Tour 11

(Marlinton,W.Va.)-Lexington--Buena Vista--Lynchburg-Brookneal--South Boston--(Roxboro, N.C.). State 501, US 501. West Virginia Line to North Carolina Line, 183.2 m.

Asphalt-paved except for a long graveled stretch west of Warm Springs. Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. parallels route between Glasgow and Lynchburg, Norfolk & Western Ry. between Lynchburg and North Carolina Line.

Limited accommodations and few filling stations west of Lexington. All types of accommodations elsewhere.

The western end of this route crosses the Allegheny and Blue Ridge Mountains--an area of great scenic beauty. The central and southern sections pass diagonally over the rolling Piedmont. With respect to both terrain and character of the people, the route presents a cross section of Virginia.

Section a. WEST VIRGINIA LINE to LYNCHBURG; 109.9 m.

State 501, US 501

Southeast of the West Virginia line, at the crest of the Allegheny Range, the highway crosses the Jackson and Cowpasture River valleys and follows the North River. Settlers reaching these fertile valleys toward the middle of the eighteenth century clung to their holdings in spite of relentless Indian raids. This is a region of mineral springs, in the nineteenth century promoted as therapeutical aids to sufferers from fashionable ailments. Transformed into recreational centers, the resorts of the Warm Springs Valley have prospered, while other once popular spas have been abandoned. State 501, a continuation of W.Va. 43, crosses the Virginia Line, 0 m., 9 miles east of Marlinton, W.Va. (see West Virginia Guide).

The SITE OF FORT DINWIDDIE (L), 13.1 m., is in the lowlands of the Jackson River. The stockaded structure was one of a chain, 15 to 30 miles apart, established in the mid-eighteenth century to guard the Virginia frontier against the Indians of the Ohio River Valley. George Washington, then a colonel, was in command of the project. He ordered Captain Peter Hog, commander of Fort Dinwiddie and good friend of Governor Dinwiddie, to raise a body of men, obtain tools, and work southward from Fort Dinwiddie. Because tools and men were scarce, progress was slow. Late in 1786 Washington wrote to the governor after inspecting the forts, 'I found them very weak for the want of men; but more so by indolence and irregularity.' Fort Dinwiddie was garrisoned from 1755 until 1789.

The entrance (R) to FASSIFERN FARM, a resort, is at 13.3 m. The small stone building down the hill (L) from the farmhouse was used as the clerk's office when Bath County was formed in 1791. Later the county seat was established at Warm Springs.

WARM SPRINGS, 18.4 m. (2,35o alt., 300 POP.) (see Tour 21a), is at a junction with US 220. At 20.3 m. is a junction with a dirt road.

Right here for a steep climb to FLAG ROCK, 0.7 m. (3,5oo alt.), a high lookout point.

At BATH ALUM SPRINGS, 24 m., a few decaying brick buildings remain to mark a once popular resort. Opposite the entrance to the grounds (R), at the base of a wall 100 yards from the highway, are springs of alum, iron, freestone, and lime water.

BLOWING CAVE (L), 31 m., entered through a three-foot hole in the cliff beside the highway, was listed as 'a natural curiosity' in Thomas Jefferson's Notes on Virginia.

WINDY COVE CHURCH (R), 31.3 m., a red brick structure built in 1838, is the third successor to a log church built by Presbyterians in the mid-eighteenth century.

At 31.4 m. is a junction with State 269.

Left here to GREEN VALLEY (L), 7.3 m., a long two-story frame house with a porch across the front. The clapboarding hides the logs of the oldest part of the structure, which served at one time as a stagecoach tavern. It had been built as an addition to a frontier cabin.

At 11.6 m. is a junction with County 625; L. here 0.2 m., to the SITE OF FORT LEWIS (L), once the home of Charles Lewis, youngest son of the founder of Staunton. It was protected about 1759 by a stockade, probably a crude affair, for it was called 'Lewis' Hog Pen.' Charles Lewis, like his brothers, was prominent in the affairs of the frontier. His lands included both Hot and Warm Springs. Lewis was killed in the Battle of Point Pleasant.

MILLBORO SPRINGS, 32.1 m., was once a resort.

Right from Millboro Springs on State 42 to a monument, 1.2 m., (L) in the woods, on the SITE OF THE FIRST WINDY COVE CHURCH-established by Presbyterians. Built about 1749, it was burned by Indians sometime after 1755, the year in which its first minister, uncertain of Presbyterian status in Virginia, emigrated to North Carolina.

At 2 m. is a junction with a dirt road ; R. here 0.4 m. to SITLINGTON GRAVEYARD (R), a burying yard with many ancient unlettered slabs. About a third of a mile below (L) is the SITE OF FORT DICKENSON, garrisoned in 1756, with 40 men. Washington, reporting to Governor Dinwiddie on the condition of the frontier forts, wrote: 'None I saw in a posture of defence, and few that might not be surprised with the greatest of ease.' One Arthur Campbell, a young militiaman in no 'posture of defence,' was captured here while picking wild plums in the neighboring thicket.

The highway crosses a boundary of GEORGE WASHINGTON NATIONAL FOREST at 35.6 m. GOSHEN, 40.1 m. (1,410 alt., 400 POP.), for sometime after 1890 a popular mountain resort, now produces textiles and refined glass sand, and quarries marble.

GOSHEN PASS, 45 m., is a gap four miles long cut through the mountains by the Maury River, flanked on both sides by towering walls of green-brilliantly splashed with rhododendron in spring and early summer. The gap was first called Dunlap Pass, for Alexander Dunlap, who early established a homestead near by.

John Lederer is believed to have used this pass in 1669 or 1670 on one of his 'marches' westward. Later it was used by other adventurers and by General Andrew Lewis on his way to Point Pleasant. The stream in the gap was named for Matthew Fontaine Maury (see Tour 10), who became so fond of the magnificent scenery here while teaching in Lexington that on his deathbed he requested his body to be taken through the gap before burial in Richmond. The MAURY MEMORIAL, 46.9 m., encircled with chains, is a granite shaft with a large iron anchor leaning against it.

ROCKBRIDGE BATHS, 50.8 m. (100 pop.), is merely a few stores and houses around the ruins of a resort, established in 1834 and so popular that it was sold for $150,000 in 1853. At that time as many as 400 guests registered in a single day.

Left from Rockbridge Baths on County 602 to the HAYES CREEK INDIAN MOUND (L), 2.5 m., which, when opened in 1901 by representatives of the Valentine Museum (see Richmond), was found to contain well-preserved skeletons buried in four levels. Though single burials were frequent, many bodies were found in groups. Several had been weighted down with large stones.

Left from the mound 0.5 m. by a foot trail to the foot of JUMP MOUNTAIN, where is the GRAVE OF MAJOR JOHN HAYES, of Daniel Morgan's riflemen. According to local tradition, Major Hayes requested to be buried near the Indian mound in order that he might see the Indians arise on judgment Day. The extent to which the Valentine Museum has interfered with Hayes's plans is a matter of conjecture.

LEXINGTON, 62.6 m. (946 alt., 3450 POP.) (see Tour 5b), is at junctions with US 11 (see Tour 5b) and US 60 (see Tour 8b). In Lexington, State 501 becomes US 501, which coincides eastward for a few miles with US 60.

Stretching between towering mountains and the North River is BUENA VISTA, 69.9 m. (1,000 alt., 4,002 pop.), with silk mills, paper manufacturing plants, a tannery, brick kilns, and a saddlery. Buena Vista was one of the boom towns brought forth by a promotion company in the last decades of the nineteenth century, when paper towns were being created throughout western Virginia. A report of 1889 reads, 'The lande estate of the Buena Vista Company has been made by the consolidation of the historic iron and agricultural lands of Sam'l F. Jordan, known as the Buena Vista property, the Green Forest farm and the Hart's Bottom farm; all together making about 13,000 acres . . . Most of the lands of Green Forest and Hart's Bottom, amounting to over 1,000 acres, have been laid off into streets and building lots.'

GREEN FOREST (R), in a wooded area at the northern edge of town, with a large brick house having a two-storied porch, was established in the late eighteenth century by Arthur Glasgow, the immigrant who became a great-grandfather of Ellen Glasgow (see Richmond).

The SOUTHERN SEMINARY AND JUNIOR COLLEGE, on an elevation, is a girls' school whose main building is a towered brick structure.

In Buena Vista is a junction with US 501; R. here on US 501.

At 78.8 in. is a junction with State 249.

Right here to GLASGOW, 0.2 in. (500 POP.), the remnant of a town established in 1890. General Fitzhugh Lee was president of the promotion company. Neither the large hotel nor the power plant, hopefully built, was ever operated, and industries failed to materialize.

In December 1742, Captain John McDowell (see Tour 5b) and seven militiamen were killed near by in the first fight with the Indians in this vicinity. Captain McDowell had entertained the natives for a day on apparently friendly terms. But after the warriors left they hunted for a week or more along the South River and pillaged in the neighborhood. Captain McDowell raised a body Of 34 men to expel the Indians from the area; in the fight that followed, there were casualties on both sides. GLASGOW MANOR, with brick walls laid in Flemish bond , was built in 1810 by Joseph Glasgow, a son of Arthur Glasgow. The house was extensively remodeled at the time the town was established.

On State 249 is NATURAL BRIDGE STATION (L), 3.4 m. of the Norfolk and Western Ry. Left here 0.5 m. on County 685 to County 1004 and R. to ARNOLD'S VALLEY (picnicking, boating, fishing, facilities and campsites), 4-8 m., a recreational area in the Jefferson National Forest. Close to the lake is a cascade that tumbles 80 feet, and a lookout point that commands a view of distant mountain ranges.

State 249 continues to US 11 at NATURAL BRIDGE, 6.3 m. (see Tour 5b).

BALCONY FALLS, 80.8 m., is a series of rapids in the beautiful gap, four miles long, cut by the James through the Blue Ridge. Because the James and the Potomac are the only streams offering possibilities of water transportation between Chesapeake Bay and the valleys beyond the range, plans were made for their utilization as early as 1772.

Although the first section of the James River Canal was opened in 1789, more than 50 years had passed and $8,000,000 had been spent before the canal was carried beyond Balcony Falls. However, sluice navigation was being used by 1816. Long narrow batteaux loaded with produce were guided through the tortuous channel by boatmen whose services drew high pay. The railroad through this pass was completed in 1881.

SNOWDEN, 84. m., consists of a half dozen houses around a plant generating electricity from the fall of the river.

BIG ISLAND, 90 m (500 POP.), scattered between the highway and river centers around a plant manufacturing paper from pine pulp.

The highway climbs to EAGLE's EYRIE (L), 97.6 m., on the crest of the mountains, a large house built during the World War by Baron Quarles von Offert, a German refugee.

Right from Eagle's Eyrie on a dirt road several hundred yards to SUNSET LEDGE, which affords a wide view.

LYNCHBURG, 109.9 m. (731 alt., 40,661 pop.) (see Lynchburg), is at a junction with US 29.

Right from Lynchburg on US 460 to County 661, 7.4 m., and L. 0.6 m. to POPLAR FOREST (private), one of the most interesting of the houses designed by Thomas Jefferson. The octagonal brick 'country house' stands among poplars within a whitefenced octagon of ground. A formal portico with four slender Roman Doric columns and a perfectly proportioned fanlight in the pediment faces the box-bordered drive. From inconspicuous projections at the sides--accommodating the stairs and pantry--low terraces run out to turf-covered mounds, which screen various outbuildings that include octagonal privies, standing like sentry boxes and imitating the house. The sloping ground on the southern side gives the house two stories in the rear, where a second portico above a basement arcade faces a broad lawn.

The interior, finished simply, is divided into four rooms around a central hall 20 feet square. This hall, lighted only from above, is the dining room, from which one of Jefferson's renowned dumb-waiters descends to the kitchen below. Opposite the entrance passage is the drawing room, which opens through French windows onto the portico that overlooks the garden. In the bedrooms Jefferson as usual placed the beds in alcoves.

This property of more than 4,000 acres came into Jefferson's hands through Martha Wayles Skelton, whom he married in 1772. In order to superintend the management of the plantations, he came here often and stayed in the two-room cottage, then the only dwelling. It was while on such a visit in 1781 that he was thrown from his horse and suffered the enforced confinement that enabled him to write his Notes on Virginia. That same year Colonel Tarleton raided Poplar Forest, hoping-but failing-to find his important and long-sought quarry. In 1806 Jefferson began to build the present house according to plans be had drawn for Pan tops, one of his farms near Monticello. Although the building was finished within three years he continued to add details from time to time. The plantation, called Bedford at first, was his favorite retreat from the persistent admirers of his later years. In 1821 he praised its 'tranquility and retirement much adapted to my age and indolence.' The house was later gutted by fire. As restored, it lacks the original balustrade along the parapet, the pediment over the garden portico, depth of entablature, and the purity of style in which Jefferson executed the interior woodwork.

BEDFORD, 23.A m. (900 alt., 3,719 POP.), is both the financial and geographical center of Bedford County and the seat of its government. Wide and shaded residential streets spread out from a business section crowded against the narrow thoroughfare by hills. To the west the land rises toward the Peaks of Otter (4,000 alt.), which form three massive blue humps on the skyline.

In the town are tobacco warehouses, the oldest automobile tire factory in Virginia, a mill that weaves cloth for military uniforms, a plant that manufactures asbestos products, and a label printing establishment.

After Campbell County was taken from the large Bedford area in 1781, the county seat was moved from New London (see Tour 4A) to a tract donated by William Downey and Joseph Fuqua. The new settlement was officially named Liberty, but local People called it Bedford Court House. In 1890 it was incorporated as Bedford City, shortened in 1912 to the present form.

The COURTHOUSE, a red brick building facing a small square, was constructed in 1930. The CONFEDERATE MONUMENT, an attractive monolithic obelisk in the court square, is a pleasing departure from the conventional soldier statue. The large stone in the courthouse square was chipped from the block used in cutting the stone that caps the Washington Monument in the Nation's capital.

Bedford County was formed in 1753 from Lunenburg County and Albemarle County and named for John Russell, Duke of Bedford.

The ELKS NATIONAL HOME for the aged, established in 1902, is housed in several pink stuccoed buildings.

Right from Bedford on State 43 to a junction with County 614, 12.9 M., where, after passing between the PEAKS OF OTTER (R) FLAT TOP (4,001 alt.) and (L) SHARP TOP (3,875 alt.)-the highway will join the proposed Blue Ridge Parkway (see Tour 4A and Tour 10). State 43 will be diverted south of a lake (2,505 alt.) to be formed north of this junction. Recreational areas (camping, boating, swimming, picnicking) will be provided.

Left on County 614 a short distance to (L) a toll road (adm. 50 cents) leading 2 m. to SHARP TOP, a popular point for sunrise parties At 52.4 m. on US 460 is a junction with US 11 (see Tour 5b) in ROANOKE (950 alt., 69,206 pop.) (see Roanoke).

Section b. LYNCHBURG to NORTH CAROLINA LINE; 73.3 m.
US 501

This section of highway traverses the rolling country of the south-central Piedmont. It passes through forests, farms producing diversified crops, and the tobacco belt. Towns are small and infrequent in the northern part of the route, but there are a few charming villages and one city in the lower section.

South of LYNCHBURG, 0 m., at 2.3 m. is a junction with US 460.

Left on US 460 to State 24, 18.5 m., and L. to the SURRENDER GROUNDS AT OLD APPOMATTOX COURTHOUSE, 21.3 m. (see Tour 3).

RUSTBURG, 10.4 m. (350 POP.), is a leisurely village, established on land donated in 1783 by Jeremiah Rust for the seat of the newly formed Campbell County. The Comprehensive Gazetteer of 1835 said that Rustburg then had a population of 100, twelve houses, two taverns, one classical and one common school, two stores' a tanyard, 'several mechanics,' two physicians, and three attorneys. 'The mails,' it said, 'arrive and depart three times a week. The public buildings are large, neat and commodious.'

The CAMPBELL COUNTY COURTHOUSE, in a generous square, is a red brick structure built in 1848 to replace one that burned. Campbell County, formed in 1781 from the eastern part of the vast Bedford area, was named for General William Campbell, who the year before had won fame in the Battle of King's Mountain.

Facing each other are two old taverns. The FOUNTAIN HOTEL, a low rambling frame building with long low porch, has been in service since April 1786 when Bernard Finch was granted leave to keep an ordinary in his home. The RUSTBURG INN, established sometime after the Fountain Hotel, is a plain frame building.

GLADYS, 19.6 m. (200 POP.), was called Connelly's Tavern in the days when it was a relay station for mail brought overland by a carrier on horseback. Later it became Pigeon Run because of the extensive roosts of wild pigeons in the neighborhood.

1. Left from Gladys on County 65 2 to County 650, 1.7 m., and L. to SHADY GROVE (L), 2.1 m., home of Captain Alexander Spotswood Henry, son of Patrick Henry. The story-and-a-half brick house, with dormer windows, is set above a high basement. Window and door framing, the porch, and cornices are ornamented with beading, honeycombing, and dentils. This house, erected on one of the many pieces of land bought by Patrick Henry for his children, was built by Dr. George Cabell as a wedding present for his daughter, Paulina, who married Captain Henry in 1814.

2. Right from Gladys on State 126 to LONG ISLAND, 7.3 m. (100 pop.), on the Staunton River, named for a large island opposite, on which Patrick Henry was living as early as 1793, when he wrote to his daughter, Betsey Aylett, 'We shall go to Red Hill, 18 miles below this, in a few days, to spend eight months, but spend the sickly months here.' In the autumn of 1794 he complained of the 'solitude' of Long Island, told of being 'very sickly with the ague,' and remarked on deaths from 'the flux' in the neighborhood. In this letter Henry announced without enthusiasm, 'We have another son, named Winston,' and added that he had decided to 'give out the law, and plague myself no more with business, sitting down with what I have.'

BROOKNEAL, 31.3 m. (692 pop.), is in rolling country near the confluence of the Falling and Staunton Rivers and clouded with dust from a plant that crushes feldspar for making pottery. New brick buildings mark the trail of three fires that destroyed parts of the town during recent decades. The town has a small tobacco market, a peanut processing plant, grist mills and stores that cater to the farmers of the neighborhood. This little settlement, named for the Brooke and Neal families, is on land where was established a tobacco inspection depot about 1790. Soon, a ferry was bringing tobacco from plantations and a settlement had appeared that in 1802 was established as a town.

font size=-1>Left from Brookneal on State 40 to County 605, 2.8 m.; L. here 1.2 m. to County 601; R. to HAT CREEK PRESBYTERIAN CHURcH (R), 4.6 m., a small white frame structure on the site of a log church built about 1742 by Scotch-Irish Presbyterians from Pennsylvania. For more than 40 years Hat Creek was the only church in the scattered Hat Creek community; after a second building had been erected here, members of other churchless denominations were invited to join in services. There was a tempest in a teapot when an itinerant evangelist, one William Dodson, lured a prominent elder and his family from the Presbyterian to the Baptist fold and with a torchlight ceremony immersed his new converts at midnight in Little Falling River.

On State 40 is a junction with County 600, 3.9 m.; R. here 1.9 m. to County 619 and L. to a junction at 2.8 m. with County 677; R. on this road, 1.6 m., to RED HILL, a modern frame house, on the site of one of Patrick Henry's many homes. For two years after Henry bought Red Hill, he divided his time between it and Long Island, then, in 1796, 'fixed his home' here. A family tradition is that Henry, standing in the house yard, would give orders to slaves working half a mile away, his voice carrying distinctly. In failing health, he refused high official appointment and a sixth term as Virginia's governor to lead the life of a country squire. The two youngest of his fifteen children by two marriages were born here. Only once--on the personal appeal of George Washington in January 1799--did the old warrior buckle on his armor and do battle in a political campaign. At Charlotte Courthouse he made his last speech-a fiery appeal for the support of the Federal Administration. In June of that year he died.

HENRY'S GRAVE, in the boxwood-bordered family burying ground, is marked, 'His fame his best epitaph.'

On County 619, at 6.4 m., is the entrance (R) to STAUNTON HILL. The Gothic revival mansion, on a low hill in a large landscaped and wooded park, is an austere battlemented mass of gray stucco with turrets and pointed windows. A long porch has slender marble columns separated by shallow broad arches.

The house has 114 rooms of baronial proportions, in addition to kitchens and servants' quarters that face a long granite-flagged colonnade at the rear. The interior is richly ornamented in English Gothic style. The five-room lodge and plantation office is also modified Gothic in design, with deep gables and traceried eaves.

In 1848, when Charles Bruce began to build this house, marble for pillars, mantels, and floor sections was brought from Italy to Philadelphia, where it was fashioned. It was shipped from Philadelphia by way of Albemarle Sound and up the Staunton in batteaux to the plantation landing. ,

On State 40 is PHENIX, 12.9 m., (100 pop.), a small shopping center.

Right from Phenix 2.7 m. on State 26 to County 649; and R. to County 619, 5.2 m.; R. here to the SITE OF CUB CREEK PRESBYTERIAN MEETING HOUSE (R), 6 m. A few rough gravestones and the foundations of the second church, built about 1800, and burned in 1937, mark the site of the little log church built here about 1742, one of the six churches of the first Presbytery of Virginia. A tall poplar is traditionally the shelter for the first crude pulpit around which the congregation gathered while outposts, armed with rifles, watched for lurking Indians. Founders of Cub Creek Church, as at Hat Creek, were Ulster Scotch-Irish. HOUSE, 19.6 m. (366 pop.), seat of Charlotte

On State 40 is CHARLOTTE COURTHOUSE, built in 1823, 19.6m. (366 pop.), seat of Charlotte County, trading center, and gathering place for county residents on Saturdays and court days.

The COURTHOUSE built in 1823, is the third. A court record of 1788 says that 'some evil disposed person had burned the first. Charlotte County, formed from Lunenburg in 1764, was named for Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg, young queen of George III. At Charlotte Courthouse during the political campaign of 1799 Patrick Henry and John Randolph of Roanoke matched oratory. It was the aged Henry's last appearance in public life, and Randolph's first.

Scotch-Irish Presbyterians and Huguenots, following the English into Charlotte County, fell easily under the influence of Methodist and Baptist evangelists.

Church customs of the late eighteenth century still prevail in Charlotte County. Women are found sitting together on one side of the middle aisle, and men on the other. It is a happy day indeed when a little boy graduates to the pews that no skirt ever touches. A timid bridegroom sometimes sheepishly sits beside his bride for a Sunday or two but it is a sign that the honeymoon is over when he returns to his brethren. During Sunday School and the first hymn and the long prayer the men remain outside the church. Someone gives the signal for entrance as the preaching begins, In the summer the 'protracted meeting' dots the monotony of the year like a fiery exclamation point. When crops are laid by' a preacher arrives for one or two weeks to minister to the souls of saints and to call sinners to repentance. Young and old flock to the all-day meetings, while perspiration melts 'biled' collars and mingles with the permanent mustiness of the church. Dinner, spread on long tables in the grove nearby, is an important feature. There is a rivalry among housewives as the board is loaded with fried chicken, piled high on paper plates, home-cured hams, legs of lamb, roast beef, and sometimes whole shoats. Chess pies-made by mysterious processes-and meringues and potato custards and cakes, variously colored and curiously ornamented, are drawn from beneath the covers of hampers. Every woman brings her best pickles and all the preserves and jellies by which her housewifery can be judged. At the end of the protracted meeting there is time for the people to recover before they need 'get in' the crops.

At 24 m. is a junction with County 656; R. here 0.6 m. to GREENFIELD (R), built by Isaac Read in 1730.

On County 656 at 2.6 m. is a junction with County 655; R. here 0.9 m. to County 651 and R. to ROANOKE BRIDGE (R), 1.1 m., a house built by Colonel Joseph Morton on land granted by George 11. When Colonel Morton settled here, his nearest neighbor was 30 miles away.

On State 40 is a junction with US 15, 30.4 m. (see Tour 3.)

VOLENS, 40.8 m., is a crossroads village with a haphazard line of frame dwellings along the highway, several stores, and a county consolidated school.

Left from Volens on County 644 to County 646, 1.5 m.; L. here to County 641, 3.8 m., and L. to CATAWBA BAPTIST CHURCH (L), 5 m., a small frame building, painted white. On the opposite side of the road stood the church built in 1773. In 1785 the persuasive William Dodson arrived at Catawba, ousted the minister, and remained as pastor for two years.

At 45.8 m. on US 501 is a junction with County 754.

Left here to MILLSTONE CHURCH (R), 0.1 m. The Baptist congregation here was planted by the ubiquitous William Dodson in 1787, after he had left the Catawba.

The highway crosses the BANISTER RIVER, 53.7 m., spread out to a great lake by the dam of the Halifax hydroelectric plant.

At 54.7 m. is a junction with US 360 (see Tour 20b), which is united with US 50, to HALIFAX, 55.4 m., (753 POP.), the southern junction with US 360.

At 56.9 m. is a junction with County 654.

Right here to GREEN'S FOLLY (L), 0.5 m., built about 1775 by Berryman Green, captain of the Light Dragoons and quartermaster on Washington's staff during the Revolution. The house, a tall white landmark, is of frame, two-and-a-half stories high and built in three sections. The two-story recessed portico has been enclosed and a free-standing portico, with square columns and a balustrade above the eaves, has been added. Dormers and a side porch also are new. When Green built his house before going away to war, he was clerk of Halifax County. He made the hall of his home large enough for use as a courtroom. Here county business was transacted until about 1800. The great hall and the size of the house in this, then remote, section gave the place its name.

SOUTH BOSTON, 60.7 m. (318 alt., 4,841 pop.), on the Dan River in the middle of the bright tobacco belt of the border counties, is the business center of Halifax County and one of the country's leading tobacco markets. Since its growth dates from the late decades of the nineteenth century, it has many red brick Victorian mansions among its more modem stuccoed and frame houses and bungalows. Although there are a cotton mill and a few other small industrial plants, the tobacco market dominates the town. Annually in September business and civic organizations sponsor, a tobacco festival. A queen with attendants, chosen with much publicity, rules over a pageant, parade, and ball.

The town was chartered in 1796, nearly a century before it was incorporated in 1884. The settlement was made on land bought from George Carrington for 2,000 pounds and disposed of in half-acre plots by lottery. Buyers were given five years to build dwellings with brick or stone chimneys.

Right from South Boston on State 152 to County 682, 0.7 m.; R. here to County 659, 3 .,and L. to BERRY HILL (L), 4.1 m., an imposing ante-bellum house at the head of a wide circular driveway. The mansion was modeled after the Parthenon, with eight Doric columns of fluted white marble supporting pediments on both front and rear. In adapting the Greek temple to the requirements of a plantation home, the architect departed from the classical design and made the house far broader than deep.

In the great hall, 25 by 40 feet, twin flights of stairs rise along the side walls to a landing at the second floor level and curve together again high above the center of the hall to reach the third floor.

At the rear of the house a colonnaded avenue leads to broad terraced and landscape gardens with flowering trees, shrubs, and evergreens, including cape jasmine, mimosa, and borders of towering boxwood, cedars, and lilacs.

James Coles Bruce, who built Berry Hill in the 1830's, was the oldest son of James Bruce, of Woodburn, Halifax County. The older Bruce, beginning with a chain of small general stores, amassed before his death in 1837 one of the largest fortunes of his day. In the decade before the War between the States the fortune of James Bruce, estimated at $4,000,000, including 3,000 slaves, was the largest in the South.

At 61.3 m. is a junction with US 58 (see Tour 7b). At 66.3 m. is a junction with County 658.

Right here to CLUSTER SPRINGS, 0.7 m. a shaded hamlet named for small lithia springs near by, well known in the days when it was fashionable to ' take the waters.'

At 73.3 m. US 501 crosses the North Carolina Line, 13 miles north of Roxboro, (see North Carolina Guide).

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