Tour 4

(Washington,D.C.)-Fairfax-Warrenton-Culpeper-Charlottesville- Lovingston-Amherst-Lynchburg-Danville--(Greensboro,N.C.). US 29.

District of Columbia Line to North Carolina Line, 254.2 m.

Paved roadbed throughout-chiefly asphalt with long stretches of concrete. Southern Ry. parallels route roughly throughout. All types of accommodations.

West of the Virginia suburbs of Washington for about 50 miles US 29 follows an almost straight line through rolling farm country where the inhabitants are engaged principally in dairying, the breeding and training of horses, and in fox hunting. Then curving almost directly south, it wanders among Blue Ridge foothills-a country of fertile farms, apple orchards, and pastures for beef cattle. Plantation homes and villages, established here as settlement flowed westward from the Tidewater in the early part of the eighteenth century, have a seasoned flavor. The southern third of the route passes through tobacco country.

Section a. POTOMAC RIVER to WARRENTON; 42.5 m. US 29-US 211

Beyond a thickly populated suburban section US 29 traverses an extensive battlefield area.

US 29 crosses the District of Columbia Line at the south end of Key Bridge in ROSSLYN, 0 m. (1,500 pop.), a business and residential town. At 0.4 tn. is a junction with State 237.

Left on this road is AURORA HEIGHTS, 0.8 m., one of the many residential communities along the south side of the Potomac. On North Uhle Street is ARLINGTON COURTHOUSE, a porticoed brick building on a green.

Arlington County, ceded to the Federal Government in 1789 as part of the District of Columbia and returned to Virginia in 1846, is small but densely populated. First called Alexandria for its biggest city, it in 1920 took the name of the Custis-Lee estate (see Tour 12).

CHERRYDALE, 1.9 m. (6,000 pop.), closely built up, with homes of Government workers, whose bungalows rise among a hodgepodge of business places.

Right from Cherrydale on a military road to a junction with State 9, 2.3 m., by the remains of FORT ETHAN ALLEN (L), erected during the War between the States to guard the approaches to Chain Bridge.

Right on State 9, 0.8 m., to the SITE OF THE CLAY-RANDOLPH DUEL (L), the outcome of John Randolph's tirade on the floor of the Senate against Henry Clay's acceptance of the post as Secretary of State under John Quincy Adams. The duel took place April, 1826. When the duelists appeared, the tall thin Randolph was dressed in a large flowing coat, the kind often used by duelists to throw off an opponent's aim. When Randolph's pistol was discharged prematurely, he was given another. At the command both men fired and missed. With fresh weapons they again faced each other. Clay fired and missed. Randolph, who had deliberately waited, raised his pistol in the air, fired, and advanced with hand outstretched. Clay met him halfway.

At 3.1 m. on US 29 is a junction with State 9.

Right on this road to the WASHINGTON GOLF AND COUNTRY CLUB (R), 0.8 m., an 18-hole course.

FALLS CHURCH, 5.7 m. (364 alt., 3,800 pop.), is a pleasant suburban community with comfortable-looking homes and well-kept grounds.

The FALLS CHURCH is an austere, rectangular block with an unbroken hip roof. Surrounded by a large grassy yard, the walls in Flemish bond with blackened headers rise from a wide water table to a bold cornice with widely-spaced dentils. The windows of the upper tier have round arches of rubbed brick, those below, similar flat arches. Especially notable is the classical wood enframement of the door at the center of the long side, and the molded brick pilasters and pediment framing the door. This church, of Fairfax Parish, was erected in 1767-69 on the site of a structure built in 1734 by Colonel Richard Blackburn of Rippon Lodge, 'a builder of skill.' During the Revolution it was a military recruiting station. After the disestablishment of the Church of England, it was abandoned until 1830. During the War between the States it was used as a hospital and later a stable for cavalry horses. After the war, Congress appropriated $I,300 for its rehabilitation.

In Falls Church is a junction with State 7 (see Tour 13).

Left from Falls Church on County 649 to OSSIAN HALL (R), 6 m. This white frame house, flanked by boxwood and oak trees, was built on the Ravensworth estate before the Revolution as in overseer's house. After 1804 it was the home of Dr.David Stuart, who in 1783 married Eleanor Calvert, widow of John Parke Custis-Washington's stepson.

At 6.4 m. is a junction with County 620; R. here 0.3 m. to RAVENSWORTH (L), once an estate covering 35 square miles. A white stuccoed brick bam formally designed and one other building are an that remain of the old plantation buildings. The Ravensworth estate was acquired in 1695 by William Fitzhugh (1651-1701)- In 1830, the estate passed to Mrs.Robert E. Lee. General Lee's mother died here, his wife came here after leaving Arlington in 1861, and W.H.F.Lee died here in 1891.

At 12 m. are junctions with US 50, with which US 29 unites for 2.9 m. (see Tour 12), and with State 237.

Left 2 tn. on State 237 to State 236; R. here to FAIRFAX, 2.2. m. (640 POP.), seat of Fairfax County, a compact village.

The COURTHOUSE, a red brick rectangle with gabled roof, arcaded loggia, and a cupola, is within a stone-walled green. It was built in 18oo when the county seat was moved from Alexandria. The wills of George and Martha Washington are displayed in a wing added in 1929. Fairfax County was formed from Prince William in 1742 and named for Thomas, Lord Fairfax. On the court green is CAPTAIN JOHN Q. MARR MONUMENT, honoring a soldier thought to have been the first Confederate to die in battle. The MOSBY-STOUGHTON HOUSE, now the Episcopal rectory, was the quarters of General Edwin H. Stoughton in 1863. March 8, in the dead of the night, the general was awakened by a spanking. Colonel John S. Mosby and 29 of his partisans had stolen through Federal lines, captured pickets and horses, and ended their episode by playing havoc with the commanding officer's dignity. The escapade ended with the officer's capture.

The ANTONIA FORD HOUSE, a remodeled brick building that dates from about 1800, was the home of a charming Confederate who entertained Federal officers to spy on them. Major Joseph C. Willard arrested her for supplying information to Mosby. He delivered the lady to a Federal prison, but later worked for her release and eventually married her.

The FAIRFAX FEDERAL ART GALLERY, sponsored by the Fairfax County Art Guild, was opened in the Fairfax Elementary School on December 12, 1938.

At 3.1 m. State 237-State 236 rejoins US 29 (see below).

On US 29, at 14.9 m., are junctions with US 50 and State 236 (see above). CENTERVILLE, 20.3 m. (24 alt., 100 pop.), was the center of war activities in 1861 and 1862. General Irvin McDowell concentrated his Union army here prior to and during the First Battle of Manassas, and here General Joseph E. Johnston and his Confederates spent the following winter.

Between Centerville and US 15-29, State 28-233-295 provides an alternate and shorter route, by-passing Warrenton (see Tour Key Map).

Left from Centerville on State 28 to MANASSAS, 7 m. (3 12 alt., 1, 2 15 pop.), one long business street, several blocks of closely built houses and stores, and a wide outer fringe of well-spaced dwellings on landscaped lawns that lend a suburban atmosphere. The seat of Prince William since 1893, Manassas has grown from a railroad junction, which gave its name to two battles, into a trading center for a populous farming siren.

The PRINCE WILLIAM COURTHOUSE a red brick structure in a park, is surrounded by numerous monuments, cannon, and pyramids of shells. This courthouse, completed 111 1893, was the fifth for the county. Prince William County, formed in 1730 from Stafford and King George, embraced all the backwoods of the Northern Neck proprietary.

1. Left from Manassas 0.5 tn. on County 612 to County 614; L. here to County 61S, 1.8 m.; L. again to a farm lane, 2 m.; L. here to SIGNAL HILL (L), 2.1 m., on which was erected the signal tower used during the First Battle of Manassas. On the hill are the remains of earthworks and emplacements for 16 cannon.

2. Left from Manassas on State 234 to County 649,2.4 m.; R. here 3 m. to BRENTSVILLE (75 POP-), seat of Prince William County from 1822 to 1893. The old brick courthouse is now a community center. Brentsville is at the apex of the Brent Town Tract, a grant Of 30,000 acres made to George Brent, Richard Foote, Robert Bristow, and Nicholas Hayward in 1686 by James II, last Roman Catholic King of England (see Tour 1a). Brent Town was a sanctuary for people of an creeds, and a real-estate venture. On State 234 at 3.6 m. is LAKE JACKSON (fishing, cabins, picnicking facilities), formed by a hydroelectric dam on Occoquan Run. The lake, though privately owned, has been stocked by the State with bass and trout. On the bluff overlooking the dam is a small but exact reproduction of Arlington Mansion.

3. Right from Manassas on State 234 to a shale road, 5.9 m., leading to HENRY HILL (see below).

At 11.6 m. on State 28 is a junction with County 619.

1. Right here 1.9 m. to LINTON HALL MILITARY ACADEMY (R), a Roman Catholic school for boys, established in 1894 and housed in several large brick buildings on a I,700-acre campus.

2. Left 0.8 m. on County 619 to BRISTOW (203 alt., 40 pop.), where Jackson cut Pope's communications on August 26, 1862. At 13.2 m. from Centerville on State 28 is a junction with County 645; L. here 1.9 m. to County 653; L. again 1.7 m. to PARK GATE (L), a small frame house believed to have been built before 175o. The rear one-story wing is a later addition. The house was once the home of Thomas Lee, eldest son of Richard Henry Lee.

On County 645, at 4.8 m. from State 233, is a junction with County 607; here (R) is PILGRIM'S REST, a square, two-story frame house with gabled roof. Heavy beaded pine clapboards cover the house. The dining room is paneled in pine, and the other interior woodwork is simple. Pilgrim's Rest was built about 17 50 by Richard Foote.

At 19.4 m. from Centerville on State 28 is CATLETT (200 pop.), a small railroad community where, on August 22, 1862, General J.E.B.Stuart raided General John Pope's headquarters, seizing Pope's personal effects and capturing a number of staff officers. 1. Right on County 649 to County 602, 0.4 m.; R. here to the SITE OF GERMANTOWN (R), 0.9 m., settled in 172o by the Siegenian contingent of the Germanna Colony (see Tour 3b). The ruins of several houses and a long neglected graveyard filled with undecipherable tombstones are all that remain.

At odds with Governor Spotswood and perhaps with the Alsatian Lutherans, who had joined them in 17 17, the Germanna miners, all members of the Evangelical Reformed Church, decided to move elsewhere. In 1718 they received a warrant for 1,8o5 acres of land lying on both sides of Licking Run. Agreeing to share equally the purchase price of the tract, the group of 12 Siegenians divided the land into 12 parts of ISO acres each and two years later, with their wives and children, 'packed all their provisions on their heads' and trekked over the Iroquois Trail to their new home. Their first crops flourished; 'in a few years they had large stocks of tame and very large cattle.' Concentration on tobacco followed; the profitable leaves started on their way to the Falmouth market over the German Rolling Road, which the settlers had constructed.

The village of the ex-miners grew apace, its spiritual needs cared for by Henry Haeger (1644-1738), 'minister of the Germans in Virginia.' In the spring Of 1748, Matthew G. Gottschalk, the Moravian minister who visited Germantown, wrote:' It is like a village in Germany where the houses are far apart.' But already the settlers had begun to disperse. In 1746 part of the land was sold and by the time the Revolution arrived, Germantown as a settlement had ceased to exist.

2. Left from State 295 on County 649 to a lane, 0.6 m.; L. here through two gates and to a tall, conical stone marker, 1.2 m., indicating the SITE OF TIM MARSHALL HOUSE, birthplace of John Marshall (1755-1835), Chief justice of the U.S.Supreme Court (1755-1835). His father, Thomas Marshall, a surveyor who became in time one of Fauquier's leading citizens, acquired this land on Licking Run about 1754. The first of nine children, John Marshall, lived here in a pioneer environment until I 775P when his family moved west to Goose Creek.

At 29.4 m. from Centerville on State 28 Is a junction with State 17 (see Tour 1a), and at 31.4 m. is a junction with US 15-US 29 (see Tour 3b).

The NATIONAL BATTLEFIELD MUSEUM (adm. 50 cents), 24.4 m., a long, onestory white painted brick building (R), has a collection of war relics, including bullets, shells, uniforms, arms, and various bits of equipment.

At the STONE BRIDGE (R), 24.5 m., the First Battle of Manassas began on July 21, 1861. Along the stream here--Bull Run-and the hills to the west, the first major battle of the War between the States was fought.

Commanded by Generals Joseph E. Johnston and P.G.T.Beauregard, the Confederate army was south of the bridge when General Irvin McDowell attacked here with one division and sent two other divisions three miles north to sweep down Bull Run in a flank attack. A Confederate observer six miles south signalled by wigwag and the Confederates were able to hold McDowell on Matthews Hill until late in the morning, when they fell back to the turnpike. There, reinforced, they held McDowell for two hours until forced to withdraw to Henry Hill. It was here that General Barnard E. Bee exclaimed, 'There stands Jackson like a stone wall.' The Confederates rallied, held their position while reinforcements were hurried forward, and two hours later drove the Federals from the hill. Again on the turnpike, McDowell's lines were broken and, in his own words, 'The retreat soon became a rout, and this degenerated into a panic.'

The STONE HOUSE (R), 25.5 m., a well-preserved two-story building of brown sandstone, served as a hospital for both Union and Confederate soldiers. It was used by John Esten Cooke for a ghostly episode in his novel, Surry of Eagle's Nest.

1. Right from the Stone House on State 234 to MATTHEWS HILL (R), I m., where a small force from the Stone Bridge was posted to delay McDowell's flank movement.

2. Left from the Stone House on State 234 to a shale road, 0.3 m.; L. here 0.4 M. to HENRY HILL, on which there are numerous markers that indicate battle maneuvers. The possession of Henry Hill gave victory to the Confederate army in the First Battle of Manassas and largely determined the fate of a retreating Federal army August 30, 1862, in the Second Battle of Manassas.

The fighting of August 30, 1862, is sometimes designated the Second Battle of Manassas, but the designation is more generally applied to the fighting from August 28 to 30, 1862.

The rebuilt HENRY HOUSE (adm. free), a small two-story frame building here on the hill, is now a museum, containing many battlefield relics. Badly damaged during both battles, the house was later demolished. Mrs.Henry, an 85-year-old invalid and widow of Dr.Isaac Henry, was killed by a shell during the first battle.

On State 234 is MANASSAS, 6.2 m. (see above).

At 26.8 m. is the GROVETON CONFEDERATE CEMETERY (R), with monuments to regiments that fought in this vicinity. Near by are other war memorials.

The DOGAN HOUSE (R), 27 m., a small barnlike frame structure, was in the center of fighting during the Second Battle of Manassas, August 29- 1862. This battle brought to a close a series of events that gave victory to a co-ordinated Confederate army and defeat to a confused and misdirected Federal army.

General John Pope, confused by Confederate tactics to relieve Richmond, scattered his army and exhausted his cavalry. He ordered it successively to Warrenton, Gainesville, Manassas, and Centerville, and finally concentrated it at Groveton. Orders were delayed and lost. He refused for days to believe that Jackson was in his rear or to acknowledge the presence of Lee and Longstreet, despite Porter's protest, until he was finally defeated and routed, with Longstreet in pursuit. He ordered a pursuit of Jackson while Jackson lay in wait for him to attack. He lost his communications

at Bristow, a vast store of supplies at Manassas, and his personal papers at Catlett's Station. And, as a climax, he centered blame on Fitz-John Porter. With an initial force equal to Lee's-about 50,000 men-he was thwarted in his attempts to derive material aid from McClellan's 100,000 men, who were hurried to him by way of the Potomac River. General George H. Gordon, under Pope, stated that the army fought gloriously, but that 'Whipped in detail should be Pope's epitaph.'

During the two days of battle Jackson's corps, in an abandoned railroad cut to the north, withstood repeated Federal assaults by Pope, now commanding 75,000 men, while Longstreet, to the south, was ignored until his artillery, with an enfilading fire, broke the final charge. Routed and pursued by Longstreet, the defeated troops streamed down the same road followed one year before by McDowell's defeated army.

In GAINESVILLE, 30.4 m. (357 alt., 100 pop.), on August 28, 1862, a battle was brought on by Jackson to prevent the Federal army from concentrating east of Bull Run.

In Gainesville is a junction with State 55 (see Tour 4A).

BUCK-LAND, 34.1 m. (50 POP.), founded in 1798, manages to preserve a bustling air, though it has now only a small mill. To the Moss HOUSE, a small century-old building, Mrs. Moss, wife of the clerk of Fairfax County, brought the county records, including the volume that contained George Washington's will, during the War between the States.

'Buckland Races' is the common name of an engagement of October 19, 1863, between the cavalry forces of General J.E.B.Stuart and General H.J.Kilpatrick. The Federals abandoned all equipment and fled to their lines at Gainesville.

At NEW BALTIMORE, 36.8 m. 100 pop.), is the BROAD RUN BAPTIST CHURCH (L), a frame building erected in 1870. Prior to 1782 this congregation, organized in 1762, included in its membership Nancy Hanks and Luke Hanks, believed to have been the parents of Lincoln's mother, Nancy Hanks.

At 40.2 m. is a junction with County 605, once a section of the Dumfries-Winchester Road. Over this road George Washington, in 1748, accompanied George William Fairfax, to begin surveys of Fairfax lands.

Left here to County 670 5 m.; R. 1.1 m. to AUBURN (26 pop.), at a junction with County 602, the old Caroline Road. AUBURN MILL, a stone mill on Cedar Run, is said to date from 1712, though a partly obliterated date on a stone in the wall may be 1742. Auburn was the home of the McCormick family, of harvester fame.

At 41.3 m. US 29 forks to a by-pass around Warrenton.

WARRENTON, 42.5 m. (63 5 alt., 1,450 POP.) (see Tour 22), is at junctions with US 211 (see Tour 22) and with US 15 (see Tour 3a), with which US 29 coincides for 24.9 miles

Section b. CULPEPER to CHARLOTTESV.TLLE; 44.8 m. US 29

South of Culpeper the highway traverses the middle Piedmont, through apple orchards, farms, and fields of dark tobacco.

CULPEPER, 0 m. (423 alt., 2,379 POP.) is at the southern junction with US 15.

BRIGHTWOOD, 12.3 m. (55 POP.), specializes in the manufacture of hickory-rod shipping containers for chickens. A local manufacturer of grain cradles originated this type of coop in 1885, but failed to patent his device.

At 16.6 m. is a junction with State 16.

Right on this road to a junction with County 603, 1 m.; R. here I m. to HEBRON CHURCH (L), a frame T-shaped building with gabled roofs and simple ornamentation. The main part was built in 1740 by the Lutheran congregation; the transept was added in 1802. The communion silver service bears the dates 1727 and 729. The pipe organ, encased in soft and hard wood, was made at Lititz, Pennsylvania, in 1802. The church was founded by Germans, who migrated from Germanna (see Tour 3b) and settled in this community in 1724.

At 5 tn. on State 16 is a junction with State 231; L. here 2 tn. to County 649, and L. to the HOOVER CAMP, 9.6 m. This vacation retreat of President Herbert Hoover is now in Shenandoah National Park.

MADISON, 17.1 m. (430 POP.), the seat and principal commercial center of Madison County, is strung out along one street. The community was established when a log courthouse was built here in 1793, the year in which William Wirt (1772-1834) began his practice of law here. He became attorney general under Monroe and John Quincy Adams and a prosecutor of Aaron Burr (1807). Wirt was the author of several books, of which The Letters of the British Spy (1803) is the best known.

The COURTHOUSE, of red brick, has an arcaded front, and an octagonal cupola above the gabled roof. Built in 1820, this courthouse shows architectural forms much used in the previous century. Thinly settled Madison County, formed in 1792, was taken from Culpeper and named for James Madison.

Three Madison buildings bear the mark of some enterprising workmen, who added novelty to the conventional brick work of a century ago. Laying alternate courses of brick slightly off center, the experimenter changed the usual Flemish bond pattern. These buildings are the OLD MASONIC HALL AND CAVE HOME, erected in 1834 as the Washington Hotel; the HARRISON HOME, built about 1823; and the PIEDMONT EPISCOPAL CHURCH, built in 1834.

Left from Madison on State 230 to the MADISON COUNTY HOMESTEADS (L), 1 m., a Resettlement Administration Project. The 16 frame farm houses built on 15- to 40-acre tracts by the Federal Government are in sharp contrast to the dwellings from which their occupants have been removed. These mountain folk from the Shenandoah National Park area have left log-bodied, mud-daubed cabins in remote coves for attractive four- to six-room houses, well-built and wired for electricity.

RUCKERSVILLE, 29 m. (108 pop.) (see Tour 9), is at the junction with US 33 (see Tour 9).

At 39.6 m. is a junction with County 643.

Left here to BENTIVAR (R), 1.9 m., a square brick house, one story above an English basement. Bentivar was erected about 1795 by Garland Carr. Double floors enclose a layer of sand as a means of fire prevention.

On the lowlands below the house was the Indian village Monasukapanough, which, though never visited by white men, was indicated on early maps. Here was the Indian burial mound that Thomas Jefferson investigated and described in his Notes on Virginia.

CARRSBROOK (L), 40.4 m., is a two-story house with one-story wings; it was built about 1794 by Peter Carr, whose father, Dabney Carr, had married Thomas Jefferson's sister, Martha. In 1773 Dabney Carr introduced the resolution to put into effect Richard Henry Lee's idea for establishing the Committee of Correspondence that co-ordinated Colonial resistance. Af ter his death, his son Peter became the ward of Thomas Jefferson, served as Jefferson's secretary, and was prominent in the founding of the University of Virginia.

At 43.8 m. is a junction with County 654.

Right on this road to County 601, 2.4 m.; R. here to a junction with County 658, 4.1 m.; R. here to THE BARRACKS (R), 5.4 m., a large square brick house with double end chimneys, built in 18io on the site of the prison camp to which British and Hessian prisoners were brought following the Battle of Saratoga. Colonel John Harvie, a member of the Continental Congress, was able to have the prison camp established on his lands. The prisoners arrived in midwinter of 1779. Many complaints were, made of the hardships to which they were subjected. Before the camp was abolished in October 1780, many prisoners had escaped to the mountains--400 at one time-where they remained and intermarried with the inhabitants.

CHARLOTTESVILLE, 44.8 m. (480 alt., 15,245 POP-) (see Charlottesville).

In Charlottesville are junctions with US 250 (see Tour 17a), State 239 (see Tour 23), and County 613 (see Tour 10).

Section c. CHARLOTTESVILLE to NORTH CAROLINA LINE; 142 m. US 29

South of Charlottesville, the highway passes through the foothills just east of the Blue Ridge, and then descends to the flattened South Piedmont. Apple and peach orchards along the route mingle with farms and vineyards, then give way to lands producing bright leaf tobacco.

South of the junction with US 250 in CHARLOTTESVILLE, 0 m., is a junction with Frye's Spring Road, 1.1 m.

Left here to County 1014, 0.4 m.; R. to County 631, 1.6 m. and R. again to BALLY-LES-BRADEN (R), 2.5 m., a three-story brick house with a lower rear wing. As Tudor Grove, this was the childhood home of Colonel John S. Mosby, the Confederate partisan leader. His force, with which he harassed large bodies of troops, did not average more than 200 men. Left here to EDGEMONT (R), 6 m. (see Tour 23).

At 21.1 m. on US 29 is a junction with State 6.

Left here to State 6-Y, 6 m.; R. here 2 m. to SCHUYLER (700 pop.), where quarrying and processing of soapstone is the chief occupation. The stratum of soapstone extends about 30 miles. Soapstone is highly refractory, a good insulator, impervious to water, and unaffected by acids and alkalis.

LOVINGSTON, 32 m. (330 POP.), seat of Nelson County, is a one-street community in the center of a large apple-raising area.

The brick COURTHOUSE with arcaded front entrance, cupola, and a gabled roof, was erected in 1808.

At 32.5 m. is a junction with State 56.

Left here to County 626, 11.8 m.; L. here 2.9 m. to County 604.

I. Right on County 604 to WARMINSTER (36 pop.), 0.2 m., where in the middle of the eighteenth century Dr. William Cabell, first of the Virginia Cabells, established a terminal for batteaux carrying inland produce down the river.

2. Left on County 604 to EDGEWOOD 0.1 m., once the home of Joseph Carrington Cabell (1776-1856). The frame house, enlarged soon after Cabell bought it from Robert Rives in 1807, has an unusual charm rather than architectural distinction. Facing a neat grove of trees, the oldest part-altered considerably-is the bar of a double H. It opens onto small verandas at front and back and is linked to side wings by onestory passages. 'Jeffersonian' staircases are tucked out of view in the wings. Near by rises the top of an old circular icehouse of brick with a conical roof. A member of the Board of Visitors of the University of Virginia from the beginning in 1818, Cabell was twice rector, the second time from 1845 until his death in 1856.

On State 56 is WINGINA, 13.9 m., a railroad station and store at a bridge across the James River.

Right from Wingina 0.4 m. on County 647 to SOLDIER'S joy, constructed by Colonel Samuel J. Cabell shortly after the Revolution. The house was more than 140 feet in length but is now reduced to half its original size. Colonel Cabell (1756-1818) was congressman from 1795 to 1803

On County 647 is UNION HILL (R), 1.9 m. a large square frame house built in 1775 by Colonel William Cabell as the seat of a 25,000-acre estate. Here the Hanover Presbytery met November 1774 and prepared a petition to the house of burgesses asking that the 11772 Act of Toleration be amended to allow dissenters 'free exercise of our religion, without molestation or danger of incurring any penalty whatever.' June 5, 1781, the Virginia assembly and Governor Thomas Jefferson, in flight from British raiders under Tarleton, stopped here.

At 41.1 m. on US 29 is a junction with County 674.

Left here to County 665, 1.4 m.; L. to ROSE MILL (R), 1.5 m., a stone and timber structure that was designated as a landmark at the division of Amherst Parish, 1778. It was owned by descendants of the Reverend Mr. Robert Rose, who came to Virginia about 17 25 and took up great tracts of land.

At 42.1 m. on US 29 is a junction with State 151

Right here to State 56, 2.6 m.; L. here 2 m. to MASSIES MILL (200 pop.), a shopping center.

Left from Massies Mill 1.7 m. on County 666 to County 679; R. to LEVEL GREEN (L), 1.8 m., erected in 1801 by Major Thomas Massie, who delivered Washington's oral orders to his second in command, General Charles Lee, for the attack on General Clinton with full force at Monmouth Courthouse, New Jersey.

On State 56 at 4.3 m. is a junction with County 680; L. here 1.6 m. to PHARSALIA (R), on a hill among a heavy growth of foliage. The weatherboarded house has a small pedimented portico and a large addition that forms the stem of a T. Pharsalia, built in 1814, was Major Massie's wedding gift to his son William.

State 56 continues to TYRO MILL (L), 50 1 tn., a log structure, now metal-covered,built by William Massie in 1820. Many parts of the old wooden machinery are still used.

Straight ahead from the mill on County 655 to CRABTREE FALLS, 12 m., where the South Fork of the Tye River tumbles 2,000 feet in a series of cascades. The VIRGINIA CHEMICAL COMPANY PLANT and the SOUTHERN MINERAL PRODUCTS CORPORATION PLANT, both at 43.6 m., extract ilmenite and apatite from nelsonite, rock having a high content of titanium-phosphorus.

CLIFFORD, 48.7 m. (105 pop.), incorporated as Cabellsburg in 1785 and later known as New Glasgow, was for a short time the seat of Amherst County.

ST.MARK'S EPISCOPAL CHURCH, a simple rectangular brick building, was built about 1808.

The GRAVE OF SARAH WINSTON HENRY, mother of Patrick Henry, is on the grounds Of WINTON, a large, white, well-preserved building on landscaped grounds. Mrs. Henry died here in 1784 at the home of her son-in-law, Colonel Samuel Meredith. So great was Colonel Meredith's esteem for his mother-in-law that he asked to be buried at her feet.

Left from Clifford on County 61o to TUSCULUM (R), 1. 1 in., a frame house erected in 735 by David Crawford. Tusculum was the birthplace of William Harris Crawford (1772-1834), senator f from Georgia, Secretary of the Treasury, Secretary of War, minister to France, and presidential candidate in 11824 on the Republican ticket.

AMHERST, 53.8 m. (628 alt., 576 pop.), seat of Amherst County, is surrounded by farms where life is placid and leisurely.

The COURTHOUSE, of stone and brick, was built in 1871. Amherst County, formed in 1761 from Albemarle's vast territory, was named for Sir Jeffrey Amherst, who was acclaimed in England as 'Conqueror of Canada.' Although named Governor of Virginia, he never came to the colony.

CENTRAL HOTEL, a long low building, was a pre-Revolutionary stagecoach tavern.

In Amherst is a junction with US 60 (see Tour 8b).

SWEET BRIAR COLLEGE (R), 56.2 m., is housed in some 30 buildings on a large tract of meadow, orchard, and woodland. Lawns and gardens surround a central group of larger buildings, which are of red brick, whitetrimmed adaptations of the Colonial Georgian styles.

SWEET BRIAR HOUSE, now the president's home, is an old yellowpainted structure with Victorian additions. It is surrounded and partly hidden by nearly 400 immense boxwood trees. The old part of the house, with 600 acres of land, was bought by Elijah Fletcher, a Vermont scholar who came to Virginia in 1810 married Marie Antoinette Crawford of Tusculum, and made a fortune from tobacco and real estate. In 1841 he made this house his home. Mrs. Fletcher named the estate 'Sweet Briar' because of the profusion of wild roses. The eldest Fletcher child, Indiana, inherited the land in 1858, and married James Henry Williams of New York City. Their only child, Maria, called Daisy, died at the age of 16. As a memorial to her, Mrs. Williams in 1900 left her entire estate for the founding of an institution 'to impart to students such an education in sound learning, and such physical, moral, and religious training as shall in the judgment of the Directors best fit them to be useful members of Society.' The college, opened in 1906, has an enrollment of about 450 young women.

MONROE, 61.6 m. (1,135 alt., 1,000 pop.), a division terminal of the Southern Railway, has a cluster of small houses on the hillside that slopes sharply down to the roundhouse from which locomotives, being prepared for service, belch forth an almost continuous column of heavy black smoke. Here, 'Pete' on a fateful day in 1903 got his orders to take 'Old 97' into Spencer, North Carolina on time. The tragedy that ensued inspired the ballad and song, 'The Wreck of the Old 97.' The hero of the song 'was found in the wreck . . . scalded to death by the steam.'

MADISON HEIGHTS, 66.9 m. (4,000 POP.), laid out in 1791, clings to a hill sloping to the James River. In 1757 young John Lynch, founder of Lynchburg (see Lynchburg), built a tobacco warehouse on these heights.

Left here on State 130 to the STATE COLONY FOR EPILEPTICS AND FEEBLEMINDED (R), 1.1 m., with a group of 13 buildings. Opened in 1911, the colony cares for about 1, 200 patients.

LYNCHBURG, 68.3 m. (721 alt., 4o,661 pop.) (see Lynchburg). In Lynchburg is a junction with US 501 (see Tour 11a). At 72 m. is a junction with State 128.

Right on this road to County 6 76, 0.4 m.; R. here 0. 1 In. to SANDUSKY (R), a twostory L-shaped brick house surrounded by magnolias, boxwood, and other shrubbery. Charles Johnston, who had been captured by Indians as a boy, built the house in 1797 and named it for an Indian village that figured in his boyhood experiences. In 1794, he told the story to the Duc de la Rochefoucauld-Liancourt, who incorporated it in Travels through the United States. Incensed because of errors in the retelling of the story, Johnston published his own version in 182 7.

Among the soldiers quartered here in 1864 were three who became PresidentsJames A. Garfield, Rutherford B. Hayes, and William McKinley.

On State 128 is the QUAKER MEMORIAL PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (L), 0.5 m., a small ivy-covered, steep-gabled stone building formerly the South River Quaker Meeting House, built between 1792 and 1798 and restored in 1901. The first meeting house on this site was built of logs in 1757 by a group organized by Mrs. Sarah Clark Lynch, mother of Colonel Charles Lynch and of John Lynch, the founder of Lynchburg. The meeting flourished until the nineteenth century, when many of the Friends yielded to pressure and, joining in the wars of the period, were 'turned out of meeting.'

The sentiments of Sarah Lynch-Terrell, a leader in the antislavery movement, forcibly set down just before her death in 1773, were read at meetings as 'the Last Sayings of Sarah Terrell,' and led to the passing of strong abolition resolutions. It was from Quakers of the old South River Meeting that Mark Twain, Francis Scott Key, and Jefferson Davis were descended. Near by is the grave of John Lynch.

At 1.4 m. on State 128 is a junction with County 624, part of the old turnpike between Lynchburg and Salem.

Lefton County 624, 6.7 m. to NEW LONDON (50 pop.), which in 1754 was made the first permanent seat of the vast frontier county of Bedford and later, as Bedford Alum Springs, became a popular spring resort and social center.

It was in court here that Patrick Henry pled the 'Beef Case.' His client, John Venable, a commissary for the American forces in the Revolution, was being sued by John Hook, a New London merchant, for two steers seized to feed the soldiers. He painted a word picture of hungry soldiers and carried his audience into patriotic frenzy with his description of the American triumph at Yorktown. At the climax of his speech he turned on Hook, 'But hark! What notes of discord are these which disturb the general joy, and silence the acclamations of victory? They are notes of John Hook, hoarsely bawling through the American camp, Beef! Beef! Beef!'

Right from New London on County 623, 0.9 m. to FEDERAL HILL (L), a frame house with a two-story central section and one-story wings that was the home of James Steptoe, for 54 years clerk of Bedford County Court. This house was built in 1805 and replaced another burned that year. The CLERIC'S OFFICE is on the lawn. Born in 1750, James Steptoe was educated at the College of William and Mary and there began his lifelong friendship with Thomas Jefferson.

AVOCA (R), 93.3 m., a modern frame house, is on the site of the home of Charles Lynch, for whom one tradition says the Lynch Law was named. The harsh measures that Lynch used to check the activities of Tories and criminals during the Revolution were condoned in 1782 by the Virginia legislature. Charles Lynch (1736-96) was a brother of John Lynch, founder of Lynchburg.

ALTA VISTA, 95.2 m. (2,367 pop.), is a thriving industrial town on a hill overlooking the Staunton River. A crowded business section spreads for several blocks. The town has a rayon plant and a large cedar chest factory.

In HURT, 96.5 m. (500 POP.), live workers from the Alta Vista industrial plants.

Right from Hurt on County 668 to CLEMENT HILL (R), 0.2 m., the home of

Captain Benjamin Clement (1700-80), who with Colonel Lynch made gunpowder here during the Revolution. Colonel Lynch advertised in The Virginia Gazette for saltpetre and explained how this important gunpowder ingredient could be extracted from the dirt floors of smokehouses on which it had dripped from meat.

CHATHAM, 117.8 m. (828 alt., 1,143 POP-), seat of Pittsylvania County since 1777, is a quiet town enlivened by students.

When a permanent courthouse was to be built, a long dispute over where it should be rent the community. When in 1807 the legislature settled the matter, the town was designated Competition and so remained until- 1874, when it was renamed in honor of William Pitt, Earl of Chatham, for whom the county had been named in 11767. Henry St. George Tucker, clerk of the House of Delegates, wrote on the blotter:

Immortal Pitt! How great thy fame, When Competition yields to Chatham's name

The COURTHOUSE, a nondescript red brick building, was erected in 1885 after an earlier building was destroyed by fire. This county was formed from Halifax in 1767.

CHATHAM HALL, an Episcopal school for girls, stands amid gardens, athletic fields, and woodland. Founded in 1894 by the Reverend Mr. C. Orlando Pruden, who was president of its board of trustees for 30 years, the school has about 150 students.

The HARGRAVE MILITARY ACADEMY, a boys' preparatory school, was opened as the Chatham Training School in 1909. It has a cadet corps of more than 200.

I. Left from Chatham on County 685 to ELDON (L), 1.1 m., an early eighteenth century frame house with a columned portico. This was the home of Claude A. Swanson (1862-1939), who after practicing law in Chatham served successively as congressman, governor, senator, and Secretary of the Navy.

2. Left from Chatham on State 57 to County 702, 8.5 m.; L. here 4.3 m. to County 665; L. to Banister River, 6.7 m.; just beyond in a field to the SITE OF MARKHAM (L), 7.1 m., home of Colonel John Donelson. Here was born in 1767 Rachel Donelson, who became the wife of Andrew Jackson. When Rachel, the youngest of 1 1 children, was 17, the Donelsons moved to the Tennessee-Kentucky frontier. A belle of the border, Rachel in 1785 married Lewis Robards. Misapprehension as to the legal technicalities of Robards' suit for divorce led to her marriage to Jackson two years before the decree was granted and provided the scandal that pursued the Jacksons' public and private life to the end of their days.

Over a period Of 35 years John Donelson (1725-85) served as county militia officer, surveyor, justice, vestryman, burgess, and emissary to Indian tribes along the border. In 1779 he disposed of his Virginia holdings and led 120 women and children and 40 men into Tennessee.

BEAVER'S TAVERN (L), 128.2 m., once a famous stopping place, has been remodeled into a modern dwelling. During the early 1800's the land near by was used as a muster ground for the militia of the county. The troopers, with sticks and cornstalks, were paraded over the field by officers, mounted and in full regalia, many of whom had as little military knowledge as the men whom they were trying to drill. One officer carried a digest of his manual in his plumed hat and was put to it to find some pretext for scanning it at convenient moments.

At 134.8 m. is a junction with US 360 (see Tour 20b), which coincides with US 29 to DANVILLE, 136.1 m. (408 alt., 22,247 POP-) (see Tour 20b). At 142 m. US 29 crosses the North Carolina Line, 43 miles north of Greensboro, N.C. (see North Carolina Guide).

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