentine collection of oriental casts and some of Edward V. Valentine's best work, including the plaster cast of his recumbent statue of Robert E. Lee, furniture of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, rare books, cultural history material from Europe, the Orient, Africa, Polynesia, and North America, and a series of miniature groups depicting Richmond's history.

5. The CONFEDERATE MUSEUM or WHITE HOUSE OF THE CONFEDERACY (open 9-5 Mon.-Fri., 9-2 Sat.; adm. 250), SE. corner N. 12 th and E. Clay Streets, is an angular white stuccoed-brick house with a shallow, flat-roofed portico in Roman-Doric style. A small cupola stands rather incongruously in the center of the roof. Built in 1818, this is one of the few buildings (designed by Robert Mills in the city, but its original lines were altered in 1844 by a third-story addition.

Known as the Brockenbrough Mansion, it was bought and furnished by the Confederacy as a 'worthy White House' for the Davis family. Here was born Winnie Davis, 'Daughter of the Confederacy,' and here died little Joseph Davis after falling from a porch. The house was occupied for five years after the war by the Federal Government, and served as Central School for 20 years, and finally, in 1893, was saved from ruin by the Confederate Memorial Literary Society, which made it a treasure house of 'things Confederate.' Here, among other exhibits, are Robert E. Lee's sword, the original Great Seal and provisional constitution of the Confederacy, Jackson's sword and cap, and the military equipment of General Joseph E. Johnston and General J.E.B.Stuart.

6. MEDICAL COLLEGE OF VIRGINIA, scattered about the corner of E. Marshall and N.12th Sts., is a group of 13 major buildings. The Egyptian Building, first permanent building of the institution, erected in 1854 from the design of Thomas S. Stewart of Philadelphia, is (1939) being restored.

The Medical College was founded in 1838 as a department of Hampden-Sydney College but was granted a separate charter in 1854. After John Brown's raid of 1859, Dr.Hunter Holmes McGuire persuaded some 300 Southern medical students in Pennsylvania universities to transfer en masse to Southern medical schools. Of these, 140 enrolled in the medical College here. Dr.McGuire founded the rival University College of Medicine in 1893, but after years of bitter competition, amalgamation of the two colleges was effected in 1913. Women were admitted in 1918.

The institution, one of the largest medical plants in the South, consists of ii units: the Memorial, Dooley, St.Phillip's, and Crippled Children's Hospitals; McGuire and Cabaniss Halls; the Egyptian Building; the Library; the dormitory and educational unit for St.Phillip's Hospital School for Nursing; the clinic and laboratory building; and the staff dormitory. New units are in process of construction (1939). Enrollment in 1937-38 was about 700, and the faculty numbered 223.

7. MONUMENTAL CHURCH (open 9-1, 2-5 weekdays; Sun. for services), E.Broad St. between N. I 2th and College Sts., is a stuccoed brick building of Classical Revival architecture. The body of the building, an octagonal domed auditorium, is extended on four faces, and the entrance portico is of brown sandstone with columns between anta walls. It was completed in 1814 from the design of Robert Mills; no similar example of his work survives. Here is preserved a baptismal basin, dated 1733, from the last church at Jamestown.

On this site stood the Richmond Theater, where Edgar Allan Poe's mother acted. Governor George William Smith and many other prominent citizens were burned to death December 26, 1811, during a performance of The Bleeding Nun. A stalwart slave, Gilbert Hunt, saved the lives of about 20 women and children by catching them in his arms as they were dropped from flaming windows. Laws in Virginia and elsewhere to prohibit the opening inward of theater doors resulted from this tragedy.

8. CRAIG HOUSE (open 10-12, 2-6 daily), NW. corner N.19th and E.Grace Sts., a two-story white frame building built by Adam Craig late in the eighteenth century, is set back in a picket-fenced corner garden. This is the birthplace of Jane Craig, Poe's 'Helen.' A Negro art school is conducted here and in the restored brick kitchen in the yard.

9. MONTE MARIA ROMAN CATHOLIC CONVENT, E.Grace St. between N.22nd and N.23rd Sts., occupies a group of brick buildings, including an old galleried house built by William Taylor in 1859. The Sisters of the Visitation of Baltimore established themselves here in 1866, altered the interior, and erected a small church.

10. ST.JOHN'S CHURCH (open 8:45-5:30 daily, Sun. for services), E.Broad St. between N.24th and N.25th Sts., is a simple white frame building with a three-tiered square tower over the front entrance. The central part was built in 174 1 on ground given by William Byrd together with 'wood for burning bricks into the bargain.' The church has been enlarged several times. The Second Virginia Convention met in St. John's on March 20, 1775, and heard Patrick Henry rhetorically ask for liberty or death. Among the graves in the churchyard are those of George Wythe (see Williamsburg), the first professor of law in the United States; Elizabeth Arnold Poe, mother of the poet; and Dr.James McClurg, one of Virginia's delegates to the Constitutional Convention in 1787.

McClurg (1746-1823) was born near Hampton and was graduated from the College of William and Mary and from the University of Edinburgh. During the Revolution he served as physician-general and director of hospitals for Virginia and in 1779 was appointed professor of anatomy and medicine at the College of William and Mary. When that chair was discontinued in 1783, he moved to Richmond. Dr.McClurg was the only Virginian at Philadelphia to advocate monarchial forms of government for the United States.

11. CHIMBORAZO PARK, E.Broad St. between 32nd and 35th Sts., a landscaped promontory overlooking the wharves and many of Richmond's largest manufacturing plants, was whimsically named for a mountain in the Andes. In 1862 Dr.James B. McCaw established here a hospital Of 50 buildings and 100 tents-then the largest military hospital in the world. Seventy-six thousand patients were cared for, with a mortality of less than 10 per cent. The park site was purchased by the city in 1874. The stone that once marked Powhatan's grave stands here on the bluff above the site of the old chief's village.

12. The HENRICO COUNTY COURTHOUSE (open 9-5 Mon.-Fri., 9-1 Sat.), SW. corner S. 22nd and E.Main Sts., a red brick building erected in 1896, occupies a half-acre lot deeded for county use to William Randolph in 175, about the time the first courthouse was built here. Henrico, formed in 1634, was one of the eight original counties, and was named for Henry, Prince of Wales. It first embraced a wide area extending westward on both sides of the river.

13. EDGAR ALLAN POE SHRINE (open 9:30-5:30 daily; adm. $0.25), 1916 E.Main St., is a little gray stone cottage with dormers along its gabled roof. Inscribed on the front wall are the letters 'J.R.,' believed to be the initials of 'Jacobus Rex,' James II, King of England. This is apparently the oldest house in Richmond, erected about 1686. Beyond a sheltered garden at the rear is an ivy-covered loggia, built with material salvaged from the Southern Literary Messenger Building, which stood on a corner near by. On exhibition here are many of Poe's manuscripts and other objects associated with his life in Richmond.

14. MASONIC HALL (open by arrangement 9-4:30 Mon.-Fri., 9-1 Sat.), 1805 E.Franklin St., a white frame building, was erected in 785, largely through the efforts of Chief justice John Marshall. It has been occupied by the Masonic order longer than any other building in America. La Fayette was feted here in 1824.

15. The VIRGINIA HISTORICAL SOCIETY HEADQUARTERS (open 9-4:30 Mon.-Fri., 9-1 Sat.), 707 E.Franklin St., is a three-story brick building with a high Doric porch. It dates from 1845 and is typical of prosperous mid-nineteenth-century Richmond dwellings. From 1862 until June 1865 it was the residence of General Lee's family. After Appomattox the defeated hero rode to this house amid the cheers of Union soldiers occupying the city. In its front room he declared, on hearing of Lincoln's assassination, 'This is the hardest blow the South has yet received.'

The Virginia Historical Society has occupied the building since 1892. Organized in 1831 with John Marshall as president, the society has preserved many valuable books, manuscripts, and a large collection of portraits, which are on exhibition in a fireproof addition. These include a portrait of La Fayette by Charles Willson Peale, Thomas Sully's Pocahontas, and a death mask of Lee.

16. ELLEN GLASGOW'S HOUSE (private), 1 W.Main St., is an imposing square gray stuccoed building with deck-roof, built by David Branch about 1839. At the rear is an enclosed formal garden. Ellen Glasgow (1874-) is the author Of 20 novels that deal with aspects of the Virginia scene (see Literature).

17. The CASKIE HOUSE (private), NW. corner E.Main and N-5th Sts., is a two-story octagonal red brick building, the only one of this type in Richmond. It was built about 1815 and was once the home of William Wirt (1772-1834), author and member of counsel in the prosecution of Aaron Burr.

18. SHOCKOE HILL CEMETERY (open 8-5 daily), N. end of 3rd St., a twelve-and-a-half-acre tract sheltered by ancient elms and magnolias and enclosed by a buttressed red brick wall, was used chiefly between 1825 and 1875. Here are buried Peter Francisco, 'Hercules of the American Revolution'; Chief justice John Marshall and his wife, Mary Ambler; Elizabeth Van Lew, whose grave is marked with a Roxbury 'pudding-stone' from Boston's Capitol Hill; Claude Benoit Crozet, French engineer, who built the Afton tunnel - and Jane Craig Stanard, inspiration of Poe's 'To Helen.'

19. The SIXTH MT.ZION BAPTIST CHURCH (open 9-12, 1-5 daily), NE. corner Duval and St.John's Sts., is a red brick structure. Here John jasper, a Negro preacher, acquired a National reputation by his sermon, 'The Sun Do Move and the Earth Am Squaar,' delivered for the first time March 28, 1879. His theme was Joshua's saving of the Gibbonites. jasper would say, 'Dey had an orful fight. . . . but yer might know dat Ginr'l Joshwer wuz not up dar ter git whip't . . . As a fac', Joshwer wuz so drunk wid de bat'l . . . dat he tell de sun ter stan' still tel he cud finish his job. What did de sun do? Did he glar down . . . an' say, "Whatyou talkin''bout my stoppin' for, Joshwer; I ain't navur startid yit . . . ? " Naw, he ain't say dat. But wat de Bible say? It say dat it wuz at de voice uv Joshwer dat it stopped. I don' say it stopt; 'tain't fer jasper ter say dat, but de Bible, de Book uv Gord, say so, But, I say dis; nuthin' kin stop untel it hez fust startid . . . It stopt fur bizniz, an' went on when it got through . . . an I derfies ennybody to say dat my p'int ain't made.' jasper was once offered 400 pounds to go to London, but he refused to forsake his church. A bust of jasper by Edward V. Valentine is in the church.

20. The ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND FINE ARTS OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA (open 10-4:30 weekdays, July and Aug. 10-12 Sat., adm. $0.10), 102 E.Franklin St., occupies a pleasant red brick house in what is known as Linden Row. In 1786 the Chevalier Alexandre Marie Quesnay de Beaurepaire, an enthusiastic young French officer, after ten years of effort founded an academy with this title. A building was erected in Richmond, and the academy was affiliated with the Royal Academy of Sciences and the Paris Royal Academy of Sculpture and Painting. Beaurepaire was recalled to France by the Revolution, and with him went active interest in the academy.

A second institution was established in 1817, with the sponsorship of the Virginia legislature. A building for a Museum of Art and Natural Science was erected on what is now Capitol Square. After 1822, however, interest died, and the collection was publicly auctioned. The Virginia League of Fine Arts was formed in 1918, and the present Academy was chartered in 1930. It led the movement to establish the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts and now sponsors the Federal Art Project in Virginia. Art classes for children and adults are conducted, art exhibitions are held, and a Children's Federal Art Gallery is maintained.

21. The RICHMOND CITY LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays), SE. corner E.Franklin and N. 1st Sts., moved in 1930 into this gray sandstone building of simple contemporary design by Baskerville and Lambert, which has been described as 'an outstanding example of austere beauty combined with practical realization of function.'

The first public library in Richmond, besides the State Library, was opened in 1924 at 901 W.Franklin Street. The present building, containing about 125,000 volumes, was the gift of Mrs.Sallie M. Dooley, as a memorial to her husband, James H. Dooley.

22. The TREDEGAR IRONWORKS, S. end of 6th St., between the Canal and James River, a jumble of blackened brick buildings spread disconsolately over a 25-acre lot and interspersed with heaps of rusty scrap iron, is the oldest plant of its kind south of the Potomac. Business has been carried on here since 1836, the plant having contributed munitions and supplies to the Confederacy and to the United States in all foreign wars since its establishment. Here were rolled the plates that armored the Merrimac-Virginia (see Hampton Roads Port), terror of the Union Navy. The plant is named after Tredegar, England, notable for its ironworks.

23. HOLLYWOOD CEMETERY (open summer 7-6:30, winter 7-5 daily), entrance SW. corner Cherry and Albemarle Sts., a 115-acre tract rising to a bluff overlooking the James, is cut by ravines and thickly set with fine trees. The cemetery was dedicated in 1849 and named for its magnificent holly trees. Among those buried here are John Randolph of Roanoke, Commodore Matthew Fontaine Maury, President Jefferson Davis, Presidents Monroe and Tyler, many Virginia governors, and Confederate officers.

24. The CATHEDRAL OF THE SACRED HEART (open 7-6 daily), in a triangular plot formed by Laurel St., Park and Floyd Aves., is a limestone structure of Italian Renaissance design, with dome and portico, and an ambulatory at one side. The cathedral was built in 1906 with funds donated by Mr. and Mrs.Thomas Fortune Ryan.

25. VIRGINIA UNION UNIVERSITY (Negro), 1500 N.Lombardy St., occupies 15 buildings on a tree-shaded 5 5-acre campus, 8 of them constructed of gray, roughhewn Virginia granite in a modified Romanesque style. This university represents the fusion of four institutions and had a twin beginning in 1865 when the American Baptist Home Mission Society founded in Richmond a theological school for freedmen under Dr.J.C.Binney and the Wayland Seminary in Washington.

The Richmond school, which opened in 1867 under Dr.Nathaniel Colver in Lumpkin's Slave jail, united in 1899 with the Wayland Seminary, which in 1869 had absorbed the National Theological School, founded in Washington in 1865. By act of the Virginia Legislature in 1900, the name was changed to Virginia Union University. In 1932 Hartshorn Memorial College, a Negro woman's college near by, founded in 1883, was co-ordinated with Union University.

The university has two divisions, the Theological Seminary and the College of Arts and Sciences, besides an extension in Norfolk. Enrollment in the college exceeds 550 students, of whom slightly more than half are women; there is a faculty of 30. The library contains about 28,000 books and pamphlets, including the McClay Collection of books by or about Negroes. The bachelor degrees of arts, science, theology, and divinity are conferred. Nearly 2,000 graduates include such Negro leaders as Eugene Kinckle Jones, T.Arnold Hill, Charles S. Johnson, Dr.Joshua B. Simpson, and Dr.Bessie B. Tharps.

26. UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY (Presbyterian), Chamberlayne Ave. between Melrose and Westwood Aves., occupying 11 brick buildings around an open lawn, was founded in 1812 at Hampden-Sydney and was moved to Richmond in 1898. The enrollment in 1937-38 was 163.

The GENERAL ASSEMBLY'S TRAINING SCHOOL FOR LAY WORKERS, 3400 Brook Road, quartered in two large buildings of pink brick with light stone trim in early Federal style, erected in 1922, was established in 1914 by the Presbyterian general assembly. Bachelor and master degrees in religious education have been conferred since 1933. The enrollment in 1937-38 was 91.

MONUMENT AVENUE, a continuation of W.Franklin St., the most fashionable residential street in the city, is a tree-shaded thoroughfare with a central parkway of grass and shrubs, dotted with statues of distinguished Virginians.

27. The J.E.B.STUART MONUMENT, at Lombardy St., a dramatic equestrian bronze of the great cavalry leader, was executed by Fred Moynihan and erected in 1907.

28. The LEE MONUMENT, at Allen Ave., a bronze figure of the general upon his horse, Traveller, stands on an ornate stone pedestal. The monument was unveiled by Lee's West Point classmate and friend, General Joseph E. Johnston, in 1890. Because the sculptor, Jean Antoine Mercie, thought 'the brow of Lee too noble to be hidden under a hat,' this was the first equestrian statue with bared head erected in the United States.

29. The bronze JEFFERSON DAVIS MONUMENT, at Davis Ave., portrays the Confederate President in an oratorical pose, backed by an open, semicircular colonnade and a classical column supporting an allegorical female figure. This work of Edward V. Valentine was unveiled in 1907.

30. The STONEWALL JACKSON MONUMENT, at Boulevard, designed by F.William Sievers and dedicated in 1919, is a bronze figure of the general astride his horse, Little Sorrel.

31. The COMMODORE MATTHEW FONTAINE MAURY MONUMENT, at Belmont Ave., is a bronze figure of Maury, in a chair below a massive bronze globe.

32. The JAMES BRANCH CABELL HOUSE (private), 3201 Monument Ave., home of the author, is a brown stone building. James Branch Cabell (1879- ) has written 30 books, including satirical fiction and essays. Since 1929 he has been writing under the name of Branch Cabell (see Literature).

33. The CONFEDERATE MEMORIAL INSTITUTE or BATTLE ABBEY (open 10-5 weekdays, 2:30-5:30 Sun.; adm. 250), N.Boulevard between Kensington and Stuart Aves., set in landscaped grounds of six acres, is an oblong, windowless building of white marble with a tall Ionic portico, completed in 1913. Charles 'Broadway' Rouss of New York, a Confederate veteran, donated $100,000 in 1896 toward such a building. The State of Virginia appropriated $50,000, and various contributions made up a total to equal the initial donation. The institute houses a large collection of portraits of Southern heroes and is distinguished also by the mural series of the French artist, Charles Hoffbauer, depicting Confederate battle scenes. Hoffbauer made preliminary sketches in 1914 before his enlistment in the French army, destroyed them upon his return, and enriched by personal knowledge of war painted the present murals.

34. The CONFEDERATE SOLDIERS' HOME (open 9-5 daily), N.Boulevard between Stuart and Grove Aves., a group of six frame buildings, comprises a chapel, hall, museum, two cottages, and a combination hospital and mess hall. It was founded in 1884 for disabled Confederate veterans. In 1936, because its original 300 inmates had dwindled to 17, eight buildings were razed. Now (1939) only seven old soldiers remain. Little Sorrel, 'Stonewall' Jackson's horse, has been mounted and placed in the museum. A cannon used in Fort Sumter's defense stands lonely guard over a lawn shaded by oaks and sycamores.

35. HOME FOR CONFEDERATE WOMEN (private), 301 N.Sheppard St., is a white stone building of modified French Renaissance style. The central section, with an Ionic portico, is connected by solaria to its wings. Chartered in 1896 to care for needy daughters, widows, mothers, or sisters of Confederate soldiers, the home has been twice moved. The present building, first occupied in 1932, has accommodations for 7 5.

36. The VIRGINIA MUSEUM OF FINE ARTS (open 9:30-5 Tues.Sal., adm. $0.25; 2-5:30 Sun., adm. free), NW. corner N.Boulevard and Grove Ave., is a pink brick building of modified Federal architecture. It is the first unit of a building that will be much larger. Built in 1934 after a $100,000 gift by judge John Barton Payne and another of $100,000 from I I sponsors, the museum has a notable permanent collection, the nucleus of which is the John Barton Payne collection presented to the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1919, containing a Del Sarto, a Rubens, a Murillo, a Canaletto, a Reynolds, and others. judge Payne also bequeathed $50,000 for the purchase of paintings by American artists. On indefinite loan is the Henry P. Strause collection of clocks, gold, and silverplate. The museum sponsors lectures, special exhibitions, research, and restoration work.

37. WILLIAM BYRD PARK, entrance S. end of Boulevard, is a 300 acre recreation area with roads through peaceful groves and around three artificial lakes, in one of which a fountain is colorfully lighted at night. The park dates from 1874, when the city council bought 60 acres for a reservoir. It has bathing, tennis, and other athletic facilities. In the southwest corner is Virginia's memorial to World War dead, the CARILLON, a 240400t tower of pink brick, designed in Georgian Colonial style. Erected in 1932, it contains 66 bells, cast in England, that are seldom played. On the ground floor is a MUSEUM OF WORLD WAR RELICS (open 10-12, 2-4 weekdays, 3-5 Sun; adm. free).

A bronze STATUE OF CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, by Feruccio Legnaioli, is in the northwest section of the park.

38. REVEILLE (private), Cary Street Rd. between Lafayette St. and Woodlawn Ave., is a tall, white-painted brick house of simple eighteenth-century design, rambling back into a large garden with box-bordered flower beds. When built, it was a plantation house far outside the city. Tradition attributes its title to the Revolutionary period, but the name is not found in deed books earlier than 1852.

39. VIRGINIA HOUSE (private), S. side Sulgrave Rd. in Windsor Farms, is a large gabled Tudor manor house of brownstone surrounded by English gardens. Alexander Weddell, ambassador to Spain, brought materials for the house from Warwick Priory, Warwick, England, and reconstructed the house on this site in 1925. Eventually the Virginia Historical Society will be housed here.

40. AGECROFT HALL (private), S. side Sulgrave Rd. in Windsor Farms, a Tudor mansion of plaster and half-timber construction, was built about 1490 and later enlarged, in Lancashire, England, and reconstructed on its present site in 1926-28.

41. AMPTHILL (private), S. end Ampthill Rd. off Cary Street Rd., is the stolid red brick house built by one of the Henry Carys-father or son (see Williamsburg). The hip-roof central section is flanked by gable-roofed wings. Exterior detail is severe, but the full interior paneling is handsomely designed. Before being moved in 1929-30 the main house and its formerly detached buildings stood beside Falling Creek, on the south bank of the James. Built many years before 1732-if its then obsolete bonding be taken as evidence-the house appears to have been enlarged subsequently. The interior woodwork and the outhouses probably date from about 1750-60, during the ownership of Archibald Cary, chairman of the committee that directed the Virginia members of the Continental Congress in 1776 to move for independence. 42. WILTON (open 9-5 weekdays, 9-12, 3-6 Sun.; adm. 250), S. end Wilton Rd. off Cary Street Rd., built by William Randolph III about 1750 on the north bank of the James six miles below Richmond, is a well proportioned brick mansion. A broad hip roof raises its plain surfaces between tall end chimneys. The entrance doors, framed by Ionic pilasters, and a crowning cornice are the chief exterior ornaments. The interior is fully paneled and has been refurnished in the style of the period. Beneath the cornice of a bedroom is inscribed: 'Sampson Darrell put up this Cornish in the year of our Lord 1753.' The house was moved to this site in 1935 and restored.

43. The UNIVERSITY OF RICHMOND, College Rd. W. of Three Chopt Rd., is housed in 16 buildings scattered in groups over nearly 300 acres of rolling ground. The T.C.Williams School of Law, founded 1870, and the Evening School of Business Administration, founded 1924, branches of the University, are in downtown Richmond.

The light red brick buildings of Richmond College, to the northeast, are designed in various styles of architecture ranging from modern to Collegiate Gothic. A nine-acre artificial lake separates this campus from that of WESTHAMPTON COLLEGE, where red brick buildings of Collegiate Gothic style were designed by Ralph Adams Cram. On a steep slope above the lake, screened by great oaks is the LUTHER H. JENKINS OUTDOOR THEATER.

Apparently the first organized movement b the Baptists for he new commonwealth began in 1788, when a committe of 10 was organized to 'forward the business respecting the seminary of learning.,' but, after 21 years, the project was given up because of lack of funds. The attempt was renewed in 1830 with the formation of an 'Educational Society,' and in 1832 the Virginia Baptist Seminary was founded, with Robert Ryland as principal and sole teacher and with fourteen theological students. In 1840 the institution was chartered as Richmond College. Almost destroyed and closed by the war, it was reopened in 1866. Coeducation was begun in 1898, with the matriculation of four young women.

Westhampton, a separate women's college, was founded in 1914 to come within the University of Richmond, which was created by charter several years later. At the same time the Baptist Women's College of Richmond, an independent school, turned its property over to the new organization. The modern plant has been constructed since 1914.

The university libraries house about 67000 volumes. Bachelor and master degrees in arts and science and LL.B. degrees are conferred. The total enrollment (1939), including the schools of law and business administration, a summer school, and the graduate department, is about 1, 500.

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS

Du Pont de Nemours Manufacturing Plant, 6.7 m. (see Tour 1c). Seven Pines Battlefield, 8.5 m. (see Tour 8a). Mechanicsville and the National Battlefield Park Route, 6.5 m. (see Tour 20a). Fort Harrison, Park Headquarters and Museum, 8.9 m. (see Tour 24).

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