Norfolk

Railroad Stations: Union Depot, Lake Ave. and Main St., for Norfolk and Western Ry., Norfolk Southern R.R., and Virginian Ry.; ferries, foot of Brooke Ave., to Chesapeake and Ohio Ry. and Pennsylvania R.R.; ferry, W. end of York St., to Atlantic Coast Line R.R.; ferry, foot of Jackson St., S. of W.Main St., to Southern Ry.; ferry, foot of Commercial PI., to foot of High St. (Portsmouth), for Seaboard Air Line Ry., Virginian Ry.

Bus Stations: Union Bus Terminal, NE. corner Monticello Ave. and Tazewell St., for Greyhound Lines, Norfolk Southern Bus Corp., Carolina Coach Co., Peninsula Transit Corp., and Virginia Coach Lines.

Taxis: Fare $2.50 first half mile, $1.00 each additional half mile, $2 per hour for 5 passengers or less.

Streetcars and Busses: Fare 10 cents, 3 tokens 25 cents; weekly pass $1.

Traffic Regulations: Limited free parking on many downtown streets; parking meters on some streets, 50 for one hour; a few one-way streets east and west.

Accommodations: 114 hotels; tourist homes.

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 107 W.Main St.; Tidewater A.A.A., Monticello Hotel, City Hall Ave. and Granby St.

Radio Station - WTAR (780 kc.).

Theaters and Motion Picture Houses: Colonial Theater, Tazewell St., occasional road shows; Little Theater, W.York and Duke Sts., local productions; 17 motion picture houses, including 3 for Negroes. Golf: Ocean View Municipal Golf Course, N. end Granby St., 18 holes, greens fee 6 cents, weekends and holidays 75 cents; Norfolk Golf Club, Sewall Point Rd. W. of Granby St., 18 holes, open by arrangement, greens fee $1, weekends and holidays $1.50; Army Base Golf Course, E. side Hampton Blvd. opposite U.S. Supply Base, 9 holes, greens fee 25 cents; Municipal Golf Course, Memorial Park, between Corprew and Highland Aves., 9 holes, greens fee 25 cents.

Baseball: High Rock Park, Church and Rugby Sts.

Football: High Rock Park, and Foreman Field, Hampton Blvd. and Bolling Ave.

Swimming: Navy Y.M.C.A., NE. corner Brooke Ave. and Boush St., adm. 25 cents; Foreman Field gymnasium, Hampton Blvd. and Bolling Ave., open 9-4, adm. 25 cents; surf bathing, Willoughby Beach, Ocean View, Chesapeake Beach, Virginia Beach, and Ocean Breeze Beach (Negro), adm. 10 cents, children 5 cents, and Norfolk Municipal Bathing Beach (Negro), free, on Shore Drive.

Tennis: Lafayette Park, Granby St. and La Vallette Ave., 11 courts, open sunrise to sunset, free; Fergus Reid Tennis Club, Orapack St. between Coney and Westover Aves., open by arrangement 9-6 daily, 50 cents for 3 sets.

Riding: Restmere Riding Academy, Sewall Point Rd. W. of Granby St., $1.50 per hour; Pinewell Saddle Club, Ocean View, $1 per hour; Norfolk Saddle Club, Sewall Point Rd. 0.4 In. W. of Granby St., open by arrangement.

Annual Events: Negro Emancipation Day Parade, Jan. 1; Cape Henry Pilgrimage, Apr. 26; Hampton Roads Kennel Club Show, Apr.; Norfolk Fair, early Sept.; Navy Day, Norfolk Navy Yard and U.S. Naval Operating Base keep 'open house,' OCt. 27-

NORFOLK (7 alt., 129,710 POP-) is a fusion of land and sea, of boats and brick houses, of civilians and sailors. Pressed between a ragged western shore line and a zigzag eastern boundary, it stretches north from the eastern branch of the Elizabeth River to a curving sand beach on Chesapeake Bay. Into its flat surface, partly wrested from the river, reach the salty multiple fingers of three estuaries: Mason's Creek, its mouth well guarded by the Naval Base; wide Lafayette River (Tanner's Creek), lined with the mansions of the commercial and professional aristocracy; and the eastern branch of the Elizabeth River, its muddy shore a jumble of boats, wharves, warehouses, and industries extracting life from the sea. On the western shore, constantly washed by the swift tides of the Elizabeth River and Hampton Roads, numerous docks, railroad piers, grain elevators, and other developments make a dense fringe of geometric design.

Linked with Portsmouth by ferries and a bridge, old Norfolk, a maze of rectangles that form narrow, somber streets , hides behind its bulwark of river-front buildings except for occasional tall structures that look out over dark funnels and graceful masts. Plowing through the oily surface of the harbor are powerful little tugs with barges in tow, gleaming white coastal and Bay passenger steamers, rusty-hull coastal freighters, tramp steamers, battleships, trawlers and oyster boats, and less frequently transatlantic steamships. In narrow, tree-lined streets are old brick houses, some in large yards kept green and damp by sheltering boxwood, magnolia, and crape myrtle, and others shoulder to shoulder, flush with sidewalks. Between drab low buildings in tawdry neighborhoods cobbled alleys twist like arteries too cramped for the life that pulses through them. The dense traffic of commercial Granby Street, a narrow canyon of business establishments, motion picture houses, restaurants, and hotels, is duplicated in Church and Bank Streets, both teeming with people and filled with shops, and the streets surrounding the large brick Municipal Market and the Municipal Armory, circled by an open-air flower market. Some six blocks along Brewer and Market Streets are daily lined with trucks and stalls, where produce is sold by white and Negro farmers and hucksters, among them thick-bearded Mennonites dressed in traditional costume. From the Confederate Monument to the sharp rise of Berkeley Bridge, East Main Street, its elegant old brick houses of the Colonial elite now in decay, unrolls its wares in curio shops, wienie bars, tattoo clinics, shooting galleries, beer gardens, and cheap rooming houses. Nightly this quarter is patrolled by paired M.P.'s, whose brassards and billies come most into play when Saturday shore leave spills recruits from the naval base, sailors from ships, and a goodly number of marines into downtown Norfolk. Most of the enlisted men, however, find their distractions in the motion picture houses, beer bars, the large Navy Y.M.C.A., and numerous dance halls that give them an equal chance with civilian swains for reducing Norfolk's list of eligible spinsters.

Beginning with tree-shaded Ghent which is pierced by the Hague, a horseshoe-shaped yacht harbor, Norfolk's numerous white suburbs stretch northward and spread east and west where inlets and marshes allow. Without perceptible lines of demarcation, swank sections merge into those of people on limited budgets. In the sandy and pine-covered region near the Bay are many houses with a perpetual holiday air, for in the distance are the green-and-white-striped roof tops of Ocean View's tousled casino and numerous seasonal concessions. Here within city limits proletarian Norfolk swims, picnics, dances, and plays during the sultry summer, the scene always enlivened by white-jacketed gobs from the naval base and the faraway procession of ships to and from the Capes.

A good portion of Norfolk's 4o,ooo Negroes live along dingy Charlotte and East Freemason Streets and in scattered suburban settlements, Huntersville, Lindenwood, Broad Creek Boulevard, and in thrifty Titustown, which supplies the city with many domestics. In contrast, extending north from Brambleton Avenue to Princess Anne Road are slums where Negroes live in dreary lines of shell-like hovels that pass for dwellings, fronting on unpaved and often muddy streets.

The stable population of Norfolk consists of a few millionaires, families in moderate affluence whose daughters make their debut at the Christmas german, and the rank and file at work in Norfolk's 275 industries. A museum of fine arts, the Hermitage Foundation that fosters public art exhibitions, lectures, and publications, a symphony orchestra some 20 years old, and a generous sprinkling of poets supply Norfolk's local culture, while a country club tops the list of numerous places of diversion suitable to every purse and taste. Under the stimulus of civic pride Norfolk is being beautified (1939) by the planting of thousands of azaleas. In future springs the public parks and incoming roads will be banked with blossoms.

As a maritime town, Norfolk was thwarted by a curious series of reverses until development of railroads made it the outlet of an immense back country, including the Virginia and West Virginia coal fields. Today factories produce fertilizers, agricultural implements, lumber, cotton and silk goods, roasted peanuts, and other materials with an annual value of about $100,000,000. The Norfolk area supplies eastern markets with oysters, fish, and crabs. The city is a distributing center for sea food, fresh and frozen, to several Southern States. During the winter months it handles large shipments of fish from sources as far distant as the Great Lakes and Alaska. Large quantities of inedible fish from local fisheries are used for fertilizer.

But in the eyes of nearly a million yearly visitors, the main lure of Norfolk is the access it offers to an all-year playground. Twenty-five miles of beach near by attract surf bathers from May till November. Myriads of waterfowl find haven in the Back Bay section, a favorite resort of hunters. Most of the coastal inlets abound in snipe, sora, wild ducks, and geese. The weird natural wonderland of the Dismal Swamp, a few miles south, is a haunt of fur-bearing game, including black bear. Several lakes near Norfolk invite fresh-water fishermen, and there is good sea fishing off Ocean View. The vicinity of Cape Henry and Seashore State Park offers hiking and riding among sunny dunes.

Norfolk's site on the Elizabeth River embraces a grant made to Captain Thomas Willoughby in 1636. Development began here in 1680, when, in the 'Act of Cohabitation' providing for a town for each county, the general assembly directed that, 'in Lower Norfolk county . . . on the Easterne Branch on Elizabeth river at the entrance of the branch,' 50 acres be 'measured about, layd out and appointed for a towne.' Though Charles II in 1681 suspended the Act of 1680, 'the ffeoffees' proceeded with the purchase of the site, 'on Nicholas Wise his land,' effecting the transaction in 1682 for 'tenn thousand pounds of tobacco and caske.' When in 1681 the statute of 1680 was re-enacted to provide for 'ports of entry,' the town was described as 'the land appointed . . . and accordingly laid out and paid for and severall. dwelling houses and ware houses already built.' In 1705 the house of burgesses named it Norfolk for Norfolk County, England.

Trade with the mother country and the West Indies made this the largest municipality in Colonial Virginia. The first wharves were built of pine logs fastened together by cross beams and extending from the shore to the channel. Here 'twenty brigs and smaller vessels rode constantly.' Norfolk ships carried tobacco, meat, flour, and lumber to the West Indies and returned with cargoes of sugar and molasses. Trade with the Carolinas, however, was hindered by pirates until Governor Alexander Spotswood took determined measures against the sea robbers (see Hampton).

In 1736 'the town of Norfolk' was 'erected into a borough, by the name of The borough of Norfolk . . . a body corporate, consisting of a maior, recorder, eight aldermen, and sixteen common council men . . ., with power to elect and send one burgess to sit in the house of burgesses.' Of 16 towns authorized in 1705 to acquire borough status-a unit politically separate from the county-Norfolk was the only one that became a borough.

Samuel Boush was the first mayor, and Sir John Randolph served as recorder. Male citizens took turns at patrolling the streets to restrain the exuberance of transient sailors. Early streets were improved and new ones were formed by filling in creeks and marshes.

The town had to reclaim ground from tidal sloughs as the population grew. Church Street led across the neck of a peninsula to the mainland. Main (then Front) Street, bordering the waterfront, was crowded with warehouses, residences, shops, sailors' boarding houses, and ordinaries. Most of the early citizens quenched their thirst at taverns, the only source of drinking water being a public spring near the corner of Main and Church Streets. Water for other uses came from the river and, in case of fire, was passed along from hand to hand by bucket brigades.

Norfolk by 1740 had a population of about 1,000, composed of English and Scottish residents and some Irish. The merchants were mainly anti-Jacobite Scots. Importing most of their luxuries from Great Britain and conducting a lucrative trade with the mother country, the well-to-do merchants leaned toward Tory conservatism. In recognition of their loyalty, Governor Robert Dinwiddie in 1753 presented the corporation with a mace.

Though Norfolk protested boldly against the Stamp Act and later contributed its share of minutemen, it became early in the Revolution a rallying point for Tories. Lord Dunmore, the royal governor, chose Norfolk and Portsmouth as bases for his ships. Landing at Norfolk, he dismantled the printing office of John Holt and seized two printers publishing revolutionary literature. He was finally forced to retire (see Portsmouth).

The Virginia regiments under Colonel William Woodford occupied Norfolk, and Dunmore attempted to drive them out by bombarding the borough, January 1, 1776. When firing ceased, the riflemen continued to plunder and bum buildings without the interference of officers. Finally Colonel Woodford forbade the burning of houses under severe penalty, but two-thirds of Norfolk was in ashes. In February the rest of the town was burned, by order of the Colonial government, to rid it of Tories and to deprive Dunmore of shelter. Only the borough church (St. Paul's) was spared. After assisting 'poor people' in finding shelter elsewhere, troops abandoned the area.

After peace was signed in 1783, the Tories returned to Norfolk and began restoring the borough's former commercial prestige. In 17 94 Norfolk was overrun with several thousand French refugees from the Negro insurrection in Santo Domingo. It had then, said Moreau de St. Mery, a population of 3,000, a brick theater, a hospital, an academy, two gazettes, and a Catholic chapel where 'a zealous Irishman with a red face has come to preach to the wretched French refugees.' The women 'are pretty in Norfolk,' noted Moreau de St. Mery, 'but their complexion is sallow and . . . the length of their feet is also somewhat disagreeable.'

Norfolk soon became the port for water-borne trade from the inland country. The town suffered from a disastrous fire in 1799. During the Napoleonic wars Norfolk's commerce increased only to be lost to the French, Spanish, and British privateers. The anger of Norfolk shipowners reached a peak in 1807, when the Chesapeake was fired upon by the British frigate Leopard.

During the War of 1812 men of Norfolk, Portsmouth, and other towns, with a reinforcement of marines from the frigate Constellation, joined to form defenses. On June 22, 1813, Fort Norfolk and Fort Nelson repulsed a British attack on Portsmouth by land and afterwards, aided by batteries on Craney Island, routed an assault by barges.

Peace in 1815 promised to restore Norfolk's prosperity, though New York was a strong trade rival. In 1822 the first steam ferry made a trial trip between Norfolk and Portsmouth. In 1845 the general assembly made Norfolk a city. With a population of 14,000 in 1854, it began to regain some of its earlier prestige. In 1855, however, it met with a setback in an epidemic of yellow fever, which destroyed about a tenth of the population. The hero of the scourge was a Negro gravedigger, who buried the dead until he, too, was struck down by the plague. He is remembered as 'Yellow Fever Jack,' and a monument in a cemetery here testifies to his faithfulness.

Margaret Douglas, a white woman from North Carolina, started Virginia's first Negro free school in Norfolk in 1853. When the enrollment increased to 25 she was sentenced to 3o days in jail on the charge that several pupils were slaves. Hardly had the city recovered from the epidemic when the War between the States brought on a new series of disasters. After the secession oi Virginia, the Federal command evacuated and burned the navy yard in Portsmouth. But when Roanoke Island, south of Norfolk, was occupied 18 February 1862, the situation of Norfolk became precarious; and, though the Virginia (Merrimac) gained temporary victories in March, Norfolk fell to Union forces under General John Ellis Wool, May 10, 1862. The city was never again in Confederate hands.

With the coming of peace Norfolk had little trade and no apparent future, but a hope came to fulfillment through the development of railroads. The Norfolk and Petersburg Railroad, laid in 1858, was merged in 1870 with the Southside and the Virginia & Tennessee as the Atlantic, Mississippi and Ohio Railroad. This system, reorganized in 1881 as the Norfolk and Western Railroad Company, brought the first carload of coal into Norfolk in 1882 and began the traffic that made Norfolk a commanding coal port.

Meanwhile, the Norfolk and Southern (now Norfolk Southern) Railroad Company, chartered in 1875 as the Elizabeth City and Norfolk Railroad Company, laid tracks between Norfolk and Elizabeth City, North Carolina. When the road was extended to Albemarle Sound, Norfolk became a port through which fruit, vegetables, and other perishable products of the South pass quickly to Northern markets. The Virginian Railway (organized as the Tidewater Railway in 1904), which brings coal from West Virginia, and the Belt Line, connecting all railroads with terminals at Norfolk and Portsmouth, are more recent developments in transportation.

Norfolk has extended its boundaries several times. In 1906 it annexed Berkley, a town on the east side of the river's southern branch. The Jamestown Tercentennial Celebration (Jamestown Exposition) was held in 1907, on a 340-acre site at Sewall Point. A Congressional Act of 1905 provided for a celebration of 'the birth of the American Nation, the first permanent Settlement of English-speaking people on the Western Hemisphere, by the holding of an international naval, marine, and military celebration in the vicinity of Jamestown.' Virginia erected many buildings; many States built duplicates of early homes to create a 'Colonial City'; and the Federal Government contributed buildings and a pier. The exposition was formally opened by President Theodore Roosevelt. Today the grounds are occupied by the Naval Training Station.

Norfolk boomed during the World War. For two years training stations and munitions factories hummed with activity; camouflaged ships sailed in and out; soldiers and sailors and their followers overflowed the city; officers came to Norfolk for diversion. With the coming of peace in 1918 the munitions plants were closed, but since then the city has steadily pulled itself out of postwar depression and acquired more territory. In 1919 it adopted the city-manager plan of government. Industrially, Norfolk is now one of the foremost cities of the New South. For the traveler and Norfolk is a traveler's town-there are few places that rival its varied attractions.

POINTS OF INTEREST

1. The CONFEDERATE MONUMENT, Main St. and Commercial Place, is a towering pedestal of white Vermont granite surmounted by the bronze figure of a soldier. The pedestal was erected in 1889 on the center lot of the original town of Norfolk. In 1907, when more funds were collected, the monument was completed by the addition of the statue designed by William Couper, Norfolk sculptor.

2. ST.PAUL'S CHURCH (Episcopal) (open 8:30-5 daily, except 8:30-1 Thurs. and Sun.), NW. corner N.Church St. and E.City Hall Ave., standing in a placid, brick-walled graveyard strewn with ancient tombstones, of which the oldest bears the date 1673, incorporates much of the walls of the only building that survived the bombardment by Dunmore's ships and the subsequent burning of Norfolk in 1776. A cannon ball is embedded in the south wall. Beneath a thick mantle of ivy the building shows good proportions. Small 'rose' windows, late Georgian Colonial vestibules, and a short, semidetached tower built in 1901 are recent alterations. The transepts and the roof were reconstructed about 1892.

The first church on this site was erected in 1639-41, but the present building dates from 1739. Long known as Borough Church, it still serves Elizabeth River Parish, constituted about 1634.

On the second floor of the adjacent brick Parish House is ST. PAUL'S MUSEUM (open 8:30-5 weekdays except 8:30-1 Thurs.; 8:30-12 Sun.; adm, free). Here are displayed documents and pictures relative to the history ok old Virginia churches and portraits of ecclesiastical and secular leaders.

3. The NORFOLK COURTHOUSE, SE. corner E. City Hall Ave. and N. Bank St., built between 1847 and 1850, has a portico with six Tuscan columns. The front of the two-story building is of faced granite, the rest is stuccoed. A colonnaded dome rising 110 feet above the street looks down on magnificent shade trees that cover a neat lawn. When first erected, this building was the city hall. The CLERK'S OFFICE, back of the courthouse, was built, apparently, at the same time as the main structure.

4. The MYERS HOUSE (open 9-6 daily, adm. 250), SW. corner E. Freemason and N. Bank Sts., built in 1789-91, has one of the finest Adam style interiors in America. The walls are thickly covered with ivy. A fine cornice continues across the gable ends, which are pierced by farilights. The well-proportioned windows in two tiers have heavy flat arches of stone with raised keys. Twin entrances, opening on each side of the outer corner and approached by short, double flights of white marble steps between iron railings, have mahogany doors protected by arched pedimented hoods supported on slender fluted columns. The ceiling of the spacious hall along one side is ornamented with beautiful plaster work in low relief above a delicate cornice and deep frieze. With variations of design the ceilings are similar in all the principal rooms, and paneled dadoes lead around to mantlepieces of the finest Adamesque delicacy. The dining room and the rooms above it were added about 1800.

Built by Moses Myers, merchant and consul of Dutch-Jewish ancestry who moved here from New York, the house was occupied continuously by members of his family until 1931, when it was opened as a museum. Besides a large quantity of furniture of good American and English design, there are portraits of Moses Myers and of his wife, Eliza Judd of Canada, by Gilbert Stuart, a Thomas Sully portrait of their eldest son, John, and others.

5. The MASONIC TEMPLE, SE. corner E. Freemason and N. Brewer Sts., is a brick building appropriately erected, in 1875, on the street that was designated Freemason on the 'Boush Plan,' a map of Norfolk made in 1762. First chartered in 1741, the lodge subsequently surrendered its charter, and a new one was granted in 1786.

6. OLD NORFOLK ACADEMY, N. Bank St., between Grigsby Pl. and E. Charlotte St., is an austere brick building in Greek Revival style modeled on the plan of the Temple of Theseus and painted gray. The facade has a double portico supported by six Doric columns. Built about 1840, the building housed the Norfolk Academy until it was acquired by the city in 1916. It accommodates the juvenile and domestic relations court.

7. The FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH (Negro), 418 E. Bute St., is a brownstone building, the fourth on this site, completed in 1904 by the oldest Baptist organization in the city. Organized in 1800 by the Reverend James Mitchell, an Englishman, the congregation first met in a hall, then in the 'Borough Church' (St. Paul's). In 1816 all the white members except the minister's family withdrew and organized a new church.

8. NORFOLK'S MACE rests within a specially designed plate glass case in the vault of the National Bank of Commerce Building (open 9-4 weekdays, 9-12 Sat.); NE. corner N. Atlantic and E. Main Sts. Of pure silver, the mace weighs six-and-a-half pounds and is 41 inches long. The staff, composed of six sections, is embellished with leaves and scrolls. Under the openwork of the crown surmounting the head are the arms of Great Britain, the letters C.R., and the initials of Fuller White, London silversmith who fashioned the mace. Around the paneled periphery are the emblems of England, Scotland, France, and Ireland.

At the base is the inscription: 'The gift of the Honble. Robert Dinwiddie Esqr. Lieut. Governour of Virginia to the Corporation of Norfolk 1753.'

Despite the date, the mace was not presented until 1754, when it was 'thankfully received.' Carried for safe keeping to Kemp's Landing when Norfolk was burned in 1776, it was subsequently returned, making only two appearances, in 1836 and 1857, until May 1862, when Mayor W.W.Lamb (1835-1909), liberal editor of the Daily Southern Argus, alarmed at the Confederate evacuation, buried the 'beautiful and bright though ancient silver mace' under the hearthstone of his house. It was discovered in 1894 among a litter of old records in a room at the police station.

9. The UNITED STATES CUSTOMHOUSE, Main and Granby Sts., is a large stone building, completed in 1857. The Corinthian capitals of the portico and the columns of the interior are of cast iron. Some of the original floors, of black and white marble in checkerboard pattern, have. been replaced.

The first customhouse, built in 1819 at Church and Water Streets, was converted into a Federal prison during the War between the States, after which it was burned.

10. The SAMS HOUSE (Private), 311 N. Boush St., is a yellow painted brick structure, rising two stories above an English basement. It has a high, classical porch and a double iron-railed flight of steps. The name of the builder, Robert Boush, a great-grandson of Norfolk's first mayor, who purchased the land in 17 15, is cut in one of the bricks; two other bricks bear the date 1800. Descendants of the Boush family owned and occupied the house until 1847, when it was purchased by Conway Whittle. Here Conway Whittle Sams wrote the Conquest of Virginia.

11. The GREENE HOUSE (private), 317 N. Boush St., set back from the street in a neat greensward, is a square frame building in early Federal style. Twin fights of steps ascend behind iron railings to a stoop. This house was probably built by John Pryor, who bought the land in 1786. In 1796 it became the property of Eli Vickery, and in 1883, of the Greene family.

12. The CHINESE BAPTIST CHURCH, 206 E. Freemason St., a brick building erected in 1879 by the First Christian Disciples, has a Chinese minister and a Sunday school attended by some 70 Chinese children. Church work among the Chinese, begun in 1901 by an interdenominational group, was turned over in 1918 to the Baptist Union of Norfolk and Portsmouth, which in 1930 sponsored the organization of this church. 14. The SELDEN HOUSE (private), SW. comer W. Freemason and Botetourt Sts., a post-Colonial frame building with broad chimneys, was built in 1807 as a country house for Dr. William B. Selden (1773-1849), originally of Hampton, who settled in Norfolk after a medical education in Philadelphia and Edinburgh, and became a leading physician.

When Norfolk was occupied by Federal troops from 1862-65, General Egbert L. Viele, military governor of the city, occupied the Selden house. Egbert L. Viele ,Jr., born here in 1864, settled in France at an early age and under the name of Francis Viele-Griffin became an outstanding poet and vers librist. Robert E. Lee, during his last visit to Norfolk in 1870, was a guest in this house, then occupied by Dr. Selden's son, Dr. William Selden (1808-87), formerly a surgeon in the Confederate army.

15. The NORFOLK PUBLIC LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays), 345 W. Freemason St., the gift of Andrew Carnegie, is a large stone building in French Renaissance style built on land donated by the daughters of Dr. William Selden: Julia, Charlotte, Caroline, and Mary. In the fireproof William Henry Sargeant Memorial Room there is a valuable collection of Virginiana. The library, which has about 94,000 volumes, maintains seven branches, including one for Negroes.

16. The MILHADO HOUSE (private), 250 W. Bute St., a tall brick building, has a dormer-windowed attic and two front entrances, one in the English basement and the other, more formal, through a portico to the floor above. In the rear stands the old kitchen. Erected 'in the fields,' probably by John Smith, the first occupant, the house was bought in 1768 by Dr. Alexander Gordon. While serving as surgeon in the British army during the Revolution, Colonel Gordon was captured and imprisoned at Norfolk. Exchanged for an American officer in 1775, he returned to England, where he died. Aaron Milhado II (1808-51), Colonel Gordon's grandson, and a subsequent owner of the house, was one of Norfolk's leading citizens.

17. FORT NORFOLK (open by permission from District Engineer Office, War Department, Post Office Building), W. end of Front St., with gunless ramparts and a smooth lawn that sweeps to a sea wall, long ago outlived its usefulness as a fortress and is now district headquarters of the United States Engineers and a storage place for ammunition.

Built in 1794 by the State of Virginia, the fort was sold the following year to the Federal Government. From its key position, it aided American troops in opposing the British at the Battle of Craney Island, June 22, 1813. Abandoned by the garrison upon Virginia's secession, it was held by the Confederates until Norfolk was evacuated in 1862.

18. The MUSEUM OF ARTS AND SCIENCES (open 12-5:30 Tues-Sat.; 2:30-5:30 Sun.;free), SE. corner Yarmouth St. and Mowbray Arch, a limestone building of Italian Renaissance design, was opened in 1933. American Indian artifacts and pottery, Mexican idols, Chinese ceramics, stoneware and early porcelain are on display as permanent and loan collections. An extensive library specializes in genealogical works. The museum conducts special exhibitions of contemporary art, publishes the quarterly Tidewater Arts Review, and presents frequent lectures on art, music, literature, and the drama.

19. CHRIST-ST.LUKE'S CHURCH (Episcopal) (open 8-5 Mon.-Fri. 8-2:30 Sat. and 6-1:30 Sun) P SE. corner W. Olney Rd. and Stockley Gardens, is a gray granite building with limestone trim designed in a modified Tudor Gothic style. A high tower above the entrance is finished with elaborate finials. Foremost among the decorations are a bas-relief carved in Caen stone after Leonardo da Vinci's Last Supper, and stained glass windows by Meyer of Munich.

The building was erected in 1909. The congregation has been formed by the merger of three churches: Christ Church, founded in 1798 on its separation from the Borough Church (St. Paul's); St. Luke's Church, organized in 1871; and St. Andrew's Church, formed about 1912. 21. TAZEWELL MANOR (private), 6225 Powhatan Ave., Edgewater, is a two-story frame house, its hip roof slate-covered and pierced at each comer by a brick chimney. A small portico has four Tuscan columns. The wings are later additions. Built in 1784 on Tazewell St., the house was moved to its present location in 1902. The front lawn, edging the Elizabeth River, overlooks Hampton Roads and the distant mouths of the James and Nansemond rivers. Tazewell Manor was built by John Boush, great-grandson of Norfolk's first mayor, and was subsequently purchased': by Governor Littleton Waller Tazewell.

22. The NORFOLK DIVISION OF THE COLLEGE OF WILLIAM AND MARY and a branch of the VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, SW. corner Hampton Blvd. and Bolling Ave., providing college courses for local students, are housed in a former public school building acquired in 1930 and a large brick structure built in 11936. On the grounds is FOREMAN FIELD, containing a concrete stadium with a seating capacity of 18,000, erected in 1936.

23. The UNITED STATES MARINE HOSPITAL, E. Hampton Blvd., facing Lafayette River, is a large structure of concrete, stone, and brick, built in 1922 and greatly enlarged in 1933- With a capacity for 400 patients, it admits persons certified for hospital and out-patient treatment by the U.S. Public Health Service.

24. The UNITED STATES NAVAL OPERATING BASE (open 8 a.m. to sunset daily), Hampton Blvd. and 99th St., occupies the 850-acre: site of the Jamestown Exposition on Hampton Roads. Established in 1917, it is one of the most modern naval bases in the world. Scattered about are 453 buildings valued, with equipment, at $30,000,000 Major units are the: Navy Supply Depot, 12 warehouses that handle supplies for the entire fleet; the Marine Corps Depot of Supplies, supply base and assembling point for marines assigned to foreign duty; Marine Barracks; the Training Station, consisting of a drill department for recruits, Service Schools Department for the technical training of enlisted men, and a preparatory school for enlisted candidates for the Naval Academy; and the Naval Air Station, a repair base for fleet aircraft.

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS

Adam Thoroughgood House, 8 m.; Seashore State Park 14 m.; Cape Henry, 17 m.; Fort Story, 17.5 m.; Virginia Beach, 18 m. (see Tour Q. Norfolk Navy Yard, 1 m. (see Portsmouth).


KEY TO NORFOLK MAP,
1.The Confederate Monument 2.St.Paul's Church 3.The Norfolk Courthouse 4.The Myers House 5.The Masonic Temple 6.Old Norfolk Academy 7.The First Baptist Church 8.Norfolk's Mace 9.The United States Customhouse 10.The Sams House 11.The Greene House 12.The Chinese Baptist Church 13.The Whittle House 14.The Selden House 15.The Norfolk Public Library 16.The Milhado House 17.Fort Norfolk 18.The Museum of Arts and Sciences 19.Christ-St.Luke's Church 20.The Female Orphan Society 21.Tazewell Manor 22.The Norfolk Division of the College of William and Mary and Branch of V.P.l. 23.The United States Marine Hospital 24.The United States Naval Operating Base.

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