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Glossary


 
abate(d)
    (12) (verb) decrease; diminish

abatement
    (21) (noun) lessening; decrease

able(r)
    (9) skilled; capable

abolitionist
    (13) person who opposed slavery and wanted it abolished

abomination
    (9) anything hateful and disgusting

abyss
    (10) bottomless pit or hole

ado
    (32) fuss; trouble; bother

ameliorate
    (37) make better; improve

anathema
    (18) strong curse

Anglo-Saxon
    (8) descendent of Germanic people who settled in England

annals
    (40) history; historical records

antiquary (antiquaries)
    (41) one who studies or collects antiques

ape(d)
    (31) imitate; mimic

aperture
    (21) opening

appall(ed)
    (9) horrify; alarm; terrify

apparel
    (12) clothing

appease
    (9) (12) satisfy or relieve (hunger, thirst, etc.)

appropriate(d)
    (12) take over; take possession of

ascertain(ed)
    (19) (36) determine; find out; learn

astir
    (36) out of bed

atrocious
    (13) extremely bad or evil

attachment
    (1) affection; devotion

attenuate(d)
    (9) weaken; make thin or small

audacity
    (4) boldness, nerve

augment(ed)
    (12) add to

avail
    (1) benefit; profit

avarice
    (14) greediness; excessive love of money

avowal
    11) - confession

base
    (7) (26) (34) morally low

benefactress
    (18) (41) female supporter; friend; protector

benumb(ed)
    (23) make numb or insensitive; deaden

bequeath(ed)
    (1) (27) give by inheritance

bereaved
    (13) having lost a friend or loved one by death

beseech (besought)
    (4) beg

bestow(ed)
    (11) present as a gift

blasphemous
    (2) irreverent; mocking God

blight
    (5) something that causes injury or destruction

boon
    (10) (41) something beneficial; blessing

brethren
    (12) fellow members of a religious organization

brine
    (12) salty water

bucking paddle
    (12) paddle used for soaking clothes in lye for bleaching

buoyant
    (6) happy; cheerful

carousal
    (22) noisy feast; drinking party

cessation
    (9) stopping; halt

chafe
    (11) annoy; rub

chattel
    (1) (4) (10) slave

chink
    (23) gap; crack (in a wall)

circumscribe(d)
    (41) limit

clime
    (6) climate

coarse(st)
    (4) of very poor quality; inferior

commemoration
    (12) remembrance; celebration of the memory of someone

communicant
    (13) a person who receives Holy Communion

compunction
    (28) regret; sorrow; sense of guilt

condescend(ed)
    (11) lower oneself; make concessions

condescension
    (23) lowering of oneself; patronizing, superior manner

condole(d)
    (16) offer condolences; express sympathy

conjecture
    (2) guess

conspiracy
    (12) a plot, usually illegal

consternation
    (12) (15) (40) worry; confusion

contemptuous
    (4) insulting; scornful

conveyance
    (32) carriage; means of transportation

convivial
    (24) social; enjoying good company

copper
    (13) (18) small coin

corporal
    (4) physical; of the body

cotton gin
    (9) machine used to take seeds out of picked cotton

countenance
    (11) (41) expression of the face; appearance

course (coursing)
    (8) run; flow

credulous
    (2) tending to believe too easily

cupidity
    (40) greed; excessive love of power and wealth

debauch
    (9) corrupt morally; lead into evil

deem(ed)
    (5) consider, judge

defraud(ed)
    (2) take property or rights by deception or fraud; cheat

degradation
    (5) (9) (12) (23) dishonor, disgrace, depression

demolish(ed)
    (12) destroy

deplorable
    (8) terrible; wretched

deportment
    (37) behavior; conduct

depravity
    (13) wickedness; evilness

depredation
    (9) robbery

descant
    (14) comment on; talk at length

desecrate(d)
    (6) treat as though not holy

desolate
    (2) (10) deserted; lonely; cheerless

despatch(ed) (dispatch)
    (11) send

despondency
    (26) depression; loss of hope

despotic
    (40) tyrannical; harsh; cruel

devoid
    (21) empty; without

dint
    (33) force

disencumber
    (4) free from; remove (a burden)

discourse
    (13) conversation; sermon

discourse (discoursing)
    (12) communicating through (discoursing) martial music

discretion
    (9) caution; prudence

disinthralment (disenthrallment)
    (Appendix) freeing from slavery, from servitude

dissipation
    (36) (40) wasteful use of time; excessive time spent in pleasure

docile
    (37) easy to teach; submissive

dog(ged)
    (5) follow closely; track

dower
    (1) the portion of a man's estate which his wife inherits

eking
    (2) making a living with difficulty

eloquent
    (10) speaking or writing persuasively and fluently

emancipate(d)
    (9) free

embolden(ed)
    (12) give courage

emissary (emissaries)
    (40) messenger; (secret) agent

ensconce(d)
    (37) place comfortably

entreat(ed)
    (7) (9) (41) (verb) beg

entreaty
    (25) (noun) prayer; petition

epicure
    (2) a person who enjoys good food and wines; a person who is very fond of luxury

ere
    (33) before

estrange(d)
    (3) change from friendly to unfriendly, distant or hostile

evince(d)
    (1) show

exasperation
    (40) anger; irritation; frustration

exhilarate (exhilarating)
    (30) make cheerful or glad; give spirit to

expostulation
    (41) strong discussion with a person to convince him/her to change improper behavior

extort(ed)
    (3) taken by force, threats or any illegal means

exult(ed)
    (7) (12) rejoice; triumph; find great pleasure

facetious

    (15) joking, sometimes at the wrong moment

factotum
    (28) handy man; person who performs a variety of jobs

feeble
    (11) weak; without energy

feign
    (4) pretend

festoon
    (2) chain or garland of flowers

fetter
    (16) (verb) bind; chain; restrain; (18) (noun) chain or other restraint attached to the ankles

fiend
    (2) an extremely wicked and cruel person

fife
    (12) musical instrument similar to a flute but higher in pitch, used with drums for marching

flog
    (7) beat with a whip or rod

flurried
    (29) excited; alarmed

forbearance
    (6) (11) patience; self-control

forbear (forbore)
    (4) (29) avoid; refrain from

forsake(n)
    (10) abandon; leave without support

fortnight
    (7) (12) two weeks; fourteen days

freshet
    (9) a stream of fresh water flowing to the sea

from pillar to post
    (41) from one problem to the next

Fugitive Slave Law (1850)
    (8) (38) law requiring the return of runaway slaves to their owners

gallery (galleries)
    (12) long balcony

galling
    (4) irritating

garb
    (9) clothing

garret
    (21) attic; loft

gimlet
    (21) small tool used for boring holes

gore
    (2) - blood that is shed from the body; especially thick or clotted blood

grog
    (13) any kind of alcoholic drink, particularly rum

hackman (hackmen)
    (32) driver of a hired carriage (hack)

hairbreadth
    (36) extremely close

hearthstone
    (41) stone forming the hearth of a fireplace (i.e., her own home)

heed
    (13) pay attention to; take notice

heel-string
    (21) Achilles' tendon

Hindoo (Hindu)
    (8) a native of India

hitch
    (24) limp along; move with difficulty

hitherto
    (13) (24) before this point; up to this time

hoary-headed
    (6) white-haired (from age)

humane
    (3) kind; merciful; considerate

imbibe
    (8) drink; drink in

impertinent
    (21) rude; not showing respect

implicit
    (41) without reservations or doubt

import
    (5) importance

imprecation
    (7) curse

impromptu
    (40) not planned; spontaneous

impropriety
    (41) improper act

impunity
    (12) (37) freedom from punishment or penalty

incarnate
    (2) in human form

incensed
    (11) angry

incessant
    (15) (28) continuing without interruption; not stopping

incivility
    (36) rudeness; discourtesy

incongruity
    (40) inconsistency; contradiction

inculcate(d)
    (9) (10) teach by frequent repetition or strong urging

indecorum
    (4) lacking good taste, manners

inducement
    (9) incentive; motive; motivation

iniquitous
    (40) unjust; wicked

injunction
    (34) order

inmate
    (12) person inside a building

insensible
    (15) unconscious

insinuate (insinuating)
    (12) hint slyly

insolence
    (11) showing a lack of respect; insult

insolvent
    (2) unable to pay debts; bankrupt

insurrection
    (12) an act of open revolt against an established government

intemperance
    (36) excessive drinking

intercede
    (4) plead or make a request for another's sake

interment
    (9) burial

inter(red)
    (9) bury

interpose(d)
    (6) step in between

interstice
    (21) space between two things

intrigue
    (15) secret plot or scheme

irascible
    (21) easily angered; irritable

Jim Crow
    (35) discriminating against Negroes; segregating Negroes

Johnkannaus
    (22) companies of slaves who entertained and begged for contributions at Christmas time

joist
    (2) a horizontal beam from wall to wall that supports a ceiling

lacerate(d)
    (14) tear

leech
    (11) take blood from a person with a leech (for medical purposes)

lenity
    (11) mercifulness; gentleness

levy (levies)
    (31) coin used in early America

licentious
    (9) (14) without moral discipline or sexual control

licentiousness
    (9) having no moral discipline or sexual control

lineament
    (23) features (of the face); outline

linsey-woolsey
    (2) a material made of linen and wool

loquacious
    (7) talkative

malediction
    (12) curse

malevolence
    (6) wishing ill; personal hatred

malice
    (17) evil intent

manifestation
    (11) (26) evidence; demonstration

manumit
    (9) free from slavery

marauder
    (12) person who roams around in search of valuables to steal

martial
    (12) related to war; suitable for war

meagre (meager)
    (2) poor; small in amount

millstone
    (37) heavy burden

minx
    (18) lively, high-spirited young girl; impudent young girl

mirth
    (31) enjoyment; noisy fun

miscreant
    (6) (41) evildoer; troublemaker

mistress
    (1) female owner

mockery
    (11) subject of ridicule or laughter

mortification
    (14) humiliation; shame

mortify (mortified)
    (11) humiliate; shame

mortifying
    (9) dead or decaying (skin and muscle tissue)

motley
    (12) having many different elements

mulatto
    (1) (7) ( 17) a person who has one Black parent and one White parent

musket
    (12) firearm used by soldiers before the invention of the rifle

muster
    (12) a review or parade of troops

notorious
    (12) infamous; having a bad reputation

oakum
    (23) hemp from old ropes used to make caulking to seal holes

oath
    (7) (12) swearword; irreverent use of the name of God

obscene
    (9) indecent; filthy; foul; impure

oculist
    (33) eye doctor; ophthalmologist

odious
    (9) (41) hateful

out of the common line
    (1) unusual

overawe(d)
    (16) inspire by great reverence

palliate (palliating)
    (39) excuse; extenuate

palsy
    (14) (40) paralyze; lose ability to control (body) movement

paltry
    (Appendix) small; insignificant

paramour
    (15) man's mistress or woman's lover

partake(n)
    (12) take part; participate in

patriarchal
    (13) (40) ruled by the father or oldest male member

    [NOTE: "Patriarchal institution" was a term used at the time to mean slavery.]

pathos
    (28) something that arouses feelings of pity, sorrow, or sympathy

peculiar
    (34) unusual; distinctive; strange

    [NOTE: "Peculiar institution" was a term used at the time to mean

    slavery.]

pecuniary
    (26) (27) (33) financial; relating to money

pent
    (21) shut up; closed

people(d)
    (5) fill

perfidy
    (6) deliberate violation of a promise or trust

perpetrate(d)
    (9) carry out or commit (something evil or criminal)

perpetrator
    (9) person who commits (something evil or criminal)

perplexed
    (2) puzzled; confused

perseverance
    (4) sticking to a job or task

piazza
    (6) (21) large covered porch; verandah

pilfer
    (12) steal

pious
    (9) (13) very religious; devout

pitiable
    (30) deserving pity

plaguy
    (4) annoyingly

politic
    (6) (33) wise; diplomatic

poultice
    (18) a thick, moist, warm paste made from bread, mustard, etc. that is applied to a sore or inflamed part of the body

powder and shot
    (12) gun powder and shot for guns

precept
    (1) principle; rule

premises
    (9) land and the buildings on it

prepossessing
    (Appendix) attractive; charming

presumptuous
    (2) excessively forward or confident

pretense (pretence = British spelling)
    (26) false reason or excuse

procure(d) (procuring)
    (9) obtain

proffer(ed)
    (41) offer

prostrate
    (9) lying flat or face downward

Providence
    (6) the care of God

prudent
    (5) wise; a good idea

purport(ed)
    (34) claim; give the appearance of (often falsely)

quell(ed)
    (5) stop; quiet

rabble
    (12) mob

rack(ed)
    (11) torment; torture

rapacious
    (29) extremely greedy

ravage(d)
    (12) destroy; severely damage

recompense
    (13) compensation; payment for damage

reconcile
    (4) (10) make content or satisfied; make peace

reminiscence
    (40) memory; recollection

remissness
    (34) negligence; irresponsibility

remonstrate(d)
    (16) (27) (29) (40) protest; object

render(ed)
    (28) cause to become

renovate(d)
    (16) renew; refresh; revive

repair(ed)
    (13) go to

repentance
    (11) regret or sorrow for what one has done or not done

reprobate
    (14) immoral person

reprove(d)
    (2) blame; find fault with

reptile
    (18) cold-blooded vertebrate (having a backbone) that moves on its stomach, like a snake or using its short legs, like a lizard, alligator or turtle

requite (requiting)
    (26) make a payment for an injury or a benefit

retrospect (retrospection)
    (5) (41) looking back on; thinking of things in the past

Revolutionary War
    (1) the war (1775-1783) in which the American colonies won their independence from England

sally (sallied)
    (23) rush out

sanctimonious
    (13) pretending to be pious, religious

sanguine
    (34) cheerful; optimistic; hopeful

scathed
    (4) burned; injured

scheme
    (7) secret plan

scourge (scourging)
    (12) (verb) whip; punish severely; (noun) instrument for flogging; whip

scruple
    (6) ethical principle; what is right

scrupulous
    (6) (26) having ethical principles; acting properly

servility
    (40) slavishness; submission

shirk
    (13) avoid or put off

shun
    (36) avoid; stay clear of

skein
    (14) something like wound yarn

smite (smote)
    (11) strike hard

solace
    (11) (41) comfort

sophistry
    (10) (40) reasoning that seems clear and sound but is not

specimen
    (9) example of a group

specter (spectre = British spelling)
    (30) (38) ghost

speculator
    (40) person who takes part in risky businesses that involve buying and selling (in this case, slaves)

squander(ed)
    (9) waste through excessive spending and bad judgment

stagnation
    (37) lack of activity or interest or development

stamp
    (15) kind; type; class

steal (stole)
    (9) move to secretly

stealth
    (13) going secretly

steep
    (18) soak in liquid

stench
    (9) strong, unpleasant smell

strive (strove)
    (11) make an effort; struggle

stupefy (stupefied)
    (23) dull the senses; take away the power to move

subjoin
    (34) add; attach; append

subservience
    (12) acting like a servant or inferior

subterfuge
    (31) excuse; trick or deception used to avoid unpleasantness

sunder(ed)
    (30) break apart; split; separate

superadd(ed)
    (14) place on as extra

supplicant
    (27) one who prays or begs

supplication
    (29) (40) prayer

tallow
    (13) hard fat obtained from cattle and sheep, used for making candles, soap, etc.

tarry
    (16) delay; be late

tedious
    (38) tiring because of length

tempest
    (21) violent storm

temporal
    (2) of this life or this world (as opposed to spiritual);

tendril
    (7) something that looks like a climbing, coiling plant

thatched
    (37) having a roof covered with straw

thither
    (4) (32) toward that place

trample(d)
    (12) treat harshly; crush; destroy

treble
    (4) triple

trepidation
    (41) fear; alarm

trow
    (8) believe; trust

turbulence
    (12) commotion; agitation

tyrant
    (10) cruel, oppressive person (ruler)

Uncle Tom's Cabin
    (40) antislavery book written by Harriet Beecher Stowe (1852)

unrebuked
    (15) unscolded; without criticism

unrequited
    (9) (28) not done in return or given in return

urchin
    (4) a boy who gets into a lot of trouble

utmost
    (10) maximum

venomous
    (14) malicious, full of evil

vent his spleen
    (11) display anger

veracity
    (8) truth

verily
    (34) in truth; in fact

vermin
    (4) (9) small destructive and dirty animals like cockroaches or rats

vexed
    (4) annoyed

vigil
    (6) a purposeful watch

vigilance committee
    (40) group formed to terrorize and control Negroes and their supporters before and during the Civil War

villany (villainy)
    (5) evilness

vitiate(d)
    (9) spoil; pervert

vituperation
    (14) mean, abusive language

wayward
    (11) (37) disobedient; wanting one's own way

wean(ed)
    (1) gradually withdraw a child from its mother's milk

wretch
    (12) miserable, suffering person

 

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