THE importance given to Cortes by his new position, and perhaps
a somewhat more lofty bearing, gradually gave uneasiness to the
naturally suspicious temper of Velasquez, who became apprehensive that
his officer, when away where he would have the power, might also
have the inclination, to throw off his dependence on him altogether.
An accidental circumstance at this time heightened these suspicions. A
mad fellow, his jester, one of those crack-brained wits,- half wit,
half fool,- who formed in those days a common appendage to every great
man's establishment, called out to the governor, as he was taking
his usual walk one morning with Cortes towards the port, "Have a care,
master Velasquez, or we shall have to go a hunting, some day or other,
after this same captain of ours!" "Do you hear what the rogue says?"
exclaimed the governor to his companion. "Do not heed him," said
Cortes, "he is a saucy knave, and deserves a good whipping." The words
sunk deep, however, in the mind of Velasquez,- as, indeed, true
jests are apt to stick.
There were not wanting persons about his Excellency, who fanned
the latent embers of jealousy into a blaze. These worthy gentlemen,
some of them kinsmen of Velasquez, who probably felt their own deserts
somewhat thrown into the shade by the rising fortunes of Cortes,
reminded the governor of his ancient quarrel with that officer, and of
the little probability that affronts so keenly felt at the time
could ever be forgotten. By these and similar suggestions, and by
misconstructions of the present conduct of Cortes, they wrought on the
passions of Velasquez to such a degree, that he resolved to intrust
the expedition to other hands.
He communicated his design to his confidential advisers, Lares and
Duero, and these trusty personages reported it without delay to
Cortes, although, "to a man of half his penetration," says Las
Casas, "the thing would have been readily divined from the
governor's altered demeanour." The two functionaries advised their
friend to expedite matters as much as possible, and to lose no time in
getting his fleet ready for sea, if he would retain the command of it.
Cortes showed the same prompt decision on this occasion, which more
than once afterwards in a similar crisis gave the direction to his
He had not yet got his complement of men, nor of vessels; and
was very inadequately provided with supplies of any kind. But he
resolved to weigh anchor that very night. He waited on his officers,
informed them of his purpose, and probably of the cause of it; and
at midnight, when the town was hushed in sleep, they all went
quietly on board, and the little squadron dropped down the bay. First,
however, Cortes had visited the person whose business it was to supply
the place with meat, and relieved him of all his stock on hand,
notwithstanding his complaint that the city must suffer for it on
the morrow, leaving him, at the same time, in payment, a massive
gold chain of much value, which he wore round his neck.
Great was the amazement, of the good citizens of St. Jago, when,
at dawn, they saw that the fleet, which they knew was so ill
prepared for the voyage, had left its moorings and was busily
getting under way. The tidings soon came to the ears of his
Excellency, who, springing from his bed, hastily dressed himself,
mounted his horse, and, followed by his retinue, galloped down to
the quay. Cortes, as soon as he descried their approach, entered an
armed boat, and came within speaking distance of the shore. "And is it
thus you part from me!" exclaimed Velasquez; "a courteous way of
taking leave, truly!" "Pardon me," answered Cortes, "time presses,
and there are some things that should be done before they are even
thought of. Has your Excellency any commands?" But the mortified
governor had no commands to give; and Cortes, politely waving his
hand, returned to his vessel, and the little fleet instantly made sail
for the port of Macaca, about fifteen leagues distant. (November 18,
1518.) Velasquez rode back to his house to digest his chagrin as he
best might; satisfied, probably, that he had made at least two
blunders; one in appointing Cortes to the command,- the other in
attempting to deprive him of it. For, if it be true, that by giving
our confidence by halves, we can scarcely hope to make a friend, it is
equally true, that, by withdrawing it when given, we shall make an
This clandestine departure of Cortes has been severely
criticised by some writers, especially by Las Casas. Yet much may be
urged in vindication of his conduct. He had been appointed to the
command by the voluntary act of the governor, and this had been
fully ratified by the authorities of Hispaniola. He had at once
devoted all his resources to the undertaking, incurring, indeed, a
heavy debt in addition. He was now be deprived of his commission,
without any misconduct having been alleged or at least proved
against him. Such an event must overwhelm him in irretrievable ruin,
to say nothing of the friends from whom he had so largely borrowed,
and the followers who had embarked their fortunes in the expedition on
the faith of his commanding it. There are few persons, probably, who
under these circumstances would have felt called tamely to acquiesce
in the sacrifice of their hopes to a groundless and arbitrary whim.
The most to have been expected from Cortes was, that he should feel
obliged to provide faithfully for the interests of his employer in the
conduct of the enterprise. How far he felt the force of this
obligation will appear in the sequel.
From Macaca, where Cortes laid in such stores as he could obtain
from the royal farms, and which, he said, he considered as "a loan
from the king," he proceeded to Trinidad; a more considerable town, on
the southern coast of Cuba. Here he landed, and erecting his
standard in front of his quarters, made proclamation, with liberal
offers to all who would join the expedition. Volunteers came in daily,
and among them more than a hundred of Grijalva's men, just returned
from their voyage, and willing to follow up the discovery under an
enterprising leader. The fame of Cortes attracted, also, a number of
cavaliers of family and distinction, some of whom, having
accompanied Grijalva, brought much information valuable for the
present expedition. Among these hidalgos may be mentioned Pedro de
Alvarado and his brothers, Christoval de Olid, Alonso de Avila, Juan
Velasquez de Leon, a near relation of the governor, Alonso Hernandez
de Puertocarrero, and Gonzalo de Sandoval,- all of them men who took a
most important part in the Conquest. Their presence was of great
moment, as giving consideration to the enterprise; and, when they
entered the little camp of the adventurers, the latter turned out to
welcome them amidst lively strains of music and joyous salvos of
Cortes meanwhile was active in purchasing military stores and
provisions. Learning that a trading vessel laden with grain and
other commodities for the mines was off the coast, he ordered out
one of his caravels to seize her and bring her into port. He paid
the master in bills for both cargo and ship, and even persuaded this
man, named Sedeno, who was wealthy, to join his fortunes to the
expedition. He also despatched one of his officers, Diego de Ordaz, in
quest of another ship, of which he had tidings, with instructions to
seize it in like manner, and to meet him with it off Cape St. Antonio,
the westerly point of the island. By this he effected another
object, that of getting rid of Ordaz, who was one of the governor's
household, and an inconvenient spy on his own actions.
While thus occupied, letters from Velasquez were received by the
commander of Trinidad, requiring him to seize the person of Cortes,
and to detain him, as he had been deposed from the command of the
fleet, which was given to another. This functionary communicated his
instructions to the principal officers in the expedition, who
counselled him not to make the attempt, as it would undoubtedly lead
to a commotion among the soldiers, that might end in laying the town
in ashes. Verdugo thought it prudent to conform to this advice.
As Cortes was willing to strengthen himself by still further
reinforcements, he ordered Alvarado with a small body of men to
march across the country to the Havana, while he himself would sail
round the westerly point of the island, and meet him there with the
squadron. In this port he again displayed his standard, making the
usual proclamation. He caused all the large guns to be brought on
shore, and with the small arms and crossbows, to be put in order. As
there was abundance of cotton raised in this neighbourhood, he had the
jackets of the soldiers thickly quilted with it, for a defence against
the Indian arrows, from which the troops in the former expeditions had
grievously suffered. He distributed his men into eleven companies,
each under the command of an experienced officer; and it was observed,
that, although several of the cavaliers in the service were the
personal friends and even kinsmen of Velasquez, he appeared to treat
them all with perfect confidence.
His principal standard was of black velvet embroidered with
gold, and emblazoned with a red cross amidst flames of blue and white,
with this motto in Latin beneath: "Friends, let us follow the Cross;
and under this sign, if we have faith, we shall conquer." He now
assumed more state in his own person and way of living, introducing
a greater number of domestics and officers into his household, and
placing it on a footing becoming a man of high station. This state
he maintained through the rest of his life.
Cortes at this time was thirty-three, or perhaps thirty-four years
of age. In stature he was rather above the middle size. His complexion
was pale; and his large dark eye gave an expression of gravity to
his countenance, not to have been expected in one of his cheerful
temperament. His figure was slender, at least until later life; but
his chest was deep, his shoulders broad, his frame muscular and
well-proportioned. It presented the union of agility and vigour
which qualified him to excel in fencing, horsemanship, and the other
generous exercises of chivalry. In his diet he was temperate, careless
of what he ate, and drinking little; while to toil and privation he
seemed perfectly indifferent. His dress, for he did not disdain the
impression produced by such adventitious aids, was such as to set
off his handsome person to advantage; neither gaudy nor striking,
but rich. He wore few ornaments, and usually the same; but those
were of great price. His manners, frank and soldier-like, concealed
a most cool and calculating spirit. With his gayest humour there
mingled a settled air of resolution, which made those who approached
him feel they must obey; and which infused something like awe into the
attachment of his most devoted followers. Such a combination, in which
love was tempered by authority, was the one probably best calculated
to inspire devotion in the rough and turbulent spirits among whom
his lot was to be cast.
The character of Cortes seems to have undergone some change with
change of circumstances; or to speak more correctly, the new scenes in
which he was placed called forth qualities which before lay dormant in
his bosom. There are some hardy natures that require the heats of
excited action to unfold their energies; like the plants, which,
closed to the mild influence of a temperate latitude, come to their
full growth, and give forth their fruits, only in the burning
atmosphere of the tropics.
Before the preparations were fully completed at the Havana, the
commander of the place, Don Pedro Barba, received despatches from
Velasquez ordering him to apprehend Cortes, and to prevent the
departure of his vessels; while another epistle from the same source
was delivered to Cortes himself, requesting him to postpone his voyage
till the governor could communicate with him, as he proposed, in
person. "Never," exclaims Las Casas, "did I see so little knowledge of
affairs shown, as in this letter of Diego Velasquez,- that he should
have imagined that a man, who had so recently put such an affront on
him, would defer his departure at his bidding!" It was, indeed, hoping
to stay the flight of the arrow by a word, after it had left the bow.
The captain-general, however, during his short stay had entirely
conciliated the good will of Barba. And, if that officer had had the
inclination, he knew he had not the power, to enforce his
principal's orders, in the face of a resolute soldiery, incensed at
this ungenerous persecution of their commander, and "all of whom," in
the words of the honest chronicler, Bernal Diaz, who bore part in
the expedition, "officers and privates, would have cheerfully laid
down their lives for him." Barba contented himself, therefore, with
explaining to Velasquez the impracticability of the attempt, and at
the same time endeavoured to traquillise his apprehensions by
asserting his own confidence in the fidelity of Cortes. To this the
latter added a communication of his own, in which he implored his
Excellency to rely on his devotion to his interests, and concluded
with the comfortable assurance that he and the whole fleet, God
willing, would sail on the following morning.
Accordingly, on the 10th of February, 1519, the little squadron
got under way, and directed its course towards Cape St. Antonio, the
appointed place of rendezvous. When all were brought together, the
vessels were found to be eleven in number; one of them, in which
Cortes himself went, was of a hundred tons' burden, three others
were from seventy to eighty tons, the remainder were caravels and open
brigantines. The whole was put under the direction of Antonio de
Alaminos, as chief pilot; a veteran navigator, who, had acted as pilot
to Columbus in his last voyage, and to Cordova and Grijalva in the
former expeditions to Yucatan.
Landing on the Cape and mustering his forces, Cortes found they
amounted to one hundred and ten mariners, five hundred and fifty-three
soldiers, including thirty-two crossbow-men, and thirteen
arquebusiers, besides two hundred Indians of the island, and a few
Indian women for menial offices. He was provided with ten heavy
guns, four lighter pieces called falconets, and with a good supply
of ammunition. He had, besides, sixteen horses. They were not easily
procured; for the difficulty of transporting them across the ocean
in the flimsy craft of that day made them rare and incredibly dear
in the islands. But Cortes rightfully estimated the importance of
cavalry, however small in number, both for their actual service in the
field, and for striking terror into the savages. With so paltry a
force did he enter on a conquest which even his stout heart must
have shrunk from attempting with such means, had he but foreseen
half its real difficulties!
Before embarking, Cortes addressed his soldiers in a short but
animated harangue. He told them they were about to enter on a noble
enterprise, one that would make their name famous to after ages. He
was leading them to countries more vast and opulent than any yet
visited by Europeans. "I hold out to you a glorious prize,"
continued the orator, "but it is to be won by incessant toil. Great
things are achieved only by great exertions and glory was never the
reward of sloth. If I have laboured hard and staked my all on this
undertaking, it is for the love of that renown, which is the noblest
recompense of man. But, if any among you covet riches more, be but
true to me, as I will be true to you and to the occasion, and I will
make you masters of such as our countrymen have never dreamed of!
You are few in number, but strong in resolution; and, if this does not
falter, doubt not but that the Almighty, who has never deserted the
Spaniard in his contest with the infidel, will shield you, though
encompassed by a cloud of enemies; for your cause is a just cause, and
you are to fight under the banner of the Cross. Go forward then," he
concluded, "with alacrity and confidence, and carry to a glorious
issue the work so auspiciously begun."
The rough eloquence of the general, touching the various chords of
ambition, avarice, and religious zeal, sent a thrill through the
bosoms of his martial audience; and, receiving it with acclamations,
they seemed eager to press forward under a chief who was to lead
them not so much to battle, as to triumph.
Cortes was well satisfied to find his own enthusiasm so largely
shared by his followers. Mass was then celebrated with the solemnities
usual with the Spanish navigators, when entering on their voyages of
discovery. The fleet was placed under the immediate protection of
St. Peter, the patron saint of Cortes; and, weighing anchor, took
its departure on the eighteenth day of February, 1519, for the coast
Chapter III [1518-1519]
JEALOUSY OF VELASQUEZ- CORTES EMBARKS- EQUIPMENT OF HIS FLEET-
HIS PERSON AND CHARACTER- RENDEZVOUS AT HAVANA-
STRENGTH OF HIS ARMAMENT
1. "Deterrebat," says the anonymous biographer, "eum Cortesii natura imperii avida, fiducia sui ingens, et nimius sumptus in classe parandâ. Timere itaque Velasquius cœpit, si Cortesius cum eâ classe iret, nihil ad se vel honoris vel lucri rediturum." De Rebus Cestis, MS.--Bernal Diaz, Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 19.--Las Casas, Hist. de las Indias, MS., cap. 114.
2. "Cortés no avia menester mas para entendello de mirar el gesto á Diego Velasquez segun su astuta viveza y mundana sabiduría." Hist. de las Indias, MS., cap. 114.
3. Las Casas had the story from Cortés' own mouth. Hist. de las Indias, MS., cap. 114.--Gomara, Crónica, cap. 7.--De Rebus Cestis, MS.
4. Las Casas, Hist. de las Indias, MS., cap. 114.--Herrera, Hist. General, dec. 2, lib. 3, cap. 12.
Solís, who follows Bernal Diaz in saying that Cortés parted openly and amicably from Velasquez, seems to consider it a great slander on the character of the former to suppose that he wanted to break with the governor so soon, when he had received so little provocation. (Conquista, lib. 1, cap. 10.) But it is not necessary to suppose that Cortés intended a rupture with his employer by this clandestine movement; but only to secure himself in the command. At all events, the text conforms in every particular to the statement of Las Casas, who, as he knew both the parties well, and resided on the island at the time, had ample means of information.
5. Hist. de las Indias, MS., cap. 114.
6. Las Casas had this, also, from the lips of Cortés in later life. "Todo esto me dixo el mismo Cortés, con otras cosas çerca dello despues de Marques; ..... reindo y mofando é con estas formales palabras, Á la mi fée andube por alli como un gentil cosario." Hist. de las Indias, MS., cap. 115.
7. De Rebus Gestis, MS.--Gomara, Crónica, cap. 8.--Las Casas, Hist. de las Indias, MS., cap. 114, 115.
8. Bernal Diaz, Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 24.--De Rebus Gestis, MS.--Gomara, Crónica, cap. 8.--Las Casas, Hist. de las Indias, MS., cap. 115.
The legend on the standard was, doubtless, suggested by that on the labarum,--the sacred banner of Constantine.
9. The most minute notices of the person and habits of Cortés are to be gathered from the narrative of the old cavalier Bernal Diaz, who served so long under him, and from Gomara, the general's chaplain. See in particular the last chapter of Gomara's Crónica, and cap. 203 of the Hist. de la Conquista.
10. Las Casas, Hist. de las Indias, MS., cap. 115.
11. Bernal Diaz, Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 24.
12. Ibid., loc. cit.
13. Bernal Diaz, Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 26.
There is some discrepancy among authorities, in regard to the numbers of the army. The Letter from Vera Cruz, which should have been exact, speaks in round terms of only four hundred soldiers. (Carta de Vera Cruz, MS.) Velasquez himself, in a communication to the Chief Judge of Hispaniola, states the number at six hundred. (Carta de Diego Velasquez al Lic. Figueroa, MS.) I have adopted the estimates of Bernal Diaz, who, in his long service, seems to have become intimately acquainted with every one of his comrades, their persons, and private history.
14. Incredibly dear indeed, since, from the statements contained in the depositions at Villa Segura, it appears that the cost of the horses for the expedition was from four to five hundred pesos de oro each! "Si saben que de caballos que el dicho Señor Capitan General Hernando Cortés ha comprado para servir en la dicha Conquista, que som diez é ocho, que le han costado á quatrocientos cinquenta é á quinientos pesos ha pagado, é que deve mas de ocho mil pesos de oro dellos." (Probanza en Villa Segura, MS.) The estimation of these horses is sufficiently shown by the minute information Bernal Diaz has thought proper to give of every one of them; minute enough for the pages of a sporting calendar. See Hist. de la Conquista, cap. 23.
15. "Io vos propongo grandes premios, mas embueltos en grandes trabajos; pero la virtud no quiere ociosidad." (Gomara, Crónica, cap. 9.) It is the thought so finely expressed by Thomson;
"For sluggard's brow the laurel never grows;
Renown is not the child of indolent repose."
16. The text is a very condensed abridgment of the original speech of Cortés,--or of his chaplain, as the case may be. See it, in Gomara, Crónica, cap. 9.
17. Las Casas, Hist. de las Indias, MS., cap. 115.--Gomara, Crónica, cap. 10.--De Rebus Gestis, MS.
"Tantus fuit armorum apparatus," exclaims the author of the last work, "quo alterum terrarum orbem bellis Cortesius concutit; ex tam parvis opibus tantum imperium Carolo facit; aperitque omnium primus Hispanæ genti Hispaniam novam!" The author of this work is unknown. It seems to have been part of a great compilation "De Orbe Novo," written, probably, on the plan of a series of biographical sketches, as the introduction speaks of a life of Columbus preceding this of Cortés. It was composed, as it states, while many of the old Conquerors were still surviving, and is addressed to the son of Cortés. The historian, therefore, had ample means of verifying the truth of his own statements, although they too often betray, in his partiality for his hero, the influence of the patronage under which the work was produced. It runs into a prolixity of detail which, however tedious, has its uses in a contemporary document. Unluckily, only the first book was finished, or, at least, has survived; terminating with the events of this Chapter. It is written in Latin, in a pure and perspicuous style; and is conjectured with some plausibility to be the work of Calvet de Estrella, Chronicler of the Indies. The original exists in the Archives of Simancas, where it was discovered and transcribed by Muñoz, from whose copy that in my library was taken.