Tour 20

Tappahannock-Richmond-Amelia-Burkeville-Halifax-Danville; 201.8 m. US 360.

Asphalt-paved throughout.

Southern Ry. parallels route between Richmond and Danville.

All types of accommodations in towns.

Southwest of the Rappahannock River US 360 traverses Tidewater lowlands and woodlands. West of Richmond it passes through the tobacco lands of the southside.

Section a. TAPPAHANNOCK to RICHMOND; 46.5 m. US 360.

This section of the highway, paralleling the early zigzag post road, is the main thoroughfare between the once-isolated Northern Neck and the State capital.

East of the Rappahannock US 360 belongs to the Northern Neck (see Tour 16a). In TAPPAHANNOCK, 0 m. (427 POP.) (see Tour 6a), on the western bank, US 3 6c, meets US 17 (see Tour 6a), with which it unites to BRAY'S FORK, 2.4 m., where US 360 swings R.

MILLER'S TAVERN, 9 m., a hamlet named for an early stage station, is at a junction with County 620.

Right here to the SITE OF THE MATTAPONI VILLAGE, 3.9 m., on Piscataway Creek.

After the massacre of 1644, the Indians, driven from Pamunkey Neck, moved northward, settling here, where they lived peacefully until 1668.

MT.ZION CHURCH (L), 5.2 m., built in 1854, a small brick rectangle, belonging to a congregation organized secretly March 113, 1774. Ministers at the first meeting, John Waller, John Shackleford, Robert Ware, and Ivison Lewis were arrested and all except Lewis, who had not spoken, were thrown into jail. Near by at Piscataway, now called Dunbrooke, followers of Nathaniel Bacon clashed with supporters of Governor Berkeley in July 1676. After the fight Bacon's forces marched to the Pamunkey River, where their leader joined them.

ST.PAUL'S CHURCH (R), 10.1 m., a small brick building, has a graceful, diamondpaned window above two doors with lintels. St.Paul's of South Farnham Parish was built in 1838 to replace a church destroyed about 1820.

At 14.3 m. is a junction with County 631.

Left here to SHEPHERD'S CHURCH (L), 0.3 m., a simple brick structure built in 1859 by a Methodist congregation organized about 179o at the home of William Shepherd.

ST.STEPIIEN'S CHURCH, 16.3 m., a crossroads community that has taken the name of a former church of St.Stephen's Parish, is at a junction with State 14.

HOLLY HILL (L), 17.6 m., is a tall brick L-shaped house built about 18 ic, by the Fauntleroys. Samuel Fauntleroy was the last person in this section to abandon his 'coach and four'; his arrival in high style at church was always an event.

AYLETTS, 18.9 m. (250 pop.), by the formerly navigable Mattaponi, was named for the Aylett family on whose land it was founded. Before the War between the States the town bristled with activity each Tuesday and Friday, when people of the countryside drove in to meet the stage, which brought the 'United States mail' -- including newspapers. The lumbering stage, drawn by four horses, ran between Tappahannock and Richmond; on its 'boot' were trunks, and on its top packages and mail bags. 'Mail days'were shopping days and people brought their lunches with them. In 1856 Ayletts had a carriage factory, an iron foundry, tailoring and millinery shops, a tavern, harness and saddlemaking plants, and a variety of stores.

MONTVILLE (L), 20 m., an Aylett estate, was a home of Patrick Henry's daughter Elizabeth, who married Philip Aylett. William Aylett built twin frame houses here, one of them for Patrick Henry Aylett. That young man, supplied with two horses, a Negro, $5oo, and a gold watch that belonged to his grandfather Patrick Henry, went to practice law in Tennessee but returned to Virginia and became a prominent attorney.

At 21.4 m. is a junction with State 30.

Right here to County 639, 0.8 m., and L. 0.2 m. to CAT-TAIL CHURCH (L), a simple low-pitched brick structure erected in 1751. Twin frame towers and Outside flues designed as Gothic buttresses have been added and the walls have been covered with stucco. The church was first in St.Margaret's Parish, constituted in 1721, but subsequent changes placed it in St.David's. After the disestablishment, the building was used by other denominations. About 1850 Cat-Tail was given to Negro Baptists.

At 10. 1 m. on State 30 is a junction with County 638; L. here 0.2 m. to MANGOHICK CHURCH (L), built in 1732 and starkly unornamented. Its walls rise to a steeply gabled roof. 'The new Brick church' that Colonel William Byrd passed in 1732 on his way to the mines was later given the name of an Indian tribe that had lived in the vicinity. Mangohick, first a church of St.Margaret's Parish, then of St.David's, was deserted by its communicants after the Revolution. In 1825 the Union Baptist Church was organized here, with both white and Negro members. In 1854 the white members moved to a new building.

At 15.5 m. on State 30 is a junction with State 2 (see Tour Ia).

CENTRAL GARAGE, 22.4 m., is at a junction with State 30 (see Tour 2).

At 24.6 m. is a junction with County 618.

Left here to FONTAINEBLEAU (L), 1.4 m., where the foundations of the former'great house,' destroyed in 1932, now form the enclosure of a garden. In the garden and about the grounds are figures of animals, fauns, and wood nymphs, the handiwork of a resident of the small brick house that remains. Her studio is an abandoned streetcar, gaily decorated.

Fontainebleau was the home of Colonel William Spotswood Fontaine (1880-82). He was a great-grandson and his wife was a granddaughter of Patrick Henry, a fact that helped save the ante-bellum house when Federal soldiers came here. The family had fled to a neighboring plantation. The furniture had been piled in the hall and saturated with kerosene, when a subordinate officer noticed a portrait of Patrick Henry and questioned the servants about it. Discovering that the house belonged to descendants of the Revolutionary hero, the officer ordered the soldiers away.

US 360 crosses the PAMUNKEY RIVER, 27.4 m., a narrow winding stream fringed by dense woodlands and giant sycamores.

At 29 m. is a junction with County 605

I. Left here to the SITE OF NEW CASTLE, 0.8 m., on the bank of the Pamunkey. When seen by the Marquis de Chastellux the'little capital' contained 'twenty-five or t~irty houses, some of which are pretty enough.' The New Castle fairs were gala occasions, with 'Horse Races and several other Diversions.' In 1737 subscribers proposed: 'that 20 Horses or Mares do run round a three-mile Course for a Prize of Five Pounds . . . that a Violin be played for by 20 Fiddlers; no person to have the liberty of playing unless he bring a fiddle with him; after the prize is won, they are all to play together and each a different tune, and to be treated by the company . . . that a Flag be flying on said Day 30 feet high; that a handsome Entertainment be provided for the subscribers and their wives; and such of them as are not so happy as to have wives may treat any other Lady; . . . that a Quire of Ballads be sung for by a number of Songsters, all of them to have liquor sufficient to clear their WindPipes.'

At New Castle in May 1775 Patrick Henry assembled the Hanover County Militia to force Governor Dunmore to return the colony's powder taken from the Powder Horn.

2. Right from US 360 on County 605 to the SITE OF HANOVERTOWN (R) 3.9 m., a few scattered houses. In 1751 this place, then called Page's Warehouse, missed by a few votes being made the State capital. John Blair, incensed because the prestige of Williamsburg was threatened, accused Speaker John Robinson of having been 'at the bottom of this hellish plot.' Page's Warehouse became a town, however, when, in 1762, the general assembly directed that ioo acres be laid off with streets and lots and be called Hanover.

Here the Virginia Militia assembled to await orders May 29, 17 76. There was a hospital here during the Revolution, and at the wharves army ordnance was loaded and unloaded. After the Revolution British prisoners were kept here for several weeks, and did 'as they please burnt three empty houses. all fences within half a mile of town, and most piling around their garders.' Here, on May 27-28, 1864, Grant's army crossed the Pamunkey in his attempt to advance on Richmond.

SUMMER HILL (R), 4.9 m., a frame house, was the home of Colonel William B. Newton of the Confederate army. Here Gcneral Grant stopped a few days in 1864 after crossing the river at Hanovertown. Finding the family ill and with little food, he sent them a wagonload of provisions from his headquarters at Cold Harbor. Two years before, Captain William Latan, killed at Linney's Corner, June 13, had been buried in the Summer Hill burial lot near the house. The funeral service was read by Mrs. Willoughby Newton of Westmoreland County, who was a refugee in Hanover. The incident inspired 'The Burial of Latan' painting by William D. Washington and a poem by John R. Thompson.

MARLBOURNE (L), at 30.7 m., is the burial place and one time home of Edmund Ruffin (see Tour 19). The frame, two-story house, overlooking broad lowlands, has a two-story porch and one-story wings.

Moving to Marlbourne in 1843, Ruffin here developed fully his agricultural practices and received ample reward, monetary and honorary, for his incessant labors. He forsook experimental farming in 1855 to promote secession, and traveled through the South making fiery speeches. At Charleston he was allowed to fire the first shot on Sumter. Too old for military service, Ruffin retired to Marlbourne where he stayed until the approach of Union troops.

At 31.9 m. is a junction with County 6o6.

I. Left here to OLD CHURCH, 1.5 m., an almost deserted village that was once a trading center. The tavern, no longer accommodating guests, is part brick and part frame with a two-story full length porch. Near by is the SITE OF THE OLD CHURCH, built in 1718 and rebuilt in 1753. The Reverend Patrick Henry, uncle of the orator, was rector for 40 years.

2. Right from US 36o on County 606 to LINNEY'S CORNER, 0.3 m. (see Tour 1A).

Southward, US 36o traverses battle grounds of the Seven Days' Campaign of 1862 and of the Cold Harbor Campaign of 1864. McClellan, advancing up the Peninsula in 1862, fought a drawn battle at Seven Pines (see Tour 8a) and one month later was defeated in a series of battles and forced to abandon his drive on Richmond.

After the fighting at the Wilderness and at Spotsylvania in May 1864, Grant moved toward Richmond. Finding the Confederates in a strategic position on the North Anna River, he swung eastward, then southward. Lee continued to parallel Grant, keeping always between Richmond and the Federal army. After lingering in this vicinity for three days, the armies moved to Cold Harbor.

The SITE OF BETHESDA CHURCH (L) is at 35.1 m. Among Brady's photographs of war scenes is one showing Grant and his staff seated on benches before the church.

REMNANTS OF BREASTWORKS (L), 35.7 m., mark the advanced position of Ewell's Confederate Corps, preceding the Battle of Cold Harbor in 1864.

MECHANICSVILLE, 40 m. (ioo pop.), is now a gathering of filling stations and brick barbecue stands but in ante-bellum days it had taverns, livery stables, and blacksmith shops, with hucksters' carts, farm wagons, and carriages about them -- 'the last stop' on the stage-route to Richmond. On the hill (R) is the wooden antenna tower of Radio Station WRVA.

Left here on State 156 to BEAVER DAM CREEK, 1.1 m., along which on June 26, 1862, was fought the Battle of Mechanicsville, or Beaver Dam Creek. Following three weeks of Federal inactivity, during which Jackson had marched from the Valley to Richmond, Lee ordered an attack here on McClellan's right wing, under General Fitz John Porter. Jackson and A.P.Hill, coming from the west, were to drive Porter from the town, thus opening the river bridge to Longstreet and D.H.Hill. Jackson delayed; A.P.Hill attacked prematurely; Porter fell back to his fortifications on this creek; and Longstreet and D.H.Hill, crossing, followed A.P.Hill. The battle lasted six hours, with no advantage to the Confederates. The following morning Porter abandoned his position and fell back to New Cold Harbor. Confederate losses were 1,350, Federal 361.

At 6.1 m. is a junction with a battlefield park road; R. here 0.5 m. to BOATSWAIN CREEK, across which, on June 27, 1862, was fought the Battle of Gaines' Mills, or New Cold Harbor. Porter had drawn up his corps on a hill to resist the advance of Lee's army. The Confederate attack, begun about 2 P.M., lacked co-ordination and until 7 had made little progress. About sundown Lee ordered a general advance without regard to connecting troops. Porter pushed back at dusk, crossed the river during the night and joined the main army. Federal losses were 6,83 7; Confederate 8,3 58.

Along State 156 is the BATTLEFIELD OF OLD COLD HARBOR with a contact station (information; riding horses rented) at 6.4 m. The field is within the Richmond National Battlefield Park; miles of trenches have been restored, and foot and bridle paths cross fields and earthworks. Farmlands here were the bloody ground of the 1862 campaign and of the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864, when, outnumbering Lee's army two to one, the Federals made a concerted attempt to dislodge the Confederates from entrenchments. Though the assault lasted only 22 minutes, the Federal losses were more than 7,000 compared with a Confederate loss of less than 2,000. Sporadic firing continued for some days, but no further assault was made.

From this battlefield Lee sent Early's corps to the Valley and Grant sent Sheridan westward to tear up the Virginia Central Railroad (see Tour 9) and to join General David Hunter, approaching Lynchburg. On June 12 Grant moved eastward to Wilcox's Landing (see Tour 24).

At 14.8 m. on State 156 is a junction with US 60 at SEVEN PINES (see Tour 8a).

At 42.4 m. are REMAINS OF THE INTERMEDIATE LINE, breastworks built in the 1860's. Richmond's defense included 25 inner forts and batteries, this encircling earthwork, and a third or outer line.

RICHMOND, 46.5 m. (15 to 2o6 alt., 182,929 POP.) (see Richmond).

In Richmond are junctions with US I (see Tour 1), State 2 (see Tour 1), US 33 (see Tour 9), US 250 (see Tour I 7a), State 6 (see Tour 23), US 6o (see Tour 8), State 10 (see Tour 19), and State 5 (see Tour 24).

Section b. RICHMOND to DANVILLE; 155.3 m. US 36o.

Southwest of Richmond US 360 traverses a country of small farms and scattered villages with here and there a plantation established prior to the Revolution. In the middle section are scenes of the stirring events of the last tragic days of the Confederate army, as Lee's troops retreated westward from Petersburg. Near Danville bright leaf tobacco dominates country and village life; tobacco fields and curing barns are constantly in sight. In RICHMOND, 0 m., US 36o runs south on 14th St. to Hull St. and straight ahead on Hull St.

At 22.7 m. is a junction with County 605

Left here to State 153, 4.9 m., and R. to abandoned water-filled pits of the CLOVER HILL MINES, 5.7 m., opened about 1840. These workings were in the Richmond coal basin, a low grade bituminous seam developed in 1770. As early as 1789 Richmond coal was shipped to Philadelphia.

State 153 becomes County 602, which continues to County 664, 6.4 m.; L. here to the mile-long entrance lane (L), 8.1 m., of EPPINGTON, built in the 1730's. The two-and-a-half story central block of the house is flanked by one-story wings, designed with beautiful proportions. The walls of beaded weatherboard rise to a denticulated cornice under the eaves of a steep hip roof. Richard Eppes built the house on the plantation inherited from his father, Colonel Francis Eppes.

The crossroads settlement, SKINQUARTER, at 23.6 m., was so named, according to the story, because Indians gathered at a spring close by after hunts to skin and quarter their game.

The highway dips to cross the Appomattox River at GOODE'S BRIDGE, 29.2 m. Near by in July 17 8 1 General 'Mad Anthony' Wayne's Continentals took position to halt British troops, moving southward. On April 3, 1865, Hill's, Longstreet's, and Gordon's Corps of Lee's army crossed here in retreat from Petersburg.

At 36.7 m. is a junction with County 6og.

t here to ST.JOHN'S CHURCH (L), 3 m., first called Grubhill Church. The little brick building among old trees is simple, with high pitched roof, tall chimneys, and arched windows holding small, diamond-shaped panes. Erected in 1855, it replaced a church built before 1768. One Sunday, at the outbreak of the Revolution the Reverend John Brunskill, rector of the parish, arose and, 'seeing men dressed in regimentals, called them rebels and expressed himself indignantly to see such indications of a general rebellion . . . Whereupon nearly everyone . . . got up and left the house, not before warning him, however, never to repeat such language or he would receive harsh treatment added to disrespect.' The Tory parson was not allowed to hold further services but retained the title of rector and lived at the glebe until his death in 1803, 'after a solitary and uncomfortable life.'

The SITE OF THE FOREST (R) is at 6.4 m. This was the birthplace of John Banister Tabb (18451909), who was 17 when war broke out in 1861. Barred from army service by poor eyesight, he enlisted as captain's clerk on the blockade-runner, Robert E. Lee. In 1884 he entered the Roman Catholic priesthood and was later a member of the faculty of St.Charles College in Maryland. His poems had much popularity in the South.

At 9.9 m., by a junction with County 637, is a water-powered GRIST Mill (R) that has ground grain since about 1830. Left here 2 m. to THE WIGWAM (R), built by William B. Giles, congressman and governor of Virginia (1827-30). The frame house, now much dilapidated and marred by a late two-story porch, is T-shaped with deep, sloping roof pierced by dormers. The interior woodwork is richly carved.

AMELIA, 37.8 m. (333 alt., 887 POP-), seat and trading center of Amelia County, spreads small stores, filling stations, and warehouses along the highway. The green and shady Courthouse Square is bordered by a bank building, lawyers'offices, and small homes in flowery yards.

By the narrow margin of a few hours Amelia Courthouse escaped both a final battle in the War between the States, and the surrender. On April 4, 1865, Lee's harassed army arrived here on its retreat from Petersburg, failed to find expected provisions, and remained a day while foraging parties had frequent clashes with Federal cavalry and lost about 200 wagons. On the evening of the Sth, with Grant at Nottoway Courthouse to find the town evacuated. At Sailor's Creek that afternoon three Federal columns struck Lee's moving lines, captured 8,000 men, but failed to stop the retreat.

The AMELIA COUNTY COURTHOUSE, a red brick and white columned building, was built in 1924. Amelia County was created in 1734 from Prince George and Brunswick Counties and named for Princess Amelia, daughter of George II. Under the trees in the square is the CONFEDERATE MEMORIAL, a stalwart bronze soldier. In the CLERK'S OFFICE is a letter Patrick Henry wrote in 1797; in it he said that, 'having got some money,' he was in the market for a tract of land -- his perpetual state of mind.

Left from Amelia on State 38 to County 614, 1 m., and R. to DENNISVIFLLE, a hamlet that was the birthplace of Virginia Hawes Terhune (1831-1922), better known as Marion Harland, pioneer newspaper woman and versatile writer. Beginnmig before she was 16 with an article, 'Marrying through Prudential Motives,'which was published in Godey's Magazine, she wrote fiction, travel books, and lectured on various subjects, but her greatest reputation was as the author of cook books and syndicated newspaper articles on household topics.

JETERSVILLE, 46.5 m. (428 alt., Ioc, pop.), is a post office, store, and a few frame houses. While Lee's army was at Amelia, a partial Federal concentration took place here.

Right from Jetersville on County 642 to County 616, 7.8 tn., and R. to PAINESVILLE, 8.4 m., a handful of houses so named because a Tom Paine Infidel Club was organized here in Y.8oo. In this vicinity on the afternoon of April 5, x865, Sheridan's cavalry destroyed more than 200 Confederate supply wagons.

At 50.6 m. on US 36o is a junction with County 63 1.

Left here to County 61g, 2.3 m., and L. to a dirt road, 4.6 m.; L. again to the SITE or WEST CREEK, 4.9 m., home of Colonel Benjamin Ward. Here in July 1781 Peter Francisco, Virginia's Hercules of the Revolutionary War (see Tour 3), met in handtohand combat some of Tarleton's raiding dragoons, killed one, and seized their horses. Francisco fought off the dragoons with his broadsword and, pretending that Colonial troops were near, called lustily for help. The raiders made off, abandoning their dead comrade and nine horses. A popular steel engraving depicting the episode shows the dragoons falling back in terror, while the hero, his hair a bit ruffled, suffers only the loss of a garter.

JENNINGS' ORDINARY, at 52.9 m., is a scattered group of white frame dwellings named for an old stage station that has been so much remodeled as to have lost all semblance of antiquity.

Left here on County 615 to County 630, 3.6 m., and R. to MOUNTAIN HALL (L), 4.1 m., with high pitched hip roof and front and side porticos. The house was built about i8oo by Dr.James Jones, who served in Congress and was a surgeon in the War of 1812.

At 56.3 m. on US 36o is a junction with US 46o.

Left here to PIEDMONT SANATORIUM (L), 0. 7 m., a 150-bed State institution for the treatment of Negro tuberculosis patients.

In CREWE, 4.2 m. (2,15 2 pop.), business, and residential areas flank the huge Norfolk & WesternRy. roundhouse, Y.M.C.A. building, and yards. At the southeastern edge of town stands a new hosiery mill that migrated hither when Crewe citizens offered special inducements.

NOTTOWAY, 8.5 m. (50 POP.), seat of Nottoway County, is a handful of county buildings, dwellings, and a general store that may well be those described in Martin's Gazetteer of 1835: 'a courthouse, clerk's office and criminal and debtor's jail, besides IS dwelling houses, one mercantile house, one hotel, one saddler, one tailor and one blacksmith shop . . . population seventy persons.' On April 5, 186S, General Grant spent the night here.

The NOTTOWAY COUNTY COURTHOUSE, built in the 1830's, is a red brick structure with low wings and a white pedimented portico. Guarding its front entrance is the CONFEDERATE MONUMENT, a little soldier leaning wearily on his gun. Federal troopers ransacked the county clerk's office, hacked record books, and threw them into the courtyard horse trough. In one is scrawled 'Abraham Lincoln, President of Virginia 1865.'

The SITE OF ROSE HILL (R) is at 10.7 m. This was the birthplace of Roger A. Pryor (1828-igig), newspaper man, minister to Greece (1855), and congressman (1857-59). In 1861, having failed in efforts to influence secession in Virginia, he went to South Carolina where he made speeches urging that 'a first blow be struck.' 'The very moment,' he declared, 'that blood is shed Old Virginia will make common cause with her sisters of the South.' He was one of the four aides of General P. G.T.Beauregard. After the war he practiced law in New York, where he was a justice of the State supreme court.

BLACKSTONE, 15.3 m. (423 alt., 1772 POP.), is a tobacco market and trading center known before 1885 as Black's and White's for two taverns that faced each other across the route of the Petersburg-North Carolina stage.

Bishop James Cannon,jr. (I 864- ) was president of the college here from 1894 to 1918. As superintendent of the Anti-Saloon League of Virginia, he gained both limelight and political influence. In 1028 under his leadership Virginia voted against Alfred E. Smith, momentarily joining the Republican ranks.

BLACKSTONE COLLEGE, a Methodist Episcopal junior college for young women, is housed in buildings of modern design on a 34-acre campus at the edge of the town. Its student body numbers about 200.

BURKEVILLE, 5 7.3 m. (515 alt., 775 POP.), straddles the tracks of the railroads that cross here. As the railroad stop for the community near Burke's Tavern, the place was first called Burke's junction. Tarleton's British dragoons came here pil laging in July 1781, and in June 1864 Union cavalry, in order to cut off Confederate supplies to Richmond and Petersburg, tore up railroad tracks in the vicinity. On April 3, 1865, Jefferson Davis and cabinet passed through as they fled from Richmond to Danville; and three days later Union troops, pursuing the retreating Confederates, camped here.

In July Miss Ella G. Agnew was appointed State Home Demonstration Agent with Burkeville as her base and a program began in Nottoway and Halifax Counties that has provided an example for similar work among rural women all over the country.

Left from Burkeville on State 49 to the SITE OF NoTTOWAY MEETING HOUSE (R), 3.3. m. Granite blocks mark the four corners of a church built in 1769.

A handful of houses called HUNGRYTOWN, 10.7 m., was really named Hungarytown, for Hungarian settlers.

In VICTORIA, 16 m. (1,568 pop.), primarily an industrial town, haphazard rows of twostory red brick and frame buildings house drug stores, the variety store, the groceries, the 'cafe,' and dry goods emporia. The town has grown up around the shops of the Virginian Railway, a line carrying coal from West Virginia to Virginia seaports. The town ships lumber, some furniture, and silk. To bring the silk mill here, local citizens provided the plant and gave a period of tax-exemption.

I. Left (straight ahead) from Victoria 6.5 m. on State 40 to KENBRIDGE (753 pop.), which vies with Petersburg and South Hill as a leading market for bright tobacco. Among the usual rows of small stores are four tobacco warehouses, a tobacco redrying plant, a fertilizer plant, a cotton gin, and a flour mill. During the tobacco season the streets are as lively as those of much larger towns.

Right from Kenbridge 2.4 m. on County 63 7 to the SITE OF CRAIG'S MILL (L), operated in early days by James Craig, a Baptist minister. In July 1781 Tarleton's British raiders came here to carry off flour and meal, only to find that Craig, warned of their approach, had dumped his stock into the mill stream. The disappointed redcoat burned the mill, put the parson to work butchering his hogs for their use, and carried off his slaves.

2. Right from Victoria on State 49, here united with State 40, is LUNENBURG, 19.1 In. (35 POP.), seat of Lunenburg County, with a pleasant cluster of county buildings an unusually attractive country inn that dates from 1803, half a dozen substantial hite frame dwellings and a general store. The little crossroads settlement was incorporated in 18 16 as Lewiston.

The red brick COURTHOUSE, with an Ionic portico, was erected in 1826. Lunenburg County was cut from Brunswick County in 1746; its area has since been broken up into ten counties. Lunenburg was called The Old Free State in 1861, when its fiery citizens, irked at the delay of the Virginia Convention called to consider secession, threatened, in case Virginia should remain in the Union, to secede from the State and Nation.

At 58.1 m. on US 36o is a junction with County 62 1.

Right here to BURKE'S TAVERN (R), 1.3 m., built in 173 1. Now a dwelling, the two-and-a-half-story structure, with red brick first story and weatherboarded upper section, deep pitched roof and tall outside end chimneys, was a famous stage tavern stop.

GREEN BAY, 65.2 m. (588 alt., ioc, pop.), with a consolidated school and general stores, is a shipping point for pulpwood and railroad ties.

MEHERRIN, 68.7 m. (585 alt., 2oc, pop.), spreads along the highway with stores and small frame dwellings.

At 75.7 m. is a junction with US 15 (see Tour 3), which unites with US 360 for 19.7 miles.

At BARNES JUNCTION, 95.3 m., is the southern junction with US 15 (see Tour 3a)

Left here on State 47 to CHASE CITY, 8.6 m. (1,590 pop.), a tobacco market and trading center for farmers. Among the stores, tobacco warehouses, comfortable homes, and churches, a motion picture house with ultra-modern decorations is conspicuous.

CLOVER, 104.8 m. (486 alt., 2 5 1 pop.), its main street a mixture of business places and white frame homes, shade trees, and flowery yards, is a rural trading and social center. From this place, on the night of April 5, 1865, John S. Wise, 19-year-old son of the former governor, Henry A. Wise, secretly carried a telegram from President Davis, then at Danville, to General Lee, at Farniville. Leaving Farmville on April 7 with Lee's reply, young Wise recrossed the Federal lines and made his way back to Danville.

At 111.5 m. is a junction with County 725 and State 304.

I. Left on County 725 through SCOTTSBURG, 2.3 m. (100 pop.), to County 716, 7.3 m.; R. here 2.2 m. to FALKLAND FARM (L), a 7,ooo-acre hunting preserve with a rambling, white frame house on a hill. Here Henry Sydnor Harrison 1880-1930) began to write the novels that were popular in the early part of the twentieth centuryQueed, V. V.'s Eyes, and Angela's Business.

On County 725, at 10.8 m., is STAUNTON RIVER STATE PARK (open May 15 to Nov. I; adm. ioo, children under 10 free, overnight camping, 250; cabins $15 a weekfor 2 persons, $2o a weekfor 4, $5 for each additional person; reservations made at Virginia Conservation Commission, Richmond). This large recreational area contains a swimming pool and a wading pool.

2. Left from US 36o on State 304 to BANISTER LODGE (L), 2.1 m., a gaunt two-and-a-half story brick dwelling incorporating parts of the 20-room house built here about 182o by William H. Clark, whose wife was a granddaughter of Patrick Henry.

At 118.4 m. is a junction with US 501, which unites with US 360 to HALIFAX, 119.2 m. (753 pop.), seat of Halifax County. This charming town typifies the rural centers of romantic fiction, with a green and shady courthouse square, quiet-looking stores, and white-pillared homes set far back from the street among old oaks, magnolias, and evergreens. The only business is trade and county legal affairs, though in 1860 new railroad facilities caused it to change its name from Banister to Houston for a railroad executive, who was to be asked to send factories into the town. Unfortunately, the committee sent to New York to acquaint the gentleman with his new honor made the disastrous mistake of mispronouncing his name. Whereupon he denied his interest in the town and thereafter influenced no industries to come. In 1920 the little community went back to its historic designation as the county town of Halifax County.

GRAND OAKS, Main Street, in grounds beautiful with shrubbery, boxwood, and giant oaks, is a spacious red brick mansion with a whitecolumned two-story portico.

REST-A-WHILE, adjacent, a brick and white columned structure in traditional style, was called Elm Hill by its builder, Captain Henry Edmunds.

STJOHN'S CHURCH, diagonally across Main Street, is a nineteenth-century brick structure painted white, without ornament except fluted pilasters set into the walls and an octagonal cupola from which rises a slender spire. The Reverend Charles Dresser, rector here from 1823 to 1831, migrated to Illinois, where he performed the marriage ceremony of Abraham Lincoln and Mary Todd in 1842.

The METHODIST CHURCH, in the same block, built in 1827 as the first Episcopal church, was bought by the Methodists when StJohn's was built. Its brick bulk is relieved by a cupola.

OLD MASONIC TEMPLE, a simple red brick structure, was built about 1830.

HALIFAX COURTHOUSE, of red brick with white columned portico, stands among tall trees in a green square surrounded by a stone wall. At one side is a row of tiny red brick lawyers' offices and in front is the CONFEDERATE MONUMENT, the usual soldier on a pedestal. The county, organized in 1752 and then including what is now Halifax, Pittsylvania, Henry, Franklin, and Patrick Counties, was named for the Earl of Halifax. The first seat was at Peytonsburg now in Pittsylvania County. In 1800 it was established here.

In Halifax is a junction with US 501.

West of Halifax the highway runs between small farms, where tobacco is the chief crop and the fields are dotted with clay-chinked log barns in which the leaf is cured. Not even crossroads hamlets break the rural scene for many miles.

At 154.2 m. is a junction with US 29 (see Tour 4), which unites with US 36o into DANVILLE, 155.3 m. (408 alt., 22,247 POP.), spread over hills that slope gradually toward a wide bend in the Dan River.

This aggressive city, typical of the New South, is one of Virginia's purely industrial cities. While tobacco is the backbone of income in its shipping and trading activities, cotton manufacturing dominates the city. On both sides of the river sprawl huge textile mills and at the western edge of the city are more acres of red brick mills, fenced in and surrounded by a company town with rows of houses and the usual facilities of an independent community. Yet Danville is a Main Street town. An artery, on which seven main highways converge, climbs from the river on North Main Street through a cramped area of cotton mills and pungent, cavernous tobacco warehouses, redrying, and storage plants; reaches a business section where neon signs imitate the rainbow at night, and a I2-story Masonic Temple, an opulent-looking Municipal building of conventional classic design, and a new Federal building give a metropolitan touch; and as West Main Street climbs again to the residential area where impressive homes, two junior colleges, and Ballou Park with miles of road through natural woodland show the profits of industrial activity. In this prosperous upper area is Lady Astor Street, named for a local daughter, one of the Langhorne beauties, who became a member of the British Parliament.

As Virginia cities go, Danville is young. It boasts of no tavern where Washington spent a night, no home where La Fayette was feted, and among its many stores is not one 'antique shoppe' to lure tourists with spinning wheels and old glass. But the city slogan 'Danville Does Things' rests on solid achievements. The large mills annually turn an average of 6o,000,000 pounds of cotton into textiles, and smaller ones convert some of the textiles into garments. At the heart of the 'old belt' of bright tobacco growing, it gathers for a world market the flue-cured leaf known in the tobacco world as U.S. Type ii, basis of various cigarette blends and mainstay of the world's cigarette industry. In the late summer its auction warehouses, with floor space for selling 2,250,000 pounds of leaf daily, resound with the singsong jargon of auctioneers, and buyers, led by bidders for the 'big four' of American cigarette corporations and for the two that dominate European markets, make the signs that bring prosperity or ruin to the tobacco farmer.

In 1876 Danville adopted the principle of municipal ownership of public utilities. The municipally owned water, electric power, and gas plants return nearly a $500,000 yearly into city coffers. Results are municipal solvency, low service charges-which attracts industries-and one of the lowest real estate tax rates in the State. The city has turned down fat bids for its utilities by private interests and has provided a backlog of future cheap power by establishing, with Federal aid, a gigantic development at the headwaters of the Dan, 82 miles away (see Tour 7)

Like other tobacco-market towns, Danville began as an inspection warehouse. In 1793, Piedmont planters, irked by the hardship of rolling hogsheads over red clay roads to Richmond or Petersburg for the required inspection, petitioned the legislature for inspection facilities at this central point by the river. The petition was granted and trustees were appointed to take over 25 acres of land, which were to be divided and sold in halfacre lots. Inspection began at once, but it was two years before the first tier of lots, hugging the old Salisbury road, now Main Street, was offered for sale.

Early tobacco marketing was a haphazard business. Many inland growers sold their tobacco by the acre or barnful, letting the buyer worry about getting it out. First impetus to Danville's growth was improvement of river transportation, which began about 1820 when the Roanoke Navigation Company built a canal around the falls and opened the way for bateaux carrying tobacco to ships in Albemarle Sound. Real expansion began when the organized auction warehouse system was introduced in 1852 though the first was a small, poorly-lighted structure and a Negro advertised the sales by blowing a horn along the streets.

Though Danville escaped material damage during the War between the States, its position at the junction with the railroad bringing food and military supplies to Richmond and the fighting zone from Atlanta and gulf ports made it a valuable base. Idle tobacco warehouses were turned into hospitals, and one became a prison for captured Yankees. For seven days--April 3-10, 1865 -- Danville was the capital of the fast dying Confederacy. When the Richmond Petersburg area was evacuated, President Davis and his Cabinet came to Danville, and here the President called the last full cabinet meeting and issued his last official proclamation, going to a newspaper office to see it set up and printed. When news of Lee's surrender came on April io, Davis set out immediately for Greensboro, N.C. The same day Governor William (Extra-Billy) Smith arrived on horseback from Richmond, having stopped first at Lynchburg. For five days thereafter the town was the seat of the State administration.

Danville's industrial era began in 1881 with the opening of a small yam mill. The Riverside Mill, parent of the.present Riverside and Dan River Cotton Mills, was organized in 1882 and by 1890 had taken over a small rival, Morotock Mills. With the harnessing of the Falls of the Dan to create cheap electric power, and the influx of cheap labor from farms and mountain settlements, the business has grown fairly steadily. In 1931, 4,000 textile workers struck, demanding union recognition in a wage dispute. The strike, which loomed large in National importance as an early attempt by organized labor to capture textile strongholds in the South, began in September with a huge parade led by blaring bands, mass meetings with National organizers exhorting the strikers, meetings of those with sympathy for the mill owners, and charges and countercharges. By midwinter the strike had dwindled to a bitter endurance test, with bread lines, soup kitchens, evictions from mill houses, and the guns of the National Guard policing the mill districts. The affair ended in early spring, ne ther side conceding defeat.

The CONFEDERATE MEMORIAL MANSION, Main St. between Sutherlin library, with periodical, reference, lending, and reading rooms, occupies the first floor of this house. A Negro branch circulates more than 2,000 volumes monthly from quarters in the Langston Negro High School on Gay Street.

AVERETT COLLEGE, West Main St., in well-shaded grounds, has a handsome fourstory main building with high white columned portico. Behind this are the dormitory, gymnasium, the science and music halls, an open air theater, and athletic fields. This junior college for young women is operated under the Baptist General Association of Virginia. Founded in 1859, before ig io it had been called Union Female College, Roanoke Female College, Roanoke College for Women, and Roanoke Institute, when after the construction of new buildings it assumed its present name.

DANVILLE MILITARY INSTITUTE, S. Main St., a preparatory school, occupies a group of turreted, vine-covered, gray stone buildings on a beavilywooded campus. Founded in 1920 as a private school, in 192 1 it passed to !he control of the Presbyterian Synod of Virginia. In 1933 military training was dropped and it became the Virginia Presbyterian School; but in 1937 it again became the Danville Military Institute.

STRATFORD COLLEGE, iiig Main Street, another junior college for young women, with STRATFORD HALL, a preparatory school, occupies an ivy-clad red brick and white porticoed building. During the century of its history the institution has been the Danville Female College, Danville College for Young Ladies, Randolph-Macon College, and Stratford.

In Danville are junctions with US 58 (see Tour 7b) and US 29 (see Tour 4).