Only the more important titles dealt with in the present study are listed hereunder, together with selected biographical and critical material. The invaluable bibliographies in the Cambridge History of American Literature, four vols., New York, 1917-22, cover most of the writers considered, and the reader is referred to them for detailed material.


I. ENGLISH BACKGROUNDS: For the broader European movements, see Preserved Smith, The Age of the Reformation (New York, 1920). For English movements, see David Masson, Life of Milton (6 vols., London, 1859-80). The important ideas of Luther will be found in An Open Letter to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation Concerning the Reform of the Christian State (1570); The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (1520); A Treatise on Christian Liberty (1520). For discussion, see L. H. Waring, The Political Theories of Martin Luther (New York and London, 1910). For Calvin, see Williston Walker, John Calvin, The Organiser of Reformed Protestantism (New York and London, 1906; with bibliographical note).

II. THE TRANSPLANTING OF IDEAS: For political history see James Truslow Adams, The Founding of New England (Boston, 1921). For literary history consult the invaluable work of Moses Coit Tyler, A History of American Literature, 1607-1765 (2 vols., New York, 1878). Histories of Congregationalism will be found in Henry M. Dexter, The Congregationalism of the Last Three Hundred Years as Seen in Its Literature (New York, 1880; with full bibliography); Williston Walker, A History of the Congregational Churches in the United States (New York, 1900); also W. Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism (New York, 1893).

III. JOHN COTTON: Little of Cotton's work has been reprinted. A Reply to Mr. Williams His Examination was reissued in Narragansett Club Pub., Vol. II, PP. 1-240. His most important work is The Way of the Congregational Churches Cleared (London, 1648).

No life has been written. See Cotton Mather's Magnalia; W. Walker's Ten New England Leaders (New York, 1901); A. Young, John Cotton's Life and Letters. Chronicles of the First Planters, etc. (Boston, 1846).

JOHN WINTHROP: Journal. . . (Hartford, 1790); as The History of New England . . . edited by J. Savage (2 vols., Boston, 1825-26, 1853); edited by J. K. Hosmer (2 vols., New York, 1908).

See R. C. Winthrop, Life and Letters of John Winthrop (2 vols., Boston, 1863, 1866, 1869, 1895). J. Twitchell, John Winthrop, First Governor of Massachusetts (New York, 1892).

IV. THOMAS HOOKER: His works have not been reprinted. The Survey of the Summe of Church-Discipline . . . was published in London in 1648. Contemporary notes of his Sermon before the General Court on May 31, 1638, were printed with comment by J. Hammond Trumbull, in Conn. Hist. Soc. Col., Vol. 1, No. 19.

For his life, see G. L. Walker, Thomas Hooker, Preacher, Founder, Democrat (New York, 1891; with bibliography by J. H. Trumbull).

ROGER WILLIAMS: The Works of Roger Williams. Edited by members of the Narragansett Club (6 vols., Providence, 1866-1874).

No satisfactory life has been written. The best is Oscar S. Straus, Roger Williams, the Pioneer of Religious Liberty (New York, 1894). See also Edmund J. Carpenter, Roger Williams; A Study of the Life, Times and Character of a Political Pioneer (New York, 1909; Grafton Hist. Series).


I. SAMUEL SEWALL: Diary (printed in Mass. Hist. Soc. Col., Series 5, Vols- 5-7). No life has been written.

II. INCREASE MATHER: The extensive bibliography is confused, and a definitive list is being prepared by T. J. Holmes and G. P. Winship. Few works have been reprinted, and about the only available title is Illustrious Providences (Boston and London, 1684; London, 1687); under title of Remarkable Providences (London, 1856, 1890).

The authoritative life is by Kenneth B. Murdock, Increase Mather, The Foremost American Puritan (Harvard University Press. 1925; with bibliography). See also Williston Walker, Ten New England Leaders (New York, 1901).

COTTON MATHER: The bibliography is enormous, but few titles are available. The Wonders of the Invisible World (Boston, 1693) has been twice reprinted: with title, Salem Witchcraft . . . and notes by S. P. Fowler (Cambridge, 1861); and with I. Mather's Account of the Tryals of the New-England Witches (Library of Old Authors, London, 1862). The Bostonian Ebenezer, Boston, 1698, was reprinted in Old South Leaflets, Boston, 1896. The Magnolia Christi Americana, London, 1702, was reissued (2 vols., Hartford and New Haven, 182o); and the same with notes by T. Robbins, and translations of foreign quotations by L. F. Robinson, and a life by S. G. Drake (Hartford, 1853). The Essays to Do Good has been reprinted ten times, the latest editions London, 1842, and Boston, 1845. The most available text is Selections from Cotton Mather, edited with introduction, by K. B. Murdock (New York, 1926; American Authors Series).

The best life is by Barrett Wendell, Cotton Mather, Puritan Priest (New York, 1891; Harvard University Press, 1925)- See also A. P. Marvin, The Life and Times of Cotton Mather (Boston, 1892).

III. JOHN WISE: The Churches Quarrel Espoused . . . (Boston, 1710, 1715, 1745, 1772); reissued with the Vindication, with introduction by J. S. Clark (Boston, 1860). A Vindication of the Government of the New-England Churches. Drawn from Antiquity; the Light of Nature; Holy Scripture . . . (Boston, 1717, 1772); reissued with the preceding title (Boston, 1860).

No life of Wise has been written.


I. COLONIAL BACKGROUNDS: See Herbert L. Osgood, The American Colonies in the Eighteenth Century (7 vols., New York, 1924).

NEW STOCK: See John R. Commons, Races and Immigrants in America (New York, 1902, 1920). F. R. Diffenderfer, The German Immigrants into Pennsylvania . . . (New York, 1900). The Diary of John Harrower (Amer. Hist. Review, Vol. VI, p. 65)..

THE FRONTIER--Lubberland: The Journal of Sarah Kemble Knight (New York, 1825; Albany, 1865; Norwich, Conn., 1901).

WILLIAM BYRD: Westover Manuscripts: containing the History of the Dividing Line . . . A journey to the Land of Eden . . . (Petersburg, Va., 1841); reissued under title, The History of the Dividing Line (edited by T. H. Wynne; 2 vols., Richmond, 1866). Also The Writings of "Colonel William Byrd of Westover in Virginia, Esq." Edited by J. S. Bassett (New York, 1901).

THE FRONTIER--Land of Promise: Letters from an American Farmer . . . (London, 1782; with note by W. P. Trent and introduction by Ludwig Lewisohn, New York, 1904). More "Letters from an American Farmer," edited with introductions by H. L. Bourdin, R. G. Gabriel, and S. T. Williams, and issued under the title, Sketches of Eighteenth Century America (New Haven, 1925).

For the life of Creveceour, see Julia Post Mitchell, St. Jean de Creveceour (Col. Univ. Studies in English and Comp. Lit., New York, 1916).

JONATHAN EDWARDS: Works (8 vols., Leeds, 1806-11). Works, edited by S. E. Dwight (10 vols., New York, 1829, 1830). Works (10 vols., Edinburgh, 1847). Numerous other editions and many reprints.

The best life is by V. G. Allen, Jonathan Edwards (Boston, 1889, 1890; with bibliography). See also Woodbridge Riley, American Thought (New York, 1915).

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN: The best edition of his works is that edited by J. Bigelow (10 vols., New York, 1889). The Autobiography was first printed complete by J. Bigelow, New York, 1874. The latest reprint is in the American Authors Series, edited with introduction by Percy H. Boynton (New York, 1926).

Of the several lives, see James Parton, Life and Times of Benjamin Franklin (2 vols., New York, 1864), J. B. McMaster, Benjamin Franklin as a Man of Letters (Boston, 1887); J. T. Morse, Benjamin Franklin (American Statesmen Series, Boston, 1889). See also W.A. Wetzel, Benjamin Franklin as an Economist (Johns Hopkins Studies in Hist. and Pol. Science, Thirteenth Series Vol. IX, pp. 421-476). A recent life: Phillips Russell, Benjamin Franklin: The First Civilized American (New York, 1926).


I. IMPERIAL SOVEREIGNTY AND HOME RULE: For the literature of the Revolutionary period, see the invaluable Literary History of the American Revolution, by Moses Coit Tyler (2 vols., New York, 1897; with annotated bibliography). For the political phases, see C. H. Van Tyne, The Causes of the War of Independence . . . (Boston and New York, 1922); A. M. Schlesinger, The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution, 1763-1776 (New York, 1918); J. T. Adams, Revolutionary New England, 1691-1776 (Boston, 1923).

II. THOMAS HUTCHINSON: The History of Massachusetts (3 vols., Boston and London, 1764-1767-1828; Vols. I and 11, Boston, 1795). Diary and Letters of Thomas Hutchinson . . ., edited by P. 0. Hutchinson (2 vols., Boston, 1884-1886). J. K. Hosmer, Life of Thomas Hutchinson (Boston, 1896).

DANIEL LEONARD: Massachusettenis (London, 1776); reissued with Novanglus by John Adams, and ascribed on the title page to Jonathan Sewall (Boston, 1819).

JONATHAN BOUCHER: A View of the Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution (London, 1797).

III. JOHN DICKINSON: Political Writings (2 vols., Wilmington, 1801). Writings, edited by P. L. Ford (3 vols., Philadelphia, 1895).

See C. J. Stillé, The Life and Times of John Dickinson (Philadelphia, 1891).

IV. SAMUEL ADAMS: Writings, edited by H. A. Cushing (4 vols., New York, 1904-08).

See J. K. Hosmer, Samuel Adams, (Boston, 1884); revised edition (1898, American Statesmen Series). W. V. Wells, The Life and Public Services of Samuel Adams (3 vols., Boston, 1865).

V. JOHN TRUMBULL: Poetical Works (2 vols., Hartford, 1820). The Progress of Dulness (New Haven, 1772-73). An Elegy on the Times (Boston, 1774; New Haven, 1775). M'Fingal (printed in parts from 1775 to 1782, and much revised; first published entire, Hartford, 1782; numerous contemporary editions). The Progress of Dulness and M'Fingal are reprinted in The Connecticut Wits, edited with introduction and bibliography by Vernon L. Parrington (New York, 1926, American Authors Series).

No life of Trumbull has been written.

FRANCIS HOPKINSON: Miscellaneous Essays and Occasional Writings (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1792). George Hastings, Life and Works of Francis Hopkinson (University of Chicago Press, 1926).

JONATHAN ODELL: The Loyal Ferses of Joseph Stansbury and Doctor Jonathan Odell, edited by Winthrop Sargent (Albany, 1860).

SAMUEL PETERS: A General History of Connecticut . . . to which is added an Appendix, wherein New and True Sources of the Present Rebellion are pointed out . . . By a Gentleman of the Province (London, 1781; New Haven, 1829; New York, 1877).


I. AGRARIANISM AND CAPITALISM: A vivid account of the party struggles of the time is given in Claude G. Bowers, Jeferson and Hamilton (Boston, 1925, with full bibliography). For political theory, see Harold J. Laski, Political Thought in England from Locke to Bentham (New York, 1970). Charles E. Merriam, A History of American Political Theories (New York, 1903). A dramatic account of Shays's Rebellion is given in Edward Bellamy, The Duke of Stockbridge (New York, 1901).

II. THE GREAT DEBATE: The bibliography is extensive. See J. Elliot, Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution . . . (4 vols., Washington, 1827, 1836; 5 vols., Philadelphia, 1906). Max Farrand, Records of the Federal Convention of 1787 (3 vols., New Haven, 1911). S. B. Harding, The Contest over the Ratification of the Federal Constitution in the State of Massachusetts (New York, 1896). Charles A Beard, An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (New York, 1913). The Federalist, numerous editions; the best are those edited by H. C. Lodge (New York, 1886) and by P. L. Ford (New York, 1-898). Richard Henry Lee, Observations leading to a fair examination of the system, of government . . . In a number of Letters from the Federal Farmer to the Republican (reprinted in Pamphlets on the Constitution of the United States, 1787-1788, edited by P. L. Ford, Brooklyn, 1888).

III. ALEXANDER HAMILTON: Works, Comprising his Correspondence, edited by J. C. Hamilton (7 vols., New York, 1850-51). Works, edited by H. CLodge (10 vols., New York, 1885).

There are numerous lives. See J. C. Hamilton, The Life of Alexander Hamilton (2 vols., New York, 1834). H. C. Lodge, Alexander Hamilton (Boston, 1882,1898). J. T. Morse, The Life of Alexander Hamilton (2 vols., Boston, 1876). See also Gertrude Atherton, The Conqueror (New York and London, 1902). A. H. Vanderberg, The Greatest American, Alexander Hamilton . . . with a Symposium of Opinions by Distinguished Americans (New York and London, 1922). F. S. Oliver, Alexander Hamilton: An Essay on the American Union (New York, 1907)--an English view.

JOHN ADAMS: Works . . . with a Life of the Author, edited by C. F. Adams (10 vols., Boston, 1850-56).

See J. Q. Adams and C. F. Adams, The Life of John Adams (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1871). J. T. Morse, Jr., John Adams (Boston, 1884, 1898). Letters of Mrs. Adams, the Wife of John Adams, edited by C. F. Adams (2 Vols., Boston, 1840). C. M. Walsh, The Political Science of John Adams (New York, 1915)


I. THE IMPACT OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION: Abundant material will be found in Charles D. Hazen, Contemporary American Opinion of the French Revolution (Baltimore, 1897, Johns Hopkins Studies in Hist. and Pol. Science, Extra Vol. 16). See also The Journal of William Maclay, edited by E. S. Maclay (New York, 1890). For Publicola, see John Q. Adams, Writings . . ., edited by Worthington C. Ford (7 vols., New York, 1913-17).

II. TOM PAINE: Writings . . ., edited by Moncure D. Conway (4 vols., New York, 1894-99). Moncure D. Conway, Life of Thomas Paine . . . To which is added a Sketch of Paine by William Cobbett . . . (2 vols., New York and London, 1892).

THOMAS JEFFERSON: Writings, edited by H. A. Washington (9 vols., Washington, 1853-54). The Works of Thomas Jefferson (with Anas and Autobiography), edited by P. L. Ford (12 vols., New York, 1904-05).

Numerous lives, many of which are wholly unreliable. The official biography was written by Henry S. Randall, The Life of Thomas Jefferson (3 vols., Philadelphia, 1858, 1871). Of later studies the following are excellent: David S. Muzzey, Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1919); Francis W. Hirst, Life and Letters of Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1926)--an English view; and Albert Jay Nock, Jefferson (New York, 1926). See also Sarah N. Randolph, The Domestic Life of Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1871) and Thomas E. Watson, The Life and Times of Thomas Jefferson (New York, 1903)

III. THE FEDERALIST GROUP: For backgrounds of the Hartford wits, see Richard J. Purcell, Connecticut in Transition: 1775-1818 (Washington, 1918). William A. Robinson, Jeffersonian Democracy in New England (New Haven, 1916). Samuel E. Morison, Life and Letters of Harrison Gray Otis (2 vols., Boston, 1913). For criticism, see F. Sheldon, "Pleiades of Connecticut" (Atlantic Monthly, Vol. XV). Mrs. Annie R. Marble, Heralds of American Literature (Chicago, 1907). Moses Coit Tyler, Three Men of Letters (New York, 1895)--Dwight and Barlow. The writings of the Wits have long been out of print. The most available text is The Connecticut Wits, edited with introduction and bibliographies, by Vernon L. Parrington (New York, 1926, American Authors Series), which reprints large portions of Trumbull, Timothy Dwight, Barlow, Humphreys, The Anarchiad, and portions of The Echo.

TIMOTHY DWIGHT: The most important titles are The Conquest of Canaan . . . (Hartford, 1785). The Triumph of Infidelity . . . (1788). Greenfield Hill . . . (1794). Travels in New England and New York: 1796-1815 (4 vols., New Haven, 1821-22; London, 1823).

See W. B. Sprague, Life of Timothy Dwight (Sparks Lib. Amer. Biog., Second Series, Vol. IV, Boston, 1845).

THE FRENCH GROUP: PHILIP FRENEAU: Poems, edited for the Princeton Hist. Assoc. by Fred L. Pattee (3 vols., Princeton, 1902-07). Victor H. Paltsits, A Bibliography of the Separate and Collected Works of Philip Freneau, together with an Account of his Newspapers (New York, 1903). Mary S. Austin, Philip Freneau, Poet of the Revolution (New York, 1901). S. E. Forman, The Political Activities of Philip Freneau (Baltimore, 1902, Johns Hopkins Studies in Hist. and Pol. Science, Series XX, No. 9-10). Mrs. Annie R. Marble, Heralds of American Literature (Chicago, 1907).

JOEL BARLOW: His works are out of print, but portions will be found in The Connecticut Wits (New York, 1926). The important titles are: The Vision of Columbus . . . (Hartford, 1787; London, 1787). A Letter to the National Convention of France . . . (London, 1792). Advice to the Privileged Orders in the Several States of Europe . . . (London, 1792-1796). The Conspiracy of Kings . . . (London, 1792). The Hasty Pudding . . . (New York, 1796; Salem, 1799; Stockbridge, 1799). The Columbiad (Philadelphia, 1807; London, 1809).

Charles Burr Todd, Life and Letters of Joel Barlow (New York, 1886). See also Tyler, Three Men of Letters (New York, 1895), and Marble, Heralds of American Literature (Chicago, 1907).

HUGH HENRY BRACKENRIDGE: Modern Chivalry: Containing the Adventures of Captain John Farrago, and Teague O'Regan, his servant . . . (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1792; Vol. 3, Pittsburgh, 1793; Vol. 4, Philadelphia, 1797). These four volumes constitute Part I. Part II was issued in two volumes, Philadelphia, 1804-05. Many revisions and changes of the text followed. The complete work was issued in four volumes (Philadelphia, 1815), the fourth volume containing new material. Another complete edition was issued in two volumes (Pittsburgh, 18ig). For detailed information see Cambridge History of American Literature (Vol. 1, P. 526).

An account of Brackenridge and in particular of his experience during the Whiskey Rebellion, in a memoir by H. M. Brackenridge, prefaces the edition Of 1846 and later editions. No life of Brackenridge has been written. His fugitive writings in verse, drama, and prose are numerous but inaccessible. Some comment on Brackenridge is given in Henry Adams, Life of Albert Gallatin (Philadelphia, 1879).