Alexandria

Alexandria

Railroad Station: Union Station, W. end of King St., for Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac R.R., Chesapeake & Ohio Ry., Seaboard

Air Line Ry., and Southern Ry.

Bus Station: 109 N.Washington St., for Greyhound Lines.

Airport: Washington Airport, 4 m. N. on US 1, for Eastern Air Lines, American Airlines, and Pennsylvania-Central Airlines; taxi $1.25.

Taxis: Fare $0.20 within city limits, $1.5o to Washington.

Local Busses: SE. corner Pitt and-Cameron Sts. for busses to Washington, fare $0.15, 8 tokens for $1; to Mount Vernon, fare $0.25; to

Episcopal Theological Seminary, fare $0.10.

Pier: Norfolk and Washington Steamboat Co., E. end of Prince St., for boat to Old Point Comfort and Norfolk, 7 p.m. daily except when river is frozen.

Traffic Regulations: No U-turns in business district, one hour parking limit on King St.

Accommodations: 4 hotels; tourist homes, trailer camp.

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 201 S.Washington St.

Radio Station: WJSV (1460 kc.).

Motion Picture Houses: 5, including 1 for Negroes.

Swimming: Alexandria Municipal Pool, NE. comer Cameron and Harvard Sts., fee $0.20, children $0.10, Suits $0.25, open 9 a.m.-10 p.m. weekdays, 2-6 Sun., from May 30 to Labor Day.

Boating- Rowboats for rent at E. end of Prince and Duke Sts., fee $0.5o for 1st hour, $0.35 each additional hour.

Annual Events: Tour of historic houses and gardens, sponsored by St.Paul's Church and the Alexandria Association, one Sat. in May and one Sat. in June, $1 for full day and afternoon tea.

ALEXANDRIA (52 alt., 24,149 pop.), hugging the western bank of the Potomac River, stretches south from the sinuous Four Mile Run to the marshes of Hunting Creek. West of the sweeping curve made through the city by the tracks of the Richmond, Fredericksburg and Potomac Railroad, scattered suburbs cover a succession of ridges. Caught in the wedge made by vast Potomac Yards, where seven railroads meet to exchange freight, and the industrial section along the river front, lies old Alexandria, a ragged pentagon neatly laid out in squares, and divided almost equally by King Street. This crowded business thoroughfare, flanked by ill-assorted faces of commercial buildings, extends westward from the water's edge toward the George Washington Masonic Memorial Temple.

Within view of the glistening white belfry of Christ Church and the spire of City Hall are scores of Georgian Colonial and early Federal houses of mellow red brick, gray stucco, or white weatherboarding. Here and there are long narrow houses resembling halves of gabled houses, called locally 'flounder' houses. With sloping shed-roofs and their tallest side walls windowless, they are said to owe their unusual architectural style to owners' attempts to evade taxation by reporting construction unfinished. Flounder houses are common in the older sections of Philadelphia, and inasmuch as many early residents of Alexandria were Pennsylvania Quakers it is thought that this type of house may have originated there. The facades of most houses in Alexandria are even with the sidewalk, the doorways with shining brass knockers often painted in bright colors to match the shutters. Front or side yards are few; most old residences have narrow terraces or courtyards in back that enclose boxwood, mimosa, and an arbor of dangling wistaria within old brick walls.

Among the streets running east to the river, Prince Street in its final block is probably the most interesting. Its cobbled bed slopes down between Lombardy poplars and two rows of odd small houses with doors and shutters painted bright green, red, blue, or yellow. Along the river front, where the prevailing odor is of fish and fertilizer, are wooden wharves and vacant shabby warehouses that recall the days when Alexandria was an important port. Boat clubs occupy two old buildings on the river bank, where speedboats, launches, and sailboats tie up beside weather-beaten craft of local fishermen. In a few small eating places there is still a semblance of the old barroom and tavern atmosphere.

Alexandria's diurnal noises give way at night to a silence broken by puffing trains, the occasional whistling of steamers, and the drone of airplanes flying low for a landing or taking off at Washington Airport. On Saturday night the shops of King Street glitter and swarm with people, for Alexandria is still a country town; while down Washington Street passes a queue of automobiles. On Sunday a lethargy descends on Alexandria. In the principal Negro quarter, a section of nondescript row houses just north of King Street and west of Washington Street, groups sit chatting in doorways, on stoops, or in rocking chairs on the sidewalks, as they watch children at play and couples en promenade displaying their Sunday best. Negroes live in every section of Alexandria and the professional group and government workers have substantial residences.

Old Alexandrians and newcomers constitute two distinct groups. The 'Foreign Legion,' as recently acquired citizens are called, discovered Alexandria just after the World War, restored old houses, moved in, and since 1932 has gained many recruits from Washington's officialdom. Streets were lengthened to accommodate new houses, fashioned after eighteenth century models. People who once could recite the genealogy of every neighbor worth knowing find their refurbished city a bit perplexing, grateful as they are for the prosperity the 'Foreign Legioní has brought.

Although Captain John Smith ascended the Potomac to the falls in 0o8, the west shore of the river was the last of Virginia's Tidewater fringe to be settled. In 1669 Governor Berkeley granted Robert Howsing 'six thousand acres of land situate . . . upon the freshes of Potomac River on the west side.' Captain John Alexander, who surveyed this tract, including the site of Alexandria, bought the Howsing grant the year following, and sporadic settlement began.

The section suffered in 1675 because of the Susquehannock War, when the Indians crossed the Potomac to attack new settlers. Colonel John Washington with a Virginia force joined Major John Truman's Maryland troops in a campaign against the Indians on Piscataway Creek (Maryland). During a truce, Maryland soldiers killed the Indian conferees. The Susquehannock, bent on revenge, advanced southward and aroused other Indians, thus bringing about conditions that led to Bacon's Rebellion. The century had ended before the Indians were driven out and permanent settlements established.

Plantations flourished after 1713, when Queen Anne's War ended and tobacco trade expanded. Indian trails then became 'rolling roads,' along which hogsheads of tobacco were drawn or 'rolled' by oxen or horses to public warehouses. The first warehouse in this vicinity was authorized in 1730 on the south side of Hunting Creek 'upon Broadwater's land.' The site was found unsuitable, and establishment of a warehouse 'upon Simon Pearson's land upon the upper side of Great Hunting Creek' was confirmed in 1732 by the general assembly. In 174o a public ferry was established 'from Hunting Creek warehouse, on land of Hugh West . . . to Frazier's point in Maryland,' and from 'the plantation of John Hareford in Doeg's Neck . . . to Prince George County in Maryland.' A tavern was erected here, on the main thoroughfare between New England and the South, and the community was called Belhaven. By l742, when fees of tobacco inspectors were fixed, Hunting Creek Warehouse and that 'on the land of the Honourable Thomas Lee, Esquire, at the Falls of Patowmack,' were important shipping points.

In that year Fairfax County was cut from Prince William, and in 1748 the general assembly authorized the establishment of a town for Fairfax County 'at Hunting Creek warehouse,' to be named Alexandria for the family that had once owned the site. The following year the county surveyor, John West, Jr., assisted by young George Washington, laid off the town in streets and 84 half-acre lots. Among the purchasers were Lawrence Washington of Mount Vernon and his brother Augustine. Soon a busy port and an important stage stop, Alexandria grew quickly to commercial prominence. In 1752 it was made the county seat.

The export of wheat became in time even more important to Alexandri than that of tobacco. Grain growing increased as settlement pushed westward, making the colony self-sufficient in flour and meeting the demands of an expanding market in England and the West Indies. By 1776 caravans of 'flour waggons' were coming from as far as Winchester and returning laden with merchandise from England. In 1781 Alexandria was first on Virginia's flour inspection list.

Taverns such as the City Tavern, the Bunch of Grapes, and the Indian Queen opened for the accommodation of travelers and for the entertainment of the 'gentry'-Washingtons, Fairfaxes, Masons, and other plantation owners with fine mansions in or near town. Scottish merchant-shippers, like the partners Carlyle and Dalton, built handsome town houses, and George Washington had a house in town. Parties and balls were frequent, while the populace sought amusement in fairs, political rallies, and other gatherings held in Market Square. Washington, who raced his own horses, was a steward of the Alexandria jockey Club.

Washington's first command-troops recruited in Alexandria-was drilled in Market Square before proceeding against the French in 1754. Alexandria was the mobilization point for Maryland troops and for one New York company in preparation for the second campaign in 1755. Here they joined Virginia troops and British regiments under the command of General Edward Braddock. Before starting, the general held a conference in Alexandria with the governors of five colonies. Washington set out as an aide to Braddock but assumed command after Braddock's death.

In July 1774 Washington presided in the courthouse here at a meeting to elect delegates to the first Virginia convention and to protest against the Boston Port Bill. 'If Boston is forced to submit, we will not,' the citizens declared. The Fairfax Resolves, drawn by George Mason, stated Virginia's position on taxation, Parliament, and the Crown, suggested a common platform, and affirmed that 'every little jarring interest and dispute which hath ever happened between these Colonies should be buried in eternal oblivion.'

When the town was incorporated in 1779, Alexandria acquired a seal picturing 'a ship in full sail with a balance equally poised above the ship.' Some of the streets were paved by Hessian prisoners, labor procured through Dr.William Brown, one of the first surgeons general of the Revolutionary army and compiler during the war of the first American Pharmacopoeiafor the Use of Army Hospitals. A lodge of Masons was organized in 1783. The next year a daily newspaper was established, now the oldest in America, and in 1785 an academy was founded to which Washington contributed annual gifts. He also endowed a short-lived charity school, the first free school in northern Virginia.

In that same year representatives from Virginia and Maryland met in Alexandria to discuss boundaries and commercial relations between the two States. This meeting, continued at Mount Vernon, led to the Annapolis Convention of 1786 and to the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia in 1787.

In 1789 Virginia gave Alexandria away. Along with a generous slice of Fairfax County, the city later became part of the District of Columbia, laid out in 1791, and the stone marking the southern comer, still in place at Jones Point, was planted with a Masonic ceremony. The presiding official was Dr.Elisha Cullen Dick, who executed two oil paintings of Washington and was consulting physician during Washington's last illness.

Alexandria's exile had its highlights. The Bank of Alexandria, first in the present area of Virginia, was organized in 1792. Two years later the Library Company of Alexandria was founded; many sea captains subscribed, and carried its books on long voyages. A brick building (1767-73) had been erected to replace the wooden parish church, and the Presbyterian Meeting House, completed in 1790, was followed in 1795 by St.Mary's, the first permanent Roman Catholic church in Virginia. When the British sacked the city of Washington in 1814 and jeopardized Alexandria, town officials surrendered to the invaders, who burned a ship at anchor and loaded their vessels liberally with supplies. Alexandria's most serious fire occurred in 1824. An event of quite another sort took place in 1836: the tweaking of President Jackson's nose by Lieutenant Robert Randolph, U.S.N., aboard the steamboat Sydney. Randolph, whom Jackson had dismissed for defaulting with Government funds, was knocked down, then hustled ashore and placed under arrest; he was not punished for the assault.

In 1846 homesick Virginians asked Congress to give them back to the Old Dominion. Their petition was granted. In 1847 the general assembly created Alexandria County with Alexandria its seat. In 1898 Clarendon became the county seat, and in 1920 the name of the county was changed to Arlington.

But good fortune was mixed with alloy. The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad reached Winchester and the Cumberland coal fields, and in the 184o's it diverted trade to Baltimore. Though Alexandria achieved city status in 1852, it was soon outstripped by Baltimore and its new fleets of clipper ships.

The War between the States brought about another period of exile. After sending four companies, including a battalion of artillery, to Harpers Ferry in 1859 to suppress John Brown's raid, Alexandria at the beginning of the war was severed from the rest of Virginia. In April 1861, when Robert E. Lee assumed command of Virginia's armed forces, he was followed by many Alexandrians. The next month Federal troops took possession of the city. In August 1863, two months after West Virginia had been admitted to the Union, Governor Francis Pierpont proclaimed Alexandria capital of the 'reorganized government' of Virginia, and it remained so to the end of the war.

Safe behind Federal lines Alexandria escaped the havoc that obliterated evidences of the past in other Virginia cities, but it continued to fall behind newer commercial centers. The city passed through several decades of sluggish economic development before its recent rejuvenation. Today, however, it has the second largest freight classification yards in America and numerous industries: two large fertilizer plants; a plant for the construction and repair of refrigerator cars; chemical works; an automobile assembling plant; iron works; foundries; a shirt factory; a brick kiln; an a pottery. Its industrial pay roll of some $6,ooo,ooo is distributed annually among approximately 3,600 employees.

POINTS OF INTEREST

1. The CITY HALL AND MARKET HOUSE (open daily), Cameron St. between Royal and Fairfax Sts., a red brick building with corner pavilions and a lofty spire upon a clock tower, is a highly stylized version of late eighteenth-century architecture. The massive central motif on the Cameron Street fagade, crowned with a mansard roof, aggravates the eclectic style of the building. Erected in 1817 and burned in 1871, it was rebuilt and enlarged in 1873.

A courthouse for Fairfax County was erected on Market Square in 1754. A school, apparently the first in Alexandria, occupied the ground floor. In 1782 a larger brick structure over a massive arcade was built on the northwest comer of the square. This was incorporated in the building erected in 1817. Until 1789 the seat of Fairfax County was on this site. For 11 years after the area comprising Alexandria was ceded to the Federal Government, county business continued to be conducted here. From 1847 to 1898 the courthouse of Alexandria County remained in the city.

In the courthouse is a SET OF STANDARD WEIGHTS AND MEASURES stamped 'The County of Fairfax 1744,' said to be the only complete set in the United States of early standards authorized by England.

The ALEXANDRIA-WASHINGTON LODGE OF MASONS is in the central part of the Cameron Street side of the building. Chartered in 1783 under the qrFd Lodge of Pennsylvania, it transferred to the Grand Lodge of Virgima in 788,'when Alexandria Lodge No.22 was chartered and George Washington was named its first Worshipful Master. In 1805 'Washington' was added to 'Alexandria,' the only instance in the history of Masonry of a lodge altering its name without a new charter.

The MASONIC MUSEUM (open 9-5 weekdays; adm. $0.10) contains two portraits of Washington, an oil by C.P.Polk and a pastel done by William Williams in 1794; the high leather-covered library chair Washington presented and used as Master; his personal Masonic relics; and his bedcham. ber clock with its hands, stopped by Dr.Dick, still pointing to ten minutes past ten, the moment of Washington's death. Among other portraits are one of La Fayette at 27 by Charles Willson Peale P and one of Thomas, sixth Lord Fairfax, painted in London by Sir Joshua Reynolds.

2. GADSBY'S TAVERN (Open 9-5 weekdays, 2-5 Sun.; adm. $0.25),132 Royal St., is a two-story brick structure with a taller brick addition nex door. The older building is topped by a gabled roof above a modillioned cornice with fretwork along the lowest molding. The roof is pierced by three dormers, large keystones accentuating the flat arches above the window openings. Fluted pilasters flank the central entrance and support a broken pediment that rises through a stringcourse above a round-arched transom with a tall keystone. The portal, the winged flat arches, and large key-blocks of stone over the windows are typical of late eighteenth-century Georgian Colonial design. In the restored courtyard stands an eighteenth-century coach, as if waiting for the hostler's slothful boy to bring out the horses. From this structure, built in 1752 and long known as the City Tavern, Washington recruited for his first command in 1754, and he used it several times as headquarters during the French and Indian War.

John Wise, who bought the City Tavern in 1792 and built the addition, was succeeded as host two years later by John Gadsby, an Englishman. An inventory in 1802 showed ten buildings, including stables, kitchens, and laundry, grouped about a courtyard. John Davis, an English traveler, said 'that Gadsby keeps the best house of entertainment -in America.' Washington attended two celebrations of his birthday here, one in 1789 and his last in 1799. When he reviewed Alexandria troops from these tavem steps in November 1799, he ended his military career where he had begun it 45 years before. The townspeople gave General La Fayette a brilhant reception herein 1824.

Both buildings of the tavern are restored. Although the splendid paneling of the ballroom in the comer structure has been acquired by the Metropolitan Museum of Art, both interiors are still notable for the quality and extent of their carved woodwork. The basement kitchen contains a collection of Colonial utensils.

3. The CARLYLE HOUSE (Open 9-5 weekdays; adm. $0.15), 123 N. Fairfax St. (entrance through Wagar Building), is a large, two-story stuccoed brick building in Georgian Colonial style. The hip roof is pierced by dormers and a chimney at each end of the ridge. Along the garden side spreads a wide terrace. On the west front a long flight of stone steps leads to the double door with an elliptical fanlight and stone arch, on the keystone of which is carved Humilitate, motto of the Carlyle family. Porches and other modifications have not improved a once handsome exterior, but the interior is still distinguished by fine paneled woodwork. From the transverse hall, the stairway ascends gracefully in one continuous curve. Decorative features of the outstanding Blue Room include pediments broken into sweeping scrolls over both doors, an elegant fireplace with pale blue marble facing, a shallow mantel supported by pilasters, a low dado with Greek key molding, and a deep cornice with modillions and rosettes. A museum since 1914, the house contains an extensive collection of early American furniture.

The house was built in 1752 by John Carlyle, a Scottish merchant, who came to America in 1740. In April 1755 Carlyle, then commissary of the Virginia forces, offered his house to General Braddock, Commodore Keppell, and the governors of five colonies, who met in the Blue Room to plan a concerted campaign against the French and Indians. Colonel George Washington was present and received his commission as an aide on the general's staff.

4. The RAMSAY HOUSE (open daiJy), NE. comer King and Fairfax Sts., a two-and-a-half-story building of brick covered partly with clapboard and partly with flush boarding, is the oldest house in Alexandria. It has three pedimented dormer windows on the front, and the roof slopes away in a broad half-gable toward the rear. This rather odd structure was built in 1749-51 by William Ramsay, a Scottish merchant who was one of the founders of Alexandria and its first postmaster.

5. The ALEXANDRIA GAZETTE BUILDING, 317 King St., a modem stone structure, houses the oldest daily newspaper in the United States. First issued on February 5, 1784, by George Richard & Company as the Virginia Journal and Alexandria Advertiser, it has undergone changes of name and ownership, but the Gazette of today is a continuation of the original paper. The office file lacks only a few of the earliest issues and those of 1861, when the Gazette was suppressed by Federal authorities for its strong secessionist sentiment, and its building was burned by Federal soldiers. Publication was continued surreptitiously during the war in a little sheet called Local News.

6. STABLER-LEADBEATER'S DRUG STORE (Open 10-4:30; adm. free), 107 S.Fairfax St., one of the oldest drug stores in America, operated until 1933 on the ground floor of this three-story brick building. It was restored by the Landmarks Society of Alexandria, sponsored by the American Pharmaceutical Association, and opened to the public in 1939. Flint glass bottles, mortars with pestles, old thermometers, scales, weights, and measures are part of the shop's authentic equipment.

Founded in 1792 by Edward Stabler, a Quaker from Petersburg, the. store was patronized by Drs. Craik, Dick, and Brown. The account books and prescription files show drugs sold to Henry Clay, John Calhoun, Daniel Webster, and the Washington, Lee, Custis, and Fairfax families. A note in Martha Washington's hand is preserved: 'Mrs.Washington desires Mr.Stabler to send by bearer a quart bottle of his best Castor Oil and a bill for it, Mt.Vemon, 1802.' In 1852 John Leadbetter of Philadelphia, who had married the granddaughter of the founder, took over the store. Robert E. Lee was making a purchase here when Lieutenant J.E.B.Stuart delivered orders to him to suppress John Brown's Raid in 1859.

7. The OLD PRESBYTERIAN MEETING HOUSE (open 9:30-5 daily, Apr. to Oct.; adm. $0.10), 321 S.Fairfax St., is a large, rather austere, red brick hall with a broad gabled roof and two tiers of regularly spaced windows. A tall square tower at the west end is crowned by a latticed balustrade and a handsome square wood cupola with pilasters. The whitepainted interior, with box pews, open gallery, and a semidomed recess in the end wall behind the centered pulpit, has a severity more common to New England than to the South.

The first Meeting House, attended by Scottish colonists and their descendants, was begun in 1774 but finished only after an act of 1790 allowed the trustees 'to raise by one or more lotteries' money enough for 'completing the building.' Struck by lightning in 1835 and burned, it was succeeded the following year by the present building erected on th same lot. In 1886 the meeting house was abandoned as a place of worship.

The white marble table tomb of an Unknown Soldier of the Revolutior stands in the treeless yard among the graves of many Revolutionists of Scottish ancestry, including Dr.Craik, Major John Carlyle, and Colonel Dennis Ramsay.

8. The CRAIK HOUSE (private), 21c, Duke St., is a dilapidated threeand-a-half-story red brick building with brick stringcourses marking the floor levels and a large dentil cornice along the facade. The gabled roof is pierced by two round-arched dormer windows.

The house built about 1790, was the home and office of Dr.James Craik (1730-1814), a Scottish surgeon, who accompanied Washington on his campaigns in the French and Indian War and was with him in every battle from Great Meadows to Yorktown. He was appointed assistant director-general of hospitals in the Continental Army in 1779. Dr.Craik, in attendance at Mount Vernon when Washington died, is mentioned in his will as 'My old and intimate friend, Dr. Craik.'

9. The CORYELL HOUSE (private), 2o8 Duke St., of 'flounder' type, built in 1790, is an unpainted frame building leaning against the Craik House. George Coryell, who lived here, and his father Cornelius Coryell of New Jersey ferried Washington across the Delaware River on Christmas Eve 1776.

10. The LA FAYETTE HOUSE (private), SW. comer Duke and St. Asaph Sts., is a large red brick house with white stone arches above each window and a balustrade along the front parapet of the gable roof. A wide, round-arched entrance portal, with delicately traced fan- and sidelights, is the most notable exterior feature. Attractive interior woodwork is well preserved. The house is one of the best examples of Federal or post-Colonial architecture in the city. Built by Thomas Lawrason in 1795, it was lent by his widow in 1825 to La Fayette, who stayed here during his last visit to America.

11. The OLD LYCEUM HALL (private), SW. comer Washington and Prince Sts., erected in 1839, is a two-story stuccoed brick building painted yellow and lined to simulate stone blocks. A tall Doric portico, with four fluted columns and a continuous triglyphed entablature, gives this Greek Revival building an air of serenity.

In 1834 gentlemen of the town, led by Benjamin Hallowell, the Quaker schoolmaster, formed a society devoted to literature, science, and history. Hallowell, elected president, delivered the first lecture, on vegetable physiology. This building was erected five years later. During the War between the States it was used as a hospital. Today (1939) the Little Theater presents occasional productions here.

12. The LORD FAIRFAX HOUSE (private), 607 Cameron St., is a three-story town house with a long two-story ell at the rear. Two white stringcourses cut across the tall red brick facade. Above a recessed vestibule, within which delicately carved pilasters and small columns flank the portal, a stuccoed surface arch rises from the first stringcourse and embraces the central windows of the two upper stories. The interior retains much of its fine original woodwork. In the hall a graceful stairway with mahogany banisters winds above an oval well. The house was built in 1816, and bought in 1830 by Thomas, Lord Fairfax, ninth Baron of Cameron.

13. The ROBERT E. LEE HOUSE (private), 607 Oronoco, St., is a twoand-one-half-story building of pink brick with white trim. A dormer window pierces the long gabled roof on each side of a small eave pediment, the latter rising above a slightly projecting central pavilion. The Georgian Colonial doorway and windows, with keystoned. flat arches of white stone, are widely spaced. The interior is notable for original mantels and a graceful staircase. An acre of garden at the rear remains almost as it was a century ago.

The house was owned in 1795 by John Potts and purchased in 1799 by William Fitzhugh. In x81:8 when Robert E. Lee was ii years old, his mother, Ann Hill Carter Lee, moved here from another house in Alexandria where the family had lived since 1811. Here General La Fayette paid his respects to Mrs.Lee in 1824, and met her son, who had been assistant marshal of the welcoming parade.

14. The HALLOWELL SCHOOL (private), 609 Oronoco St., shares a common chimney with the Lee House next door. Built about 1793, this house accommodated the school opened in 1825 by Benjamin Hallowell (1799-1877), a Pennsylvania Quaker, and was attended by sons of prominent families in the community and by students from Canada and Latin America. Robert E. Lee was prepared here for entrance to the United States Military Academy.

15. The PHILIP FENDALL HOUSE (private), 429 N.Washington St., is a frame-covered brick structure in early Federal style with a Victorian front porch. It rises two stories to an attic with latticed windows under plain eaves, and has a long gabled wing at the rear.

Built shortly after the Revolution, it was the home of Philip R. Fendall, attorney, whose first wife was Elizabeth Steptoe, widow of Philip Ludwell Lee, and whose second wife was Mary Lee, sister of 'Light Horse Harry' Lee. The house came into possession of Richard Bland Lee, brother of 'Light Horse Harry,' in 1792 and for the next half-century the house. was a home of the Lee family. On December 15, 1799, friends assembled here to make arrangements for Washington's funeral.

16. The LLOYD HOUSE (private), 220, N.Washington St., perhaps the finest example of formal domestic architecture in Alexandria, is a large, square, red brick house of post-Colonial design. The broad gabled roof has three dormer windows with slender pilasters supporting a diminutive gable pediment. The modest but beautifully designed doorway is framed by Corinthian pilasters and a broken pediment over the round-arched fanlight. Two tiers of windows with flat-arched lintels complete a dignified fagade. Fine brickwork is matched by the interior woodwork in modified Adam style. The house was built in 1793 by John Hooe and acquired by the Lloyd family in 1832.

17. CHRIST CHURCH (open 9-5 weekdays, adm. $0.10; services Sun.), SE. comer Cameron and Columbia Sts., is a late Georgian Colonial building of dark red brick laid in Flemish bond. Centered on the west fagade is a square tower supporting an octagonal belfry in three stages, and a domed cupola. White stone quoining emphasizes the comers of the main structure, and white keystones accent the flat-arched brick lintels of the first tier of windovis and the arched brick headings of those above. The broad hip roof rises above a continuous denticulated. cornice to a short ridge. The east wall is pierced in the center by a fine Palladian window with four square pilasters and a broken pediment. A balcony extends around three sides of the chaste white interior beneath an aquamarine ceiling. The canopied pulpit, originally against the north wall, is centered before the Palladian window.

Preceded by a frame building and known until early in the nineteenth century as Alexandria or Lower Church, the present structure was built in 1767-73. The tower and cupola and probably the balcony were added in 1818 the year in which the small graceful wrought-brass and crystal chan4elier was brought from England, where it was purchased for $140, at George Washington's expense. Two of the white box pews are marked by silver plates: the one owned by Washington, a vestryman of the parish for three months in 1765; the other of Robert E. Lee.

18. FRIENDSHIP FIRE ENGINE HOUSE (open occasionally, adm. $0.10), 107 S.Alfred St., is a small red brick building with classical trim painted white, castiron acanthus leaves topping stone pilasters and iron ornaments upon the projecting lintels of two tall windows. The figures 1774 (the year the fire company was formally organized) fill the low pediment above the wide door and are inscribed again on the square wooden base of the tall octagonal cupola.

The building was erected perhaps as early as 1775 and housed the local fire company of which Washington was a member and honorary captain ~hortly before his death. Among exhibited memorabilia of early fire fightIng is a copy of the fire engine, now preserved in Baltimore, Maryland, that Washington brought from Philadelphia in 1774 and presented to the Friendship Fire Company.

19. The GEORGE WASHINGTON MASONIC NATIONAL MEMORIAL TEMPLE (open 9-5 daiJy), on Shooter's Hill, King St. and Russell Rd., a gray stone monument in neo-Classic style, occupies the site first proposed for the National capitol. On a massive square base structure, from the center of which juts a Doric portico, a vast tower rises through three colossal stages to a stepped pyramid reaching more than 400 feet above the summit of the terraced hill.

The idea of a monument to George Washington, the Mason, originated with Charles H. Callahan of Alexandria. The movement got under way at a meeting of the Alexandria-Washington Lodge in igio, and the comerstone was laid on November 1, 1923. Designed by Harvey Wiley Corbett of New York and costing $5,000,000 contributed by 3,000,000 Masons, the temple will eventually house the portraits and relics in possession of the Alexandria-Washington Lodge of Masons.

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS

Mount Eagle (Lord Fairfax Country Club) 1.5 m.; Woodlawn, 8.8 m.; Mount Vernon, 9.4 m.; Fort Belvoir, 9 m. (see Tour 1a). Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Fort Myer, 7.5 m. (see Tour 12). Episcopal high School, 3 m.; Protestant Episcopal Theological Seminary, 3.2 m. (see Tour 13). Falls Church, 8.8 m. (see Tour 4a and Tour 13).

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