Tour 8

Virginia Beach-Cape Henry-Willoughby-Old Point Comfort-Newport News-Williamsburg-Richmond-Buckingham-Amherst-Lexington-Clifton Forge-Covington-(White Sulphur Springs, W.Va.). US 60.

Virginia Beach to West Virginia Line, 315.6 m.

Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout, concrete east of Williamsburg, asphalt west of Williamsburg. Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. parallels route between Old Point Comfort and Richmond, and Clifton Forge and W.Va. Line. Ferry between Willoughby and Old Point Comfort; for cost see below. All types of accommodations in towns.

US 60 crosses the center of the State, climbing to the Piedmont and then over the Blue Ridge Mountains; west of the Shenandoah Valley it crosses the crest of the Alleghenies.

Section a. VIRGINIA BEACH to RICHMOND; 114.6 m. US 6

The eastern end of this section of US 60 is in the country where the founders of Virginia first set foot upon American soil; north of Hampton Roads is the area of the first settlement.

VIRGINIA BEACH, 0m. (13 alt., 1,719 pop., 12,000 summer pop.) is a seaside playground where from May to October holiday throngs line the six miles of white beach and jostle each other on the concrete walk above it in front of cottages, hotels, and amusement halls.

At the southern end of Virginia Beach is the STATE MILITARY RESERVATION, where units of the Virginia National Guard Infantry encamp each summer.>/p>

In Virginia Beach is a junction with US 58 (see Tour 7).

US 60 runs northward on Virginia Beach's main street, passing large homes among dunes and the towering Cavalier Hotel, to FORT STORY (R), 5.7 m., a unit of the defense system that guards the important naval base, shipyards, and ports of Hampton Roads and the water approach to the Nation's capital. Its long-range coast defense and antiaircraft batteries are manned by detachments from the Coast Artillery base at Fort Monroe.

CAPE HENRY, 6.2 m., a sandy point, forms, with Cape Charles on the north, the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay. A cluster of buildings is dominated by the towering CAPE HENRY LIGHTHOUSE, which was erected in 1879 and supplanted the OLD LIGHTHOUSE, near by, built in 1791. Before there was any lighthouse, ships were guided by bonfires. A GRANITE CROSS marks the spot where on April 26, 1607, the passengers of three storm-driven little ships-the Susan B. Constant, the Goodspeed, and the Discovery came ashore. Here the adventurers opened the box that contained the sealed instructions of the London Company and here first encountered the Indians, who had not forgotten the vengeance of the Spanish after the killing of the Jesuits along the Potomac.

The entrance to SEASHORE STATE PARK is (L) at 9.4 m. (open May 15 to Nov. 1; adm.$0.10, children under 10, free; space for overnight camping,$0.25; cabins for 4, $20 a week, $5 each additional person; cabins equipped with electric lights, stoves, water heaters-payment by coin meter; reservations for cabins made at Virginia Conservation Commission, Richmond). The 3,400 acre park lies between Chesapeake Bay and inland waters of Lynnhaven Inlet, Broad Bay, Linkhorn Bay, and Crystal Lake. Its terrain, ranging from huge, creeping sand dunes along a five-mile beach to fresh-water lakes and inland swamps, gives natural sanctuary to landbirds and waterfowl.

At 10. 1 m. is a junction with County 615 (see Tour 7).

The highway crosses LYNNHAVEN BAY, 11.2 m., an arm of the Chesapeake. Captain John Smith called the inlet Morton's Bay, for Matthew Morton, who, with Captain Gabriel Archer, was wounded here by the Indians. The present name was given by Adam Thoroughgood for Lynn, England.

At 13.7 m. is a junction with US 460.

Left here to a private road, 0.6 m., and L., between brick gateposts, 1.4 m. on a road bordered by dense thickets and through a grove of pecans to the ADAM THOROUGHGOOD HOUSE (open 10-6 weekdays, adm. $0.50). The diminutive, brick plantation house, half-covered by vines, is a Jacobean remnant of early Virginia. Its one full story, capped by a steep gable roof with prim dormers, is between two massive T-shaped chimneys, one outside. The bonding of the walls is English except on the east front, which is Flemish. The openings are topped by low arches of brick with alternating glazed headers; but the sashes, like the dormers, must date from a much later period than that of the building. The interior, refurnished appropriately, is covered with simple pine paneling. Adam Thoroughgood (Thorowgood) came to Virginia in 1621 and settled at Kecoughtan (Hampton). In 1634 he patented much land here and built a home, possibly this one, for when he died in 1640, his will mentioned a brick dwelling on his land.

At 15.9 m. on US 60 is a junction with State 13 and a drive.

Right here to LITTLE CREEK-CAPE CHARLES FERRY TERMINAL (see Tour 2) (cars $2.50-$3.00, each passenger $0.75).

OCEAN VIEW, 22.1 m., is the bay front section of Norfolk (see Norfolk).

West of Ocean View the highway traverses WILLOUGHBY SPIT, a narrow sand peninsula, jutting into Hampton Roads and lined with cottages. This sand spit is said to have been thrown up during a severe 'gust' about 1680. Madam Thomas Willoughby, surveying her domain after the storm and seeing land where before only the waters of the Chesapeake rolled, hastened to claim the 217 acres. Captain Newport's flagship, Susan B. Constant, anchored near by April 28, 1607. Thence the voyagers 'rowed to a point where they found a channel which put them in good comfort.' This they named Cape Comfort, now Old Point Comfort.

At 24.5 m. is the OLD POINT-WILLOUGHBY FERRY TERMINAL (intervals from 15 min. to 1 hr., depending upon the time of day; car and driver $1.00; each passenger $0.20). (See Hampton Roads Port.)

OLD POINT COMFORT, 24.5 m., is dominated by a towering hotel, which perpetuates the area's century-old reputation as a fashionable resort. In the background are the brick buildings of FORT MONROE, U.S. Army Coast Artillery Post and Coast Artillery School. US 60 passes officers' quarters and other post buildings. The septagonal-bastioned fortification, screened by trees, with quarters and administration buildings, covers about 80 acres and is 1.6 miles in circumference. It is surrounded by a moat.

In 1609 the Jamestown settlers built a defense they called Algernourne Fort against a possible attack by the Spaniards. It was described as a stockade 'without stone or brick,' with 50 men, women, and boys, and equipped with seven cannon. The defense was later called Point Comfort and in 1630-32 was rebuilt by Colonel Samuel Mathews. A new fortification, erected in 1727-30 and named Fort George, though constructed with double walls of brick, was destroyed by the 'great gust' of 1749. During the Siege of Yorktown, Count de Grasse strengthened his defenses of the area by placing batteries on the point. The construction of the present fort was begun in 1819 and completed about 1847. Among privates here in 1828-29 was Edgar Allan Poe, who enlisted in Boston as E. A. Perry. Chief Black Hawk of Illinois was held a prisoner here in 1832 after the Black Hawk War.

On the night of February 2, 1865, a steamer from Washington anchored in Hampton Roads, bringing President Lincoln for an informal peace conference with Confederate commissioners, headed by his old friend and fellow congressman, Alexander Stephens, then vice-president of the Confederacy. The conference came to nothing. Jefferson Davis was a prisoner here for two years (1865-67). Old Point Comfort's career as a fashionable resort began at the time Chief Black Hawk and his warriors were imprisoned at Fort Monroe. Curious crowds that flocked to stare at the proud old warrior soon overflowed the little Hygeia Hotel, housing civilian employees at the fort. The proprietor, Harrison Phoebus, built additions to his hotel, chartered boats to bring visitors, and soon Old Point was on its way to becoming a place where diplomats and Government officials mingled with the elite of Baltimore, Philadelphia, Richmond, and the Deep South.

PHOEBUS, 26.1 m. (3,500 pop.), is a fishing mart and residential town. During the fishing seasons, crowded lines of boats tie up along Mill Creek Wharf to dump their shimmering cargoes of shad, bluefish, croakers, spots, flounders, trout, oysters, and crabs. The town, built on land once owned by Harrison Phoebus, began about 1870 as a handful of catch-penny stores around the gates of the National Soldiers Home. Here during the War between the States was Camp Hamilton, concentration point for Union troops.

1. Right from Phoebus on State 169 to BUCKROE BEACH, 2.3 m., a scattered collection of bungalows, frame hotels, shacks, and lunch rooms, most of them open only in summer. Raucous with shoot-the-chutes, venders' stands, a dance pavilion, fortune tellers' booths, and like contraptions, the place in summer is the mecca of one-day excursionists. The resort occupies part of Buck Roe Plantation, one of several estates set aside in 1619 for public use. In 1620 the London Company sent Frenchmen here to teach the colonists grape and silkworm culture. By 163 7, however, the plantation had joined the rest of the colony as a tobacco field.

2. Left from Phoebus on Mallory St. to KECOUGHTAN, 0.8 m., which has assumed the name of the Indian village here when the first whites arrived.

Here is the entrance (R) to the VETERANS' FACILITY (open 6:30 a..m..- to 9:00 p.m.; hospital 2 to 4; guide service) on a peninsula. Commodious frame and brick buildings are on tree-shaded grounds. The facility, established in 1930 to care for disabled veterans of all wars, supplanted the National Soldiers Home. It provides quarters, recreational facilities, and medical treatment for 2,000 to 2,500 men.

HAMPTON, 27.8 m. (3 alt., 6,382 pop.) (see Hampton).

Right from Hampton on King St. to LANGLEY FIELD, 3 m., military air base, named for Dr. Samuel P. Langley, aviation pioneer. The field, a scene of aeronautical activities during the World War and for years headquarters of the Second Wing, U.S. Army Air Corps, is now headquarters for the First Air Base Squadron, three pursuit squadrons, two bombardment squadrons, and an observation and reconnaissance squadron. Twenty-two hundred men are stationed here (1940). The field is also the most important research and experimental station of the National Advisory Council for Aeronautics, a non-military organization, On the 5,000 acres between the Back River and Chesapeake Bay are hangars, warehouses, wind tunnels, as well as the usual post facilities.

NEWPORT NEWS, 34.3 m. (25 alt., 34417 pop.) (see Newport News).

At 37.3 m. is a junction with US 17 (see Tour 6b), which unites with US 60 for 2.6 miles.

HILTON VILLAGE, 38.5 m. (1,600 pop.), consisting of closely built rows of houses of the English villa style, grew up around 500 houses built by the Federal Government during the World War as homes for workers at the Newport News Shipyard.

The MARINERS' MUSEUM (L), 39.6 m. (open weekdays 9-5, Sundays 2-5; park closes at sunset), a simple one-story stuccoed building, was built in 1930 by Archer M. Huntington to house his collection of more than 45,000 marine antiquities. It is in a large park along the James River and is protected as a wildlife sanctuary, with an artificial lake for migratory waterfowl. At the museum entrance are sculptured animal figures and groups, the work of Anna Hyatt Huntington. On display are collections of ship models, figureheads, anchors, marine engines, deck and steering gear, and navigation instruments, volumes of sea lore, maps, charts, and globes.

At 39.9 m. is the western junction with US 17 (see Tour 6).

At the JAMES RIVER COUNTRY CLUB (L), 41.4 m. (golf, tennis, and swimining), is a GOLF MUSEUM (open to visitors) housing the Archer M. Huntington collection of early golf paraphernalia.

DENBIGH PLANTATION (L), 45.3 m., was patented by Colonel Samuel Mathews, who came to Virginia before 1618, filled several important posts, and became the father of Samuel Mathews, governor of the colony (1657-60). Said a writer in 1649: 'He . . . sowes yearly a store of Hemp and Flax, and causes it to be spun; he keeps Weavers and hath a Tan-house, causes Leather to be dressed, hith eight Shoemakers employed in their trade, hath forty Negro Servants, bringing them up in Trades in his house; . . . hath abundance of Kine, a brave Dairy, Swine great store, and Poltry; he married the daughter of Sir Thomas Hinton.' This daughter of Sir Thomas-Frances-had been the wife of Nathaniel West, brother of Lord Delaware, then of Colonel Abraham Peirsey.

Denbigh Plantation in 1630 had three representatives in the House of Burgesses. In 1631-32 monthly courts were authorized to be held at 'Warwick River.' Two years later Warwick County was constituted. In 1680 the general assembly directed that a town for Warwick County be laid out 'att the mouth of Deep Creek- on Mr. Mathews land.' When, in 1691, towns were made 'ports of entry,' the village was referred to as Warwick Town and a brick courthouse and prison were built. But Warwick Town never materialized and in 1809, because 'the inhabitants of Warwick County' labored under 'great inconvenience by being compelled to attend their court at the place it is now holden,' the county seat was moved to 'two acres' belonging to Richard Gary, deceased, at Stony Run, which is now DENBIGH, 47.4 m. (50 pop.), a scattering of houses and stores.

The WARWICK COUNTY COURTHOUSE of red brick was built in 1884. The CLERK'S OFFICE, a pleasing one-story red brick structure with a Doric portico, was built in 1818, when the seat was moved here from Denbigh Plantation. All the early records of Warwick County were destroyed during the 1860's.

At 51.2 m. is a junction with a paved road.

Left here to FORT EUSTIS (L), 1.1 m., a large reservation with many frame buildings-during the World War a cantonment, later an artillery post, in 1934-37 a Government rehabilitation camp for transients, and in 1938 a training school conducted by the N.Y.A. Within the reservation is the JONES HOUSE, built in the late seventeenth century and remodeled in 1757.

Beyond Fort Eustis on an old road 5 m. is MULBERRY ISLAND, a little peninsula where in June 1610 the starving colonists, who had abandoned Jamestown to return to England, stopped for the night. The following morning, when news came that Lord Delaware had arrived at Point Comfort with new colonists and supplies, all turned back.

LEE HALL, 52.3 m. (75 pop.), has sprung up on the grounds of a Colonial estate of the same name. The first frame house, called Oak Hill, was on the site of the present LEE HALL (R), a brick ante-bellum. residence. Here General John B. Magruder had headquarters in April and May 1862.

West of Lee Hall, along the highway, was Martin's Hundred, the estate of a society of 'lords, knights, and gentlemen,' granted by the London Company in 1618 and named for Richard Martin, attorney for the London Company and member of the society. In March 1619 the Gift of God hove to with 250 persons, some of them indentured servants, sent to settle the plantation. The servants, however, fared none too well, and one Richard Frethorne wrote his father in England begging his redemption. He referred to his 'daily and hourly sighs, groans and tears.' This Hundred was one of the few that remained intact until counties were formed in 1634.

The entrance-lane (L) to CARTER'S GROVE, 56 m. (open 9-6, March 15 to June 15; adm. $1.10), lies between ancient cedars and locusts. Set behind a row of giant tulip-poplars, the two-and-a-half-story main unit and its wings, all with brick walls now rose-red, stretch out on an eminence 80 feet above the river. A fine cornice and classical enframements in rubbed brick over the two centered entrances, topped with pediments, are the chief adornments of this Georgian Colonial house, which relies for exterior beauty chiefly on the texture of the Flemish bonding and the nearly perfect proportions of every element, from windowpanes to the arrangement of the mass. From the ridge ends of the steep hipped roof rise a pair of large square chimneys with molded tops. The chimneys at the gable ends of the wings, which are linked to the main section by passages forming a single structure 200 feet long, have arches protecting their flues. Dormers punctuate each roof surface.

The interior woodwork is beautifully executed. The main hall is notable for the great arch rising across the middle from fluted pilasters of poplar wood and for the carved balusters of the stairway.

The estate was originally within Martin's Hundred. 'King' Carter (see Tour 16b) acquired it and gave it to his daughter Elizabeth, who married Nathaniel Burwell. It descended to Elizabeth's second son, Carter Burwell, who brought over David Minitree, a master craftsman, under whose direction the house was built between June and September of 1751. Carving of the woodwork was probably done by craftsmen from England, but the unskilled labor was done by the owner's slaves. The total cost was L500, of which L150 was Minitree's fee. To this the delighted Burwell added a bonus of L25. Restoration, begun in 1927, included raising the pitch of the roof, and the addition of dormers on the main unit and of the galleries between the central structure and the wings. Old furnishings have been installed and among the many portraits are one of William Henry Harrison by Charles Willson Peale and one of Charles Mordaunt, Earl of Peterborough.

KINGSMILL (L), 58.7 m., which was patented before 1637 by Richard Kingsmill, passed in time by marriage to Lewis Burwell.

One of Burwell's nine daughters 'completely upset what little reason there was in Governor Francis Nicholson,' who was most 'passionately attached to her and demanded her of her parents in royal style.' When her parents refused his suit he became furious, and threatened to kill three persons if the young lady married any other but himself-the bridegroom, the officiating minister, and the justice that issued the license. The affair ended only when Nicholson was recalled by the queen.

At 59.8 m. is a junction with County 642.

Right here to the SITE OF FORT MAGRUDER, 0.6 m., around which was fought the Battle of Williamsburg on May 5, 1862.

General Joseph E. Johnston, withdrawing from Yorktown, passed through Williamsburg pursued by three corps of McClellan's army. Finding his cavalry forced back on the Yorktown road, Johnston stationed a division of infantry here. General Joseph Hooker attacked the Confederate right on May 5. Longstreet ordered additional troops to the field and at noon ordered a counterattack. The Confederates, victorious over Hooker on the right, were in turn severely repulsed by General W.S.Hancock on the left. Longstreet withdrew during the night.

WILLIAMSBURG, 62.3 m. (78 to 84 alt., 3,778 pop.) (see Williamsburg).

In Williamsburg is a junction with State 31 (see Tour 8A).

TOANO, 73 m. (500 pop.), began in Colonial days with a tavern and, after the tavern's destruction by fire, became Burnt Ordinary.

HICKORY NECK CHURCH (R), 73.9 m., of red brick with a steep gabled roof and modillioned cornice, is only part of the large T-shaped Lower Church of Blissland Parish. The main part was built in 1734-38 and the south transept, the present Structure, in 1774-76. When militia camped here during the Revolution, the church was partly destroyed. Repaired in 1825, it was used for many years by Hickory Neck Academy. During the War between the States, the building was a barracks for both Confederates and Federals. After the war it was again a school, but in 1907 was ceded back to the parish, which restored and refurnished it.

At 74.5 m. is a junction with State 30.

Right here is BARHAMSVILLE, 4.5 m., called in Colonial times Doncastle. Here was Doncastle Ordinary, stopping place on the way to Williamsburg. Patrick Henry halted at Doncastle with militia in May 1775 on his way to the capital to demand restoration of powder taken from the 'Powder Horn' by Lord Dunmore. Henry was persuaded to wait here while Carter Braxton sent to his father-in-law, Richard Corbin, receiver-general of the king's revenues, for payment for the powder (see Tour 20a, and Tour 1B).

The CHICKAHOMINY INDIAN COMMUNITY (L), 85.8 m., is the home of descendants of the powerful tribe that participated in the capture of Captain John Smith in December 1607.

The STATE GAME FARM, 86.2 m., is a 1,400-acre preserve for breeding partridge to restock game sanctuaries.

PROVIDENCE FORGE, 89.1 m. (159 pop.), a scattered community, took its name from a foundry set up here about 17 70 to make farm implements. William Holt and the Reverend Charles Jeffrey Smith, a Presbyterian minister, built the forge. In 1771 they were joined by Francis Jordone.

In the village is the CHRISTIAN HOUSE (R), weatherboarded story-and-a-half, with high pitched roof, dormers, and double outside chimneys. Since Colonel Burgess Ball, who visited here and also Pope's Creek, the house in which George Washington was born, left the statement that the two buildings were alike in design, the Christian House was used as a model in the reconstruction of Washington's birthplace (see Tour 16a).

BOTTOM'S BRIDGE, 100.3 m., is at the crossing of Chickahominy River and a junction with State 33 (see Tour 6A), the old road to Williamsburg. General Joseph E. Johnston, retreating before McClellan, halted here for five days before withdrawing to the vicinity of Richmond on May 17, 1862. McClellan occupied this position two days later.

At 102.4 m. is a junction with State 156.

Left on this road is WHITE OAK SWAMP, 3.9 m. (see Tour 24).

SAVAGE STATION (R), 102.7 m., was formerly a railroad stop that gave its name to the third battle in the Seven Days' Campaign. Following the Battle of Gaines' Mill (see Tour 20a), both armies spent June 28 seeking new positions. On this day McClellan abandoned his supply base at White House Landing (see Tour 6A) and began his retreat toward Harrison's Landing on the James. On the morning of June 29 half of McClellan's army was beyond White Oak Swamp, several miles south, and the remainder grouped around this station, awaited withdrawal. Lee's scattered army moved rapidly to intercept McClellan. In mid-morning, General John B. Magruder's division encountered General E.V.Sumner's Federal corps about a mile to the southwest. Sumner easily repulsed Magruder, then withdrew to this place. In the afternoon Sumner repelled a second attack by Magruder and withdrew southward during the night.

At SEVEN PINES, 106.1 m., is the SEVEN PINES NATIONAL CEMETERY (R), with surrounding stone wall, 'row on row' of gravestones, and along the front wall in a straight line seven pines similar to those that gave the place its name.

Seven Pines was the field of action in indecisive fighting on May 31 and June 1 , 1862, when McClellan's army, quiescent on the Chickahominy, was attacked by the Confederate army under Johnston. General Johnston, wounded at Fair Oaks one mile north, was succeeded by General G.W. Smith. During the afternoon of June 1, General Robert E. Lee was assigned to command the Confederate army in Virginia.

SANDSTON, 106.8 m. (800 pop.), a pleasant village of small residences with neat front yards, had its birth during the World War, when cottages were built here for employees at a munitions plant near by. Later, real estate promoters developed the town as a suburb of moderately priced homes.

RICHMOND, 114.6 m. (15 to 206 alt., 182,929 pop.) (see Richmond).

In Richmond are junctions with US 1 (see Tour11), US 33 (see Tour 9), US 250 (see Tour 17), State 10 (see Tour 19), US 360 (see Tour 20), State 6 (see Tour 23), and State 5 (see Tour 24).

Section b. RICHMOND to LEXINGTON; 135 m. US 60.

West of Richmond US 60 straightens out to traverse the Piedmont on a modern course that touches older highways only here and there. In the rolling country west of the falls line tobacco and general farm crops are grown, but there is a vast acreage of unused eroded red land. The highway crosses the Blue Ridge near the crest of wooded peaks before dropping into the Valley of Virginia.

In RICHMOND US 60 runs south on 9th St. from Broad St., 0 m.

At 12.5 m. is a junction with State 147.

Right here to the SITE OF BLACK HEATH (L), 0.5 m., in dense undergrowth.

This was the home of John Heth, who was an officer on the Decatur, United States gunboat captured during the War of 1812. Heth and two companions escaped from the British in Bermuda.

Here in 1825 was born John Heth's son Henry, who precipitated the Battle of Gettysburg. Sent forward by General A.P.Hill to obtain a supply of shoes and cautioned not to engage in hostilities, General Heth met a body of Union cavalry and brought on an engagement that grew rapidly into one of the decisive battles of history. Of 7,500 men in his command 2,850 were on the casualty list.

On this estate is the BLACK HEATH COAL MINE, one of many in the Richmond bituminous basin. Operations started here in 1785. An explosion in 1839 killed all but three of 54 miners. After a second such disaster in 1844 the mine was closed until 1938.

On State 147 is a junction with State 44, 1.5 m.; L. here 0.9 M. to County 673; R. here 1.8 m., to the former BELLONA ARSENAL (L). Three brick buildings in a stonewalled enclosure, an unroofed powder magazine, and a position for testing cannon are the remains of the arsenal that was established by Major John Clarke of Keswick, in 1810, as a cannon foundry. Major Clarke supplied guns used in the War of 1812. In 1816-17 the Federal Government constructed an arsenal, barracks, workshop, officers' homes, and a hospital here. The arsenal, abandoned after 11 years, was reconditioned by the Confederates in 1861 and it supplied the Southern armies until the fall of Richmond in 1865.

On State 44 is MANAKIN CHURCH (L), 7 m., a rectangular frame building, fourth of the name and built in 1894. It bears the name of a French settlement of the vicinity, derived from Monacan, the name of Indians, who once lived here and whom King Powhatan tried in vain to subdue.

Following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, many French refugees came to Virginia. In 1690, the general assembly passed an act giving them a large tract of land on the south side of the James and exempting them from taxation for seven years. Governor Nicholson said in 1700 that this settlement 'would be a strengthening to the frontiers.'

In 1701, the land 'held by French refugees at Manakin town & adjacent' had been constituted 'King William Parish in the County of Henrico.' Four years later its people were exempted from the 'laws for ministers' maintenance' and were to be at liberty to 'pay their ministers as their circumstance will permit.' The service of the Church of England was used, and sermons were preached in both French and English. An old register, written in French and covering the period from 1721 to 1753, shows that more Negro than white children were baptized.

The,Huguenots did not 'remain together as near as may be to the said Manakin Town,' but spread through Virginia, and some were before long among the most prominent families in the colony.

MIDLOTHIAN, 14.7 m. (400 pop.), is a widely scattered settlement that dates from the early mining days of this area. In 1831 the Chesterfield Railroad was completed from the mines to the head of tidewater at Richmond. This 13-mile line, with horse-drawn cars holding 56 bushels each, was Virginia's first railroad and continued in operation until 1851.

Right in Midlothian to the railroad station, 0.4 m.; R. here to a fork 0.7 m., and L. to the SITE OF SALISBURY, 2.1 m., one of the many homes of Patrick Henry. A fire left only the tall chimneys of the frame story-and-a-half house to which Henry moved his family after his election in November 1784 for his fourth term as governor. He remained here until 1786.

At 31.6 m. on US 60 is a junction with State 13.

Left hereto POWHATAN, 1 m. (150 pop.), seat of Powhatan County and shopping center for a large rural area. The village came into being when the courthouse was built shortly after the formation of the county in 1777 from vast Cumberland County and was first called Scottsville for General Charles Scott, who was a native of the neighborhood. Because the county was created during the Revolution, its name has no English flavor but honors Emperor Powhatan of the Tidewater Indian confederacy.

The small POWHATAN COUNTY COURTHOUSE (R), with stuccoed brick walls, has a Roman Doric recessed portico between walls in antis and closely spaced pilasters. The front part of the CLERK'S OFFICE, a small brick T-shaped building, was built with the courthouse about 1817. The CONFEDERATE MONUMENT is an ornately carved piece of stone hidden by a circle of tall privet.

An old tavern, now an apartment house adjacent to the courtgreen, is a tall brick structure dating from the Revolutionary period.

CUMBERLAND, 50.3 m. (474 alt., 130 POP.), seat of Cumberland County, is a small town of dwellings and stores, strung out along the highway.

The CUMBERLAND COUNTY COURTHOUSE (R), erected in 1818, a small building with portico, is pleasant in appearance, its brick walls laid in an unusual bonding-one course of headers to three of stretchers. It has large chimneys and its windows contain old rippled panes of glass. The small square CLERK'S OFFICE was also built about 1818. Cumberland County, cut from Goochland County in 1749, was named for Prince William, the Duke of Cumberland.

The SITE OF THE EFFINGHAM TAVERN is opposite the courthouse. This old inn, burned in 1933, served many travelers on the early road to western Virginia and was in 1766 the scene of the murder of Robert Routledge by Colonel John Chiswell, a prospector, miner, and promoter. One late summer evening Chiswell was entertaining his fellow guests here with glowing accounts of his lead mines by the New River (see Tour 7c), when Routledge questioned his statements and a quarrel ensued. Chiswell sent a servant upstairs for his sword, called Routledge 'a fugitive rebel and a Presbyterian fellow,' and ran him through. Chiswell's good friends-John Blair, William Byrd, and Presley Thornton, members of Council-were able to have him released on bail. After the prosecutor, who proved to be John Blair, was selected by lot, Chiswell was found dead in his Williamsburg home. Although his physician testified under oath that his death was the result of 'nervous fits, caused by constant uneasiness of mind,' it is generally believed that he committed suicide.

Late in the eighteenth century Cumberland was the scene of the trial of Richard Randolph of Bizarre for the murder of a newly-born infant. Alexander Campbell, John Marshall, and Patrick Henry were counsels for the defense. Under Henry's cross-examining, the principal witness, a daughter of Archibald Cary, testified that, her suspicions having been aroused, she had peeped through a keyhole and had watched the woman in the case undress. Henry, with scornful tones, asked, 'Which eye did you peep with?' Without waiting for an answer he exclaimed, 'Great God, deliver us from eavesdroppers.'

At 51.3 m. is a junction with County 629, passable only in dry years.

Left here to TAR WALLET CHURCH (R), I m., built about 1750 as a church of Southam Parish, later of Littleton Parish. A hog-drover of the frontier, camping here one night, had his wallet destroyed by hogs. 'Tear Wallet,' the name the incident gave to the creek, spelled as pronounced in the vernacular 'Tar Wallet'-was later passed on to the church. Since 1835 the building has been used by the Methodists.

At 55.3 m. on US 60 is a junction with County 652.

Left here to County 632, 0.1 m., and R. to CA IRA (Fr. It will go on) CHURCH (R), 0.3 m., a small building with tall, flat-arched windows. The paneled doors, of heart pine, were fashioned by a slave locally famed for his craftsmanship. Known also as Grace Episcopal Church of Littleton Parish, it was built about 1840 to replace a former building. Its name, that of a once-flourishing community, may have been bestowed by French refugees, or it may have been adopted as a compliment to Benjamin Franklin, who, during the American Revolution, often used the expression that later became the slogan of the French revolutionists.

SPROUSES, 65.2 m., is at a junction with US 15 (see Tour 3).

BUCKINGHAM, 69.1 m. (92 pop.), seat of Buckingham County, has kept with unusual success the patina of a more tranquil day, in spite of the acid of modern highway traffic. No shop or filling station obtrudes to spoil the placid effect of vine-covered brick and ancient weatherboarding.

The BUCKINGHAM COUNTY COURTHOUSE (R), is of brick, with whitecolumned portico. The first courthouse, a wooden structure, stood west of the village, then called Maysville. The next, designed by Thomas Jefferson, was burned in 1869, when many of the county records were destroyed. Buckingham County, formed in 1761 from Albemarle, was from 1727 until 1745 part of the vaguely designated territory of Goochland. White men traveled through this region early, for in Woodson's Cave on Willis Mountain is painfully inscribed in the hard stone 'B. Bolling. I.Bell 1700,'and in another place 'W.Smith, P.Turpin 1709.'

The BUCKINGHAM HOTEL (L) is a large frame and weatherboarded log structure opposite the courthouse. According to local tradition, Lee and his staff attempted to find accommodations here on their return from the surrender. Because there was not room for the entire staff, General Lee refused quarters for himself. Tradition adds that he and his staff were served coffee on the inn porch. If the story is fact, the defeated general and his men probably drank one of the substitutes of the time, for coffee was a luxury not available in war-torn Virginia.

MAYSVILLE HOTEL (R), an H-shaped brick structure next to the courthouse, is a century-old inn now called Pearson's Hotel

At 73.1 m. is a junction with State 24.

Left here to the SURRENDER GROUNDS at Old Appomattox Courthouse, 17.1 m. (see Tour 3).

US 60 crosses the JAMES RIVER, 86.5 m., broad and sluggish as it meanders in a bed cut below the Piedmont peneplain. The James River Division of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway, a freight route following the bank of the river, is the transportation successor to the James River and Kanawha Canal (see Richmond and Transportation). West of the river the highway cuts through a section of second-growth woodland that borders the highway almost without a break.

AMHERST, 101.8 m. (628 alt., 876 pop.) (see Tour 4a), is at a junction with US 29 .

The highway crosses the eastern boundary of the GEORGE WASHINGTON NATIONAL FOREST (see Tour 9) at 116.5 m. and follows the Buffalo River between sharply rising slopes of the Blue Ridge foothills.

LONG MOUNTAIN WAYSIDE PARK, 118.6 m., is a picnic and camp ground.

Left here on a dirt road (impassable in wet weather), winding steeply through forest and banked with thickets of mountain laurel, to PEDLAR LAKE, 4.4. m., stocked with game fish. Fishing rights are restricted because this is a reservoir.

After crossing BROWN'S MOUNTAIN, 119.6 m., the highway dips through a secluded valley, where life moves slowly, and climbs to cross BLUE RIDGE MOUNTAIN (2,290 alt.) at 124 m. On the western slope the route has been engineered with dramatic economy and curves along monstrously graded shoulders of the steep, pine-wooded mountainside toward the lowland, constantly in view. The beauty attending this descent is greatly enhanced in spring by various mountain bloom: dogwood, laurel, rhododendron, and Judas tree.

BUENA VISTA, 128.5 m. (1,000, alt., 4,002 pop.) (see Tour 11a), is at a junction with US 501, which unites with US 60 to LEXINGTON, 135 m. (1,000 alt., 3,752 pop.) (see Tour 5b), at junctions with US 11, and US 501.

Section c. LEXINGTON to WEST VIRGINIA LINE; 66 m. US 60.

West of LEXINGTON, 0 m., the highway, following older routes only intermittently, crosses the eastern ridge of the Allegheny Mountains, to the valleys of the Cowpasture and Jackson Rivers, and ascends the western ridge, after winding through stretches of beautiful mountain country.

MONMOUTH MILL (L), 2.6 m., a tall weather-beaten frame building with a high over-shot wheel, is typical of mills that since Colonial times have met the Virginian demand for corn bread made of water-ground meal. Monmouth Mill has been in existence since 1750.

The KERR'S CREEK MONUMENT (pronounced 'Carr'), 6.2 m., a small stone pillar, commemorates two Indian raids on the Kerr's Creek settlement. That at Big Springs was the more severe. The date of the lesser raid was July 17, 1763, according to the inscription on the monument; at the other, in 1764, 50 to 60 persons were killed.

The Pontiac War, a concerted Indian drive to clear the Allegheny country of white settlers, broke out in June 1763. It appears that a group of Shawnees was assigned to clean up this territory. Raiding the Greenbrier, Jackson River, and Cowpasture River sections, the band came down out of the mountains to Kerr's Creek on July 17, 1763. Four homes were visited, 12 persons killed, and others were taken away as captives. Three companies of militia quickly followed the raiders. The Indians, pursued and attacked at first unsuccessfully, were again overtaken and all killed except one. Loot recovered by the militiamen was sold for $1,200.

The Big Springs raid was probably better planned. The Indians were seen in the neighborhood for several days and frightened settlers congregated in a home near the Big Spring. Stories of the massacre seem to agree that the people, though expecting the attack, were surprised while saddling their horses for a trip to church. Witnesses said that men , women, and children scattered 'like chickens,' while the Indians gave chase. One woman stood over the body of her husband and fought until overwhelmed; another raced away on horseback with a baby in her arms, dropped it in a rye field, and was able later to recover it unhurt; still another, having hid her baby in the underbrush, was taken captive. Its bones were there when she returned from captivity. The treaty that ended the Pontiac War stipulated that the prisoners be returned.

The highway follows the Kerr Valley westward, passing many comfortable century-old homesteads as it climbs the Allegheny Range over North Mountain.

The RUINS OF LONGDALE FURNACE (R), 22 m., operated from 1827 to 1911, face empty frame buildings across the highway, which is bordered for a mile or more by giant heaps of slag. The furnace was established by Colonel John Jordan and first called Lucy-Selina for two relatives. The Confederate Government took over the plant during the first year of the war for the production of ordnance material. Later it was operated by the Longdale Company as a hot blast furnace.

At 30.3 m. is a junction with a park road.

Right here to DOUTHAT STATE PARK, 5 m. (open May 15 to Nov.1; adm. $0.10, overnight camping, $0.25, children under 10, free; fishing, swimming; rowboats, $0.25 an hr., maximum $1.25 a day; overnight accommodations, $2.50 a person; cabins equipped with electric lights, payment by coin meter; $15 a week for 2 persons, $20 for 4 Persons, $5 for each additional person; store and restaurant; reservation for cabins made at Virginia Conservation Commission, Richmond). The 5,000-acre recreational area includes a large lake.

CLIFTON FORGE, 32.3 m. (1,047 alt., 6,850 pop.) is a city that a railroad built, for here are shops and a terminal of the Chesapeake & Ohio Railway. The Clifton Forge business district is along a narrow strip of bottom land by the Jackson River, while bungalow homes on brick pillars stand on the steep hillsides.

In 1861 the Virginia Central Railroad, extending from the east through Charlottesville, Waynesboro, and Staunton, had reached the Jackson River at the edge of the present town, and a roadbed had been graded westward to connect it with the Ohio River. But the War between the States intervened and tracks were not laid westward until 1867. The James River and Kanawha Canal Company was authorized in 1876 to build the Buchanan and Clifton Forge Railway to connect the westernmost point of the canal with the railroad. Two years later the Richmond and Alleghany Company was authorized to build a road along the James from Richmond to Buchanan. Thus Clifton Forge became the division point of the large east-to-west system that resulted when the pioneer roads were combined under the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway Company.

In Clifton Forge is a junction with US 220 (see Tour 21a), which coin cides with US 60 to COVINGTON, 43.7 m. (1,245 alt., 6,550 pop.), seat of Alleghany County, a manufacturing city, and a compact block at the confluence of three tributaries of the Jackson River and hemmed in on three sides by the Warm Springs, Sweet Springs, and Lick Mountains. Covington is on land owned as early as 1746 by Peter Wright. Later, Fort Young was built here, and a settlement called Merry's Store grew around it. In 1819 town lots were laid out, and the settlement was named for its oldest inhabitant, Peter Covington. Though a village on the Midland Trail, which crossed the mountains, and later a station on the railroad to the west, Covington did not develop until the 1890's.

The large stone ALLEGHANY COUNTY COURTHOUSE was built in 1911. The first crude structure was erected in 1823, a year after Alleghany County was formed from Parts of Bath, Botetourt, and Monroe (W.Va.) Counties.

In Covington is the western junction with US 220 (see Tour 21a). The highway follows Dunlop Creek up a pass.

CROW TAVERN (R), 60.1 m., with stone chimneys and a double veranda across the entire front, is an eccentrically gabled frame structure. During the first half of the nineteenth century it overflowed with travelers on their way between White Sulphur and Old Sweet Springs. It was a rule of the house that no more than five persons should sleep in a bed. A good bed with clean sheets was advertised for $0.081/3, but should the guest have to share his bed, the price was $0.051/2. Persons so fortunate as to have blankets were charged nothing for the privilege of sleeping on the floor. A 'warm diet' meal cost $0.122/3, while a 'cold diet' meal was $0.101/2.

According to tradition, Colonel John Crow, the landlord, was a notable liar but a very entertaining host. To amuse his guests he often rode a huge tame bear about the inn grounds.

At 66 m. US 60 crosses the West Virginia Line 4 miles east of White Sulphur Springs, W.Va. (see West Virginia Guide).

Tour 8 A

Williamsburg-Jamestown Island; 6.4 m. State 31.

Asphalt-paved roadbed throughout. No accommodations.

This route connects the sites of the first and second capitals of Virginia. It slopes through woodland to the spot on the James River where Englishmen established their first successful settlement in America.

State 5 branches south from US 60 in WILLIAMSBURG, 0 m.

At 1.5 m. is a junction with State 5 (see Tour 24).

JAMESTOWN ISLAND (n 9-5 weekdays, 1-5 Sun.; adm. $0.25), 6.4. m., a flat, wooded oval nearly three miles long separated from the mainland by a marshy inlet, is the site of James Towne, where permanent settlement in British America began in 1607 and where in 1619 was set up the first representative government in the New World. Besides the ruins of the church tower and graveyard, all that remains of the capital of the Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1699, are the foundations of several dwellings and of the third and fourth statehouses. Much of the western end of the island, on which the first buildings stood, where a neck of land joined the island to the mainland, had been washed away by tides before a sea wall was constructed in 1901. Scattered about in clumps are gnarled descendants of the mulberry trees planted by order of the assembly of 1621 to feed silkworms that would provide one of the colony's first industries. Facing the river, near the spot at which the first landing is thought to have been made, are several memorials set up in recent years, including the JAMESTOWN NATIONAL MONUMENT, a 100-foot granite shaft dedicated in 1907; the ROBERT HUNT MEMORIAL SHRINE, a mounting of ancient brick with a bronze tablet, recalling the chaplain who on May 25, 1607, celebrated the first communion service in America of the Church of England; a STATUE OF POCAHONTAS, an appealing bronze figure of the Indian girl; and a bronze STATUE OF CAPTAIN JOHN SMITH, forceful leader and Virginia's first hero.

On May 13 (o.s.) , 1607, the Susan B. Constant, the Goodspeed, and the Discovery were 'moored to the Trees in six fathom of water' off the island. The next day the English adventurers-the first 105 Virginians-landed and 'set to worke about the fortification.' 'The Counsel was sworn, and the President elected . . . Maister Edm. Maria Wingfield.' Construction of a little fort, a chapel, a storehouse, and thatched huts within a stockade was begun.

Here the settlement persisted in spite of high mortality caused by the unhealthy situation, summer heat, recurring famine, Indian attacks, internal dissension, and the 'Starving Time' of the winter of 1609-10 that ended in June with a three-day abandonment of the site. From Jamestown Captain John Smith, who governed the colony sternly for a year ending in September 1609, sallied forth with followers on his many expeditions to explore the country and to seek Indian corn for the inexperienced colonists. More than once, by the force of his character, Smith kept the settlement from disintegrating, but his policy of browbeating and terrifying the natives, while immediately useful and bold, sowed seeds of perpetual war between the Indian and the white man.

Thirteen-year-old Pocahontas, daughter of the Indian leader, Powhatan, came often to the island to turn cartwheels about the stockade and to warn the English against attacks from her people, but particularly to see fascinating Captain Smith, whose life she had saved at Werowocomoco. Smith called her 'the only Nonpariel' of the country, but failed to realize the real love she bore him. Here in 1614, soon after she had been brought to Jamestown as a hostage, her first visit since Smith's departure in 1609, John Rolfe married her, not for any 'carnall affection; but for the good of this plantation, for the honour of our countrie . . .' When she met Smith again three years later in England, where she died, she was overcome with emotion-lost on the unsentimental captain. Smith reported: 'After a modest salutation, without any word, she turned about, obscured her face, as not seeming well contented; and in that humour . . . we all left her two or three houres, repenting my selfe to have writ she could speake English. But not long after, she began to talke, and remembered mee well what courtesies shee had done . . .' Finally she blurted out with tragic brevity: ' . . . They did tell us alwaies you were dead, and I knew no other till I came to Plimoth . . . because your Countriemen will lie much.'

It was to Jamestown that the 22 burgesses came in 1619 to sit in the first legislative body in America; that 20 Negroes, forerunners of Virginia's future slaves, were brought and sold the same year; and that the first considerable number of Virginia 'maides' were consigned a year later. By 1623, a year after the first massacre, there were only 183 inhabitants and 22 dwellings in Jamestown itself, which had not extended beyond the four original acres.

With the growth of the tobacco trade and the extension of the cultivated area, Jamestown became important as the seat of government, but it never achieved any considerable size. In 1676, the year of Bacon's Rebellion, when the town was burned on September 19 to prevent its reoccupation by Governor Berkeley, it was described by Mrs. An Cotton in Bacon's Proceedings as having'16 or 18 houses, most as is the church, built of brick, faire and large; and in them about a dozen familees (for all of the howses are not inhabited) getting their liveings by keeping of ordnaries, at extreordnary rates.' Rebuilt, the town was burned by accident almost entirely in 1698, and the next year the capital was moved to Williamsburg. Jamestown remained a place of ruins, described in 1772 as 'an abundance of bricks and rubbish with three or four inhabited houses.'

In July 1781 Cornwallis, retreating with his British army before La Fayette, crossed the James here on his way to Portsmouth. In 1861 the Confederates built a Jamestown fort on the site of the first one; a year later the island was occupied by Union troops. It had become a briar-choked wilderness in 1893, when twenty-three and a half acres were acquired by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. In 1933 the State and the Federal Governments jointly purchased the island as a part of the Colonial National Historical Park.

The JAMESTOWN CHURCH TOWER, standing by the site of the earlier churches, is a bulky, ivy-draped brick ruin-part of the fifth church at Jamestown, whose construction was begun in 1639 and completed about 1654. This church has been reconstructed-buttresses and all-behind the tower. The first church, 'a homely thing like a barne and set upon cratchetts,' was built inside the stockade in May 1607. It was burned the next winter in the colony's first fire. The second church, a similar crude structure within the stockade, was the scene in 1608 of the first wedding in Virginia, when John Laydon married Anne Burras. After Lord Delaware's arrival in 1610, another church-the largest erected on the island-was built on a site west of the present tower. Here Pocahontas was baptized in 1614. This third church, also a frail structure, hastily erected, had become a ruin by 1617. Then Governor Samuel Argall directed the building of a smaller church. It was in this fourth wooden church that America's first representative lawmaking body, following a prayer by the Reverend Richard Buck, held its initial session on July 30, 1619. The fifth church, built around the fourth while that was still in use, was a buttressed rectangular structure of brick with a huge tower. This brick church, its interior and roof restored after the rebellion of 1676, survived the fire of 1698 and served James City Parish until the Revolution.

Relics in the church include an ironstone tablet, believed to be part of the tomb of Sir George Yeardley, royal governor, who died in 1627. In the tomb were found silver epaulettes and spurs. A 100-year-old sycamore separates the tombs of the Reverend James Blair and his wife Sarah; legend connects this tree with the curse of her father, Colonel Benjamin Harrison, who opposed their marriage and vowed to separate the couple. Other old stones include that of William Sherwood, ' a greate sinner.' A timeworn fragment identifies the grave of proud Lady Frances Berkeley, wife of Sir William and later of Colonel Philip Ludwell. 'Lady Berkeley' she remained, even on her tombstone.

The RELIC HOUSE, a small new building by the sea wall, contains a collection of small articles found during excavations and provides a souvenir stand and rest rooms.

The brick RUINS OF THE JACQUELIN-AMBLER HOUSE stand gauntly at the eastern end of the island. The first house, its construction begun about 1710 by Edward Jacquelin, was later acquired by Richard Ambler. Burned during both the Revolution and the War between the States and twice rebuilt, it was destroyed finally by fire in 1895.

JAMESTOWN-SCOTLAND FERRY (see Tour19) (hourly service 7 a.m.-9 p.m.; from April 15 to Nov. 1, extra half-hour service between 9 a.m. and 7 p.m.; Sun. and holidays extra service at 10 p.m. and 11 p.m.; car and driver $0.80, round trip $1, additional passengers $0.20, round trip $0.30, pedestrians $0.25).

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