Tour I




(Washington,D.C.)-Alexandria-Fredericksburg-Ashland-Richmond-Petersburg-Dinwiddie-South Hill-(Henderson,N.C.). US 1. District of Columbia Line to North Carolina Line, 199.5 m.

Concrete roadbed throughout,three-or four-lane Washington to Petersburg. Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac R.R., over the tracks of which pass trains of Seaboard Air Line Ry. and Atlantic Coast Line R.R., parallels route between Washington and Richmond; Seaboard Air Line Ry. and Atlantic Coast Line R.R., over the tracks of which pass the trains of Norfolk & Western Ry., between Richmond and Petersburg; Seaboard Air Line Ry. between Petersburg and North Carolina Line. All types of accommodations.

Following, more or less, the route of the Indian Trail that became the Potomac Path and then the King's Highway, US 1 passes through the northeastern Piedmont and then skirts the western rim of the forest-covered Coastal Plain, crossing the Rappahannock, James, and Appomattox Rivers at their fall line. Agricultural pursuits predominate in this slightly rolling country. South of Petersburg the highway, veering west, penetrates 'Southside' Virginia, a region of clay soil with thin forests and tobacco farms. Except in the well-populated environs of the few cities, US 1 gives the impression of mere distance in what Gertrude Stein has called 'all the miles of uninhabited Virginia.'

Section a. DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA to FREDERICKSBURG;49.8 m.

Beginning at the south bank of the Potomac and paralleling the river, US 1 has along its upper end myriads of commercial signs and tourist cabins, tawdry blots, that vanish as the road plunges through the region of small farms and restored manor houses on river bluffs, and of towns that once flourished through trade in world markets.

US 1 crosses the District of Columbia Line at the south end of the Fourteenth Street Bridge, 0 m., at a point 2 miles from the zero milestone in the District.

Right here to the Mount Vernon Memorial Highway, an alternate route, built by the Federal Government in 1932, that passes landscaped lagoons of the Potomac and the ROACHES RUN SANCTUARY for waterfowl and rejoins US 1 at Alexandria, 4 m.

HOOVER AIRPORT (R) 0.2 m., is the commercial landing-field for Washington.

ALEXANDRIA, 4.6 m. (52 alt., 24,149 POP.) (see Alexandria). In Alexandria is a junction with State 7 (see Tour 13).

Left from US 1 in Alexandria 8.9 m. on another section of the Mount Vernon Memorial Highway to MOUNT VERNON (open winter 9-4 weekdays, 1-4 Sun.; summer 9-5 weekdays, 1-5 Sun.; adm. 25¢, children 15¢). At the end of a long vista is the white rame mansion flanked by numerous outbuildings, also frame, arranged symmetrically on the estate laid out by George Washington.

The rectangular mass of the two-story Georgian Colonial house, joined to the nearest outbuildings by curving arcades, has a modillioned cornice and a hip roof with a low central pediment and widely spaced dormers. A graceful cupola pierces the roof midway between the two chimneys at the ridge ends. The house, its sides covered with pine slabs beveled to simulate stone blocks, faces east from behind the tall columns of its familiar piazza. The tree-bordered lawn, encompassed by a ha-ha wall, slopes steeply to the Potomac.

Furnished copiously with Washington's belongings, the handsome interior expresses, no less eloquently than the stately exterior, the character of the first President. Every room possesses relics of interest. In the central hall, where the Colonial color has been restored, hangs the key to the Bastille, a gift from La Fayette. The dining room has a plaster ceiling, cornice, and overmantel. plaque designed in Adam style. In this room hangs Wollaston's portrait of Lawrence Washington, the builder of the house. Across the south end of the house is the general's study, where copies of most of the books he possessed have been restored to the shelves. Here he wrote innumerable letters and made notes in his voluminous diary. At the north end of the house is the spacious banquet hall, a story-and-a-half high, with coved and plaster decorated ceiling and a Palladian window. The Italian marble mantel opposite was the gift of a London admirer, who also presented the two vases standing upon it. Portraits of Washington by Charles Willson Peale and Gilbert Stuart hang here. In the music room stands again the 91,000 harpsichord Washington imported for his little stepgranddaughter, Nelly Custis. Upon it lies the flute that Washington never learned to play. The bedrooms on the second floor are completely furnished.

The numerous outbuildings are those that were essential to the self-sufficient plantation of the eighteenth century: smoke house, dairy, wash house, greenhouse, coach house, spinning house, barn, and others. An information booth occupies part of the restored kitchen, in the south wing; and farther away, to the northwest, a reproduction of the slave quarters contains a museum in which a large number of relics are displayed, notably the bust of Washington that Houdon made and used as a model for his marble statue in Richmond. The 5,000 acres of the original grant stretch along the Potomac between Dogue Creek and Little Hunting Creek. John Washington-greatgrandfather of George-and Nicholas Spencer applied for a patent to the land in April 1669. Half the property-the part called Hunting Creek-descended to Lawrence, the son of John Washington, and then to Lawrence's daughter Mildred, who sold it in 1726 to her brother Augustine, father of George Washington. In 1735 Augustine Washington built a house here and moved from Wakefield, bringing with him his three-year-old son, George. In 1738, however, Augustine Washington moved again, this time to Ferry Farm (see Tour 16a).

Lawrence, the half-brother of George Washington, inherited Hunting Creek in 1743 and that year built a house for his bride, Anne Fairfax, the daughter of Colonel William Fairfax, probably on the foundations of his father's house, which had burned a few years before. He called the place Mount Vernon for his old commander, Admiral Edward Vernon of the British navy. Richard Blackburn was the architect. At the age of 16 George Washington came here to live with Lawrence. In 1752 Lawrence died. He left the estate to his daughter Sarah, subject to the dower rights of her mother, stipulating that if Sarah died without heirs Mount Vernon should descend to his half-brother George. On Sarah's death and her mother's remarriage a few months later, George Washington assumed possession of the estate. In 1754 he purchased his sister-in-law's right to the property and later the 2,500 acres that had once belonged to Nicholas Spencer. Subsequently he bought adjacent land.

To Mount Vernon in 1759 George Washington brought his bride. He had great plans for becoming the leading agriculturist in America and operated the estate as five separate farms. He tried out crop rotation, kept elaborate notes, and conferred with friends who were similarly experimenting. In 1773 he added the third story to the house, with the six bedrooms beneath the eaves and drew plans for the north and south additions. Called to lead the army of his rebellious country, he left the management of the estate and the execution of his building plans to his distant cousin, Lund Washington. He was at home again just in time to supervise the decoration of the ceiling in the great banquet hall. In 1783 George Washington returned to Mount Vernon to devote himself, as he told both diary and friends, to agriculture and domesticity. His field yielded harvests vastly satisfying; he was awarded 'a premium for raising the largest jackass' by the Agriculture Society of South Carolina.

In 1787 he was called to preside at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. In 1789 he became the first President of the United States. Washington returned to Mount Vernon in 1797 for two quiet years. With him and his wife lived his step-grandchildren, Nelly and George Washington Parke Custis, whom he had adopted. On December 14, 1799, George Washington died; Martha Washington died three years later.

In 1853 Ann Pamela Cunningham of South Carolina set out to organize a society that would purchase and restore Washington's estate, then in the hands of descendants of his brother. The Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the Union was formed in 1856, and in 1860, after having raised $200,000 for the purchase, it acquired the mansion and part of the land.

On the hillside near the house is the little ivy-covered mausoleum in which Martha and George Washington are buried in two simple sarcophagi in the outer vault.

Right from Mount Vernon on State 235 to WASHINGTON's GRIST MILL (R), 11.8 m., a tall, gable-roofed structure of rubble stone that is a reproduction on old foundations. It is equipped as a pre-Revolutionary mill. The white clapboard MILLER'S COTTAGE is also a restoration. In 1760 George Washington said that the mill, built by Augustine Washington, was 'decayed and out of order.' He then repaired it, did some rebuilding in 1770, and in 1795 reconstructed the millrace. Near the two mill ponds, vanished long ago, stood also the miller's house, the distillery, the blacksmith's shop, and the cooper's shop. George Washington asserted that his flour was 'equal in quality to any made in this country.' It was used at Mount Vernon, by the neighboring gentry, and was shipped to distant markets aboard Washington's 'schooners.' On one of his frequent inspection tours to the mill, Washington caught the cold that resulted in his last illness.

At 12.1 m. is a junction with US 1 (see below).

HUNTING CREEK, 5.7 m., is a marshy resting place for ducks in autumn and winter. In the vicinity in 1676 a 'fort or place of defence on Potomac river' was built as a protection against the Susquehannock Indians, whose depredations led to Bacon's Rebellion (see History).

At 5.8 m. is a junction with a private road.

Right on this winding road to MOUNT EAGLE, 0.3 m. The drive ends in a circle before a white winged structure with a Georgian pediment. The house, now the Lord Fairfax Country Club, was built late in the eighteenth century and was the home of the Reverend Bryan Fairfax (1735-1802), who became the eighth Lord Fairfax. A mild Tory, friend of Washington, and rector of the Fairfax Parish from 1789 to 1792, the Reverend Mr.Fairfax remained nonpartisan during the Revolution. When in 1800 Bryan inherited the title of Lord Fairfax and the right to a seat in the House of Lords, he chose to remain in Virginia.

Embedded in the long reaches of wooded parkway (R), 6.5 m., is a remnant of the line of forts--O'RORKE, WEED, FARNSWORTH, and LYON--that formed part of the southern defenses of Washington during the War between the States.

At 10.2 m. is a junction with State 235 (see above).

The entrance (R) to WOODLAWN (open during April Garden Week) is at 13.4 m. The square, rose-red brick house designed in Georgian Colonial style with Classic Revival innovations ' on the crest of shaded Gray Heights, was designed by Dr.William Thornton in 1805. The central unit with brick walls laid in Flemish bond rises two stories-with flat arches of stone over the windows-to a gable roof with hipped ends. A central pediment pierces the roof like a dormer. The house is extended by two low balancing wings connected with the main structure by low galleries. A high brick wall joins the wings with outbuildings. The house has two central halls connected by an elliptical stairway that rises in a long simple sweep, and has been lately embellished with fine eighteenth-century woodwork salvaged from the Barton House in Fredericksburg. The 2,000-acre estate, once part of Mount Vernon, was willed by Washington to his nephew, Lawrence Lewis, who became the husband of Eleanor (Nelly) Custis, granddaughter of Martha Washington, 'about candle light' on Washington's last birthday, February 22, 1799. Woodlawn, 'grandeur in decay,' was bought in 1902 by the dramatist Paul Kester (see Tour 16a) and his brother Vaughan, who immediately restored it.

The brick columned entrance to FORT BELVOIR (L) is at 13.6 m. (visitor's pass obtained at gate). This military reservation of the United States Corps of Engineers was formerly Fort Humphreys. The neat parade ground, surrounded by staff headquarters, officers' quarters, and enlisted men's barracks, occupies a wide peninsula, part of the Belvoir estate, which once belonged to the Fairfax family. On the east side are a U.S. FISH HATCHERY and EXPERIMENT STATION.

On the grounds are the RUINS OF THE BELVOIR MANSION, gutted by fire in 1783, and completely demolished by the British in 1814. Belvoir was set aside in 1741 for Colonel William Fairfax by his cousin, the proprietor of the Northern Neck, Lord Thomas Fairfax (see Tour 5A). Colonel Fairfax (1691-1757) settled first in the Bahamas, then at Salem, Massachusetts. In 1734 he came to Virginia as agent for his cousin and in 1741 built the brick house 'of nine rooms and suitable outhouses.' George William Fairfax (1724-87), who inherited Belvoir, became Washington's intimate friend and associate in many enterprises, and Washington, during early manhood, was a frequent visitor here-especially when Mary Cary, sister of Mrs.George William Fairfax, was also a guest.

POHICK CHURCH (L), 16.4 m., is surrounded by old trees and a quiet graveyard. The rectangular building, partly a restoration, has walls laid in Flemish bond and two tiers of windows framed with brick-flat-arched below, round-arched above. The high hip roof rises above a denticulated cornice with an unusually wide overhang. Local sandstone was used for the heavy quoining and the enframernent of the three portals, two on the main facade and one on the south. Each portal has Ionic pilasters, full entablature, and a severe pediment.

In 1765 the northern part of Truro Parish became Fairfax Parish, leaving Truro with only one church-Pohick, a frame building, not on the present site. After building Payne's Church in 1768, the vestry, of which Washington was a member, planned to replace the frame church by one of brick, but had a hard time deciding upon a site. It was not till September 21, 1769, that the 'spott' was chosen. The church was completed in 1774. During the War between the States one wall, the interior, and the furniture, except the marble font, were destroyed. The church was renovated in 1874, and again in 19o6.

At 18.2 m. is a junction with County 600.

Left here to GUNSTON HALL, 3.7 m. (open during April Garden Week), the home of George Mason (1725-92), author of the Virginia Bill of Rights, model for the first ten amendments that make up the Bill of Rights in the Federal Constitution. The simple story-and-a-half Georgian Colonial house, with stone quoining and walls of brick, has a gabled roof with dormers and four built-in chimneys. Both front and rear porches are noteworthy, the former closely following the lines of the Temple of Tyche at Eumenia, the latter eight-sided with pointed arches-a rare example of American Colonial Gothic. A delicate cornice upholds 'kicked-out' eaves. The broad central hall, which has plastered walls, a paneled dado, and deep cornice, contains a stairway with very low risers and very broad treads. The music room has Chinese Chippendale trim and the drawing room an elaborate mantel and overmantel flanked by semicircular niches, which are framed by pilasters and topped with broken pediments. Nearly all the doorways and windows have full entablature and pilasters. The house was restored in 1920.

The George Mason who built Gunston Hall (1755-58) was fourth of that name in Virginia. The architect was William Buckland, a skilled draftsman of Oxford whom Mason's brother had brought under indenture from England in 1754. The master of Gunston Hallwas the author of the Fairfax Resolutions in 1774 and the following year became a member of the Virginia Committee of Safety. In 1776 he drafted the Virginia Constitution and the Bill of Rights. In 1787, as delegate to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, he refused to sign the instrument because it failed to abolish slavery, because it contained no bill of rights, and because he objected to the large and too indefinite powers it gave to Congress. Although one of the real mentors of the Revolution, he returned to Gunston Hall after each public activity, fervently hoping -it is said-never again to be called from his home.

At 19.9 m. is a junction with County 611.

Left here to COLCHESTER, 0.9 m., laid out in 1753 and once prosperous but now merely two old buildings, a few modern houses, and a dock on Occoquan Creek.

THE ARMS OF FAIRFAX, a former ordinary, is a small story-and-a-half clapboard structure on a high foundation. The large dining room with wide, fluted cupboards, once assuaged the hearty appetites of many self-confessed gourmands. In his Travels of Four Years and a Half in the United States of America(1798-1801), John Davis, English tutor of Nathaniel Ellicott's children at Occoquan, wrote of 'Mr. Gordon's tavern:' 'Every luxury that money can purchase is to be obtained at the first summons . . . The richest viands cover the table . . . and ice cools the Madeira that has been thrice across the ocean . . . Apartments are numerous and at the same time spacious . . . carpets of delicate texture cover the floors; and glasses are suspended from the walls in which a Goliah might survey himself.'

At 21.1 m. on US 1 is a junction with State 9.

Right here to OCCOQUAN (Ind., hooked inlet), 2.1 m., directly across the river from the DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA WORKHOUSE and close to the DISTRICT REFORMATORY. In 1801, John Davis, sailor with an ebullient flair for poetry and prose, arrived to tutor the children of Nathaniel Ellicott, a local landowner.' Occoquan,'he wrote, 'consists of a house built on a rock, three others on the river side, and a half a dozen loghuts scattered at some distance.' But he found the settlement 'romantic beyond conception.' Three years after his departure, the town, long planned, came into being. By 1830 Occoquan was well-known to travelers for its roasted canvasback ducks, which the local inn served even for breakfast and sold, uncooked, for 'a shilling sterling apiece.' The village was in a flourishing condition until silt filled Occoquan Creek, and vessels could no longer reach the mills.

The ruins of the MERCHANT'S GRIST MILL, built in 1759 and destroyed in 1924, are close to the bridge. The high stone walls (L) are the remnants of one of the first COTTON MILLS in Virginia. Built in 1828 by Nathaniel Janney, the four stories hummed with 1,000 spindles until they were silenced by fire during the War between the States. South of these ruins, stands ROCKLEDGE, now called The Den, a two-story rock house with dormers, built in 1759 by John Ballendine, on designs by William Buckland. Under the gabled roof runs a fine denticulated cornice. With window panes that time has made iridescent and a crane swinging in the huge kitchen fireplace, Rockledge preserves the solid qualities of its builder, one of the earliest captains of industry in the agricultural south.

Legended gateposts mark the entrance (L), 24.3 m., to RIPPON LODGE, a story-and-a-half frame house, now much modernized. Three dormers, piercing a gabled roof, project just above the balustraded roof of a recessed porch with six small Doric columns. The hall and dining room are paneled. In the upper hall an aperture in the north wall formerly led to a secret stairway that connected with a tunnel extending from the basement to a ravine. The brick office is still standing as is also the guardhouse with iron-grilled windows, in which Thomas Blackburn quartered troops during the Revolution.

Rippon Lodge was built about 1725 by Colonel Richard Blackburn of Ripon, England, an architect who later designed both the original Mount Vernon and the first Falls Church. Two daughters of the house of Blackbum became mistresses of Mount Vernon: Julia Anne, daughter of Colonel Thomas Blackburn, married Bushrod Washington; and Jane Charlotte, her niece, became the bride of John Augustine Washington.

At 25.4 m. is a junction with County 610.
I. Right here to a junction with County 638, 0.1 m.; R. again 0.3 M. to a footbridge that crosses once navigable NEABSCO CREEK (Ind., at the point of rock) on which in 1697 'four houses for stores and garrisons' were built for use in fighting Indians. On the shore of the creek, covered by briars, are the ruins of the NEABSCO IRON FOUNDRY, which John Tayloe (1687-1747) operated in 1734 after he had abandoned Bristol Iron Works (see Tour 16a).

At 4.9 m. from US 1 on County 610 is a junction with a narrow lane; L. here to the entrance gate (L) of BEL AIR 5.2 m., a small gabled brick house. Bel Air, on a hilltop, has fine paneling in its large first-floor rooms, a wide-treaded stairway, and high basement kitchen. The view from the house is exceptional; on clear days Washington landmarks are visible.

Bel Air was built about 1740 by Major Charles Ewell. Marianne Ewell, his daughter, was married here to Dr.James Craik, surgeon general of the Continental armies; and in 1795, Fanny Ewell, granddaughter of the builder, married Mason Locke Weems (1759-1825). Weems, a Marylander, was ordained a clergyman by the Archbishop of Canterbury in 1784 and returned to take charge of a Maryland parish. He was not particularly happy in the church and had such difficulty making a living that he exchanged preaching for book peddling. Marriage anchored him only temporarily. After the death of his father-in-law, Colonel Jesse Ewell, in 1806, Parson Weems, who had become both author and bookseller, moved his family to Bel Air (on which he held a mortgage), where he visited them briefly at intervals as he journeyed up and down the Atlantic seaboard. His many moral tracts and his biographies of William Penn and General Francis Marion were eclipsed by that egregious mixture of fact and fiction: A History of the Life and Death, Virtues and Exploits of General George Washington, With Curious Anecdotes Equally Honorable to Himself and Exemplary to His Young Countrymen. The chronicler of the 'cherry tree' and 'Spanish dollar' episodes lies in the Ewell graveyard behind the house.

2. Left from US on County 610, 0.3 m.; R. hereon a sharply ascending path to the SITE OF LEESYLVANIA, I m., birthplace of Henry 'Lighthorse Harry' Lee (1756- 1818), Princeton graduate (1773), Revolutionary officer, governor of Virginia, and father of Robert E. Lee.

DUMFRIES, 29 m. (325 pop.), clings to a curve in the highway overlooking the creek that once gave it life. After the bars to Virginia's profitable tobacco trade were lifted by the Navigation Law of 1707, Scottish merchants immediately concentrated their activities around Quantico Creek. As early as 1713 a 'factory' and an 'agent's house' had been built and by 1749 the town had been established. In 1762 Dumfries became the seat of Prince William County. Filled at the apogee of its commercial activity with 2,000 people concerned only with exporting tobacco, Dumfries reckoned without the vagaries of nature and more insidious mankind. Silt began to clog Quantico Creek and boats, in search of flour as well as tobacco, sailed by its entry to Alexandria's more approachable wharfs. Improvident Dumfries gradually forwent its tea drinking, balls, and drama, and dwindled to comparative nothingness.

Two-storied brick STAGECOACH INN (R), a pre-Revolutionary hostelry known first as William's Ordinary, then as Love's Tavern, has stone quoins on the front corners and around the doorway.

The brick, limestone-trimmed HENDERSON HouSE Comer of Duke and Fairfax Sts., was built about 1785 by Colonel Alexander Henderson. The old house has preserved its dignified air despite additions. Alexander Henderson organized what was probably the first chain of stores in America with shops in Alexandria, Colchester, Occoquan, and Dumfries. One of his six sons, Archibald Henderson, was the first commander of the U.S. Marine Corps, from 1820 to 1859.

At TRIANGLE, 30.5 m., a cluster of neon-decorated buildings, is the landscaped entrance (L) to the MARINE CORPS BASE (visitor's pass at post gate), eastern training center of the U.S. Marine Corps. The little town of QUANTICO stretches out from the railroad station, neon-festooned restaurants, little hotels, and other structures. The large government reservation fringing the curving Potomac is dotted with regimental and disciplinary barracks, three storehouses, commissary, bakery, a rifle range, Brown Flying Field, and numerous other buildings and equipment sufficient to accommodate some 400 officers and 3,000 enlisted men. The Marine Corps School is attended, sometime during their career, by all Marine officers.

The site of Quantico (Ind., by the long stream) was a 'naval base,' established to serve the vessels of the 'Potomac Navy' during the Revolution. When the United States entered the World War in 1917, Quantico was selected as a training camp and maneuver field for the Marine Corps, and in 1918 became a permanent post.

Right from Triangle on County 626 to CHOPAWAMSIC RECREATIONAL DEMONSTRATION AREA, 2 m., about 14,500 acres of submarginal land being de- veloped by the National Park Service. At present (1940) there are four camps with recreational facilities and cabins with accommodations for 435 persons, besides picnic areas.

CHOPAWAMSIC CREEK (Ind., by the separation of the outlet), 32.7 m., was long a difficult problem for the early road builders and one of the causes for the near-disappearance of the road for a time. Testy John Randolph of Roanoke likened the Chopawamsic Swamp to the Serbonian bog that swallowed the unwary forever. The advent of the automobile stimulated engineers to efforts that eventually brought the road back to utility.

The large bronze CRUCIFIX 36.3 m., designed by George J. Lober, is a memorial to the first English Catholic settlers in Virginia-Giles, Margaret, and Mary Brent who, around 1650, built homes on Aquia Creek. George Brent, their nephew, was one of four men who on February 10, 1686, obtained from James II a Proclamation granting 'free exercise of their religion' on 30,000 acres 'for the encouragement of inhabitants to settle' in this area, known as the Brenton Tract. Giles, Margaret, and Mary Brent had arrived in Maryland in 1638 and for many years were prominently identified with affairs there. In 1650 Giles Brent first patented land in Virginia. His other patents and those of his sisters followed in quick succession.

Mistress Margaret Brent, who is called in Maryland records 'Margaret Brent, Gentlemen,' was one of the most remarkable women in Colonial history. She appears frequently in the records of her two States, negotiating transactions of her own and acting as attorney for her brother, her sister, and neighbors who needed her help. She was the first woman in America to ask for 'voyce & vote allso.' Because Leonard Calvert, govemor of Maryland, made her his sole executrix in an oral will that tersely instructed her 'to take all and pay all,' and because the Maryland Council made her administratrix of Lord Baltimore's revenues, she argued before the assembly in 1648 that she should be given full rights of citizenship. When the request was denied, she declared that she would protest all action taken by the assembly if she were not present and granted 'as aforesaide voyce & vote allso.' Her brother's difficulties with Lord Baltimore, arising from Giles Brent's claims to land he considered due him because of his marriage to the daughter of the Piscataway chief, and Margaret Brent's indignation that Lord Baltimore should resent her having paid hired soldiers out of his revenues, were responsible for the Brents' moving to Virginia and for the speedy colonization of much of that territory then known as Northumberland County.

On Aquia Creek (Ind., bush nut), the northern frontier of Virginia for ten years after the Indian War of 1676, was established the first English speaking Catholic colony in Virginia. Close by the bank of the creek rose the Catholic town of Aquia near which, in mid-eighteenth century, was built a small log chapel. This community was frequently visited by John Carroll, who in 1789 became the first Catholic bishop of the United States.

Left from the Crucifix on County 637 to a junction with a private road, 0.2 m.; R. here to the AQUIA (or BRENT) ROMAN CATHOLIC CEMETERY(R), 0. 5 m., salvaged from a tumble of briars and enclosed by a brick wall since its discovery in 1924. Within this graveyard lie five generations of Brents. Decipherable still are tombstones to 'Flora, 1681'; to George Brent's second wife, Mary (died in 1683), daughter of Lady Baltimore by her first husband, Henry Sewell, Secretary of Maryland; and to Pettyjohn Doyle 'who ended his life July 18, 1725, 50 years upward.'

By the cemetery wall is a bronze tablet dedicated to the memory of Jesuits who in the 1580's established a mission in the vicinity and shortly afterward were killed by the Indians, one of whose sons they had enslaved. Reprisals by the Spanish from St. Augustine aroused among the natives hostility that had not been forgotten when the Jamestown colonists arrived.
AQUIA CHURCH (L), 37.4 m., erected in 1757 and still serving Overwharton Parish, is remarkably large and fine for its day. The outer angles of the walls, of large-sized brick, are heavily quoined with stone. The same gray stone frames the large center doorway and one in each end of the transept. The hip roof, above two tiers of windows and a generous cornice, has a stocky, square cupola with its base embedded in the western hip directly above the main entrance.

The interior has square, high-backed box pews with doors, a walnut altar rail, a gallery supported on graceful columns, and a triple-decked pulpit. White marble is set in the stone floor at the intersection of the aisles. The silver communion service, inscribed: 'The gift of the Rev. Mr.Alexander Scott,A.M., late minister of this Parish Anno 1739,' and dating from that year, was buried during three wars-1776, 1812, and 1861.

Overwharton Parish, formed before 1680, once covered the greater part of the original Stafford County. The Reverend John Moncure, who served as rector from 1738 to 1764, is buried beneath a stone bearing the inscription: 'In memory of the Race of the House of Moncure.' The present structure replaced a church built in 1751 and destroyed by fire three years later. This had succeeded an earlier church at another site. Tablets commemorate the vestry that built the church, the rector, and 'Mourning Richards, undertaker, and William Copein, mason.' By 1837 Aquia Church was in a dilapidated condition; it was restored about 40 years later.

STAFFORD, 40.3 m. (75 POP.), seat of Stafford County since 1715, clusters around the COURTHOUSE, a brick building erected in 1922. Most Of the early county records disappeared during the War between the States; a few of the documents, discovered in the New York Public Library, have been returned. Called a mother of counties, Stafford, formed from Westmoreland in 1664, was gradually reduced as the population spread westward. It was the scene of 'Parson Waugh's Tumult,' an abortive religious insurrection started in 1688 by John Waugh, who believed the story of an Indian, later discredited, and inflamed the people through sermons that told of a Catholic plot against Protestants.

Left here on County 212 to County 608,3m.; L.here to County 621, 6.3 M., and R. to MARLBOROUGH POINT, 9.1 m., near the site of the town of Marlborough, one of those authorized in 1680, and an early seat of Stafford County. It flourished briefly, on tobacco and herrings, then quickly disappeared.

In this region, near the mouth of Potomac Creek, was the Indian village Patawomeke, where in 1613 Pocahontas, while visiting the Potomac Indians, was kidnapped by the English. Through the trickery of Iapazaws, 'an old friend of Captaine Smiths,' the Indians 'betraied the poore innocent Pocahontas aboard' the vessel of Captain Samuel Argall for the price of a 'Kettle and other toies.' Conveyed to Jamestown, the princess was held as hostage for the 'swords, peeces, tooles, &c. bee [Powhatan] trecherously had stolne.' It was during this period of captivity that the 'Namparell of Virginia' met and married John Rolfe. An Indian village here is being explored; many artifacts and skeletons have been found.

At 48 m. on US 1 is a junction with County 652.

Right here to ELLERSLIE (R), 0.7 m. a two-and-a-half story, square brick house built in 1748 by Dr.Michael Wallace who, at 15, had been indentured to Dr.Gustavus Brown, of Charles City County, Md., to learn 'physical surgery and pharmacy.' Towards the end of his six years' apprenticeship, in 1747, he eloped-a classic ladder-and-second-story episode-with 'one of the nine Miss Browns who had twenty-seven husbands between them.' Settling in Falmouth the following year, he acquired land and built this stately house. Dr.Wallace's practice soon extended into Culpeper, Fauquier, and Loudoun Counties.

FALMOUTH, 48.2 m. (500 POP.), perched above the falls of the Rappahannock, carries on its life amid the decayed charm of its former lively self. Destined as a port for the tobacco and flour trade, Falmouth was laid out as a town in 1727 on land that lay just above the beach on which Captain John Smith and his 'Souldiers,' guided by the Indian Mosco, had landed, fought the Indians, set up a cross, and sought gold in 1608. Market for all the fertile country extending to the Blue Ridge, the town dotted with storehouses grew rapidly. From London in 1773 came urbane trappings-a fire engine and 40 leather buckets, In its streets drivers of wagon trains met sailors from foreign ships. On the banks of the Rappahannock (R) an iron foundry, operated as early as 1732 by Augustine Washington, ran full tilt during the Revolution under the management of James Hunter in order to furnish the American army and navy with such articles as pots, pans, camp kettles, anchors, and bayonets. To protect the foundry the governor of Virginia ordered General George Weeden to establish a camp -Camp Hunter-on the hill adjacent. In 1786, Timothy Green published the town's first newspaper, The Falmouth Advertiser; and in 1813 progress took another turn-a bridge replaced the ferry. As industry thrived, Scotch Basil Gordon (1768-1817) carried on a business that made him one of America's first millionaires.

Before and after the Battle of Fredericksburg (see Tour 1b) Falmouth was the headquarters of the Federal Army and of T.C.S.Lowe, 'Chief of Aeronauts,' U.S.A. Hovering over the town, he successfully conveyed one of the first air messages of the war. 'Balloon in the air, April 29, 1863,' started the communique.

George Washington, so it is said, received his early education here, between the ages of seven and eleven, attending the school kept by 'Master Hobby,' nickname of William Grove, who was brought from England by Augustine Washington, sponsor of his early undertakings. Here were born James Alexander Seddon (1815-80), Confederate Secretary of War, and Dr.Kate Waller Barrett (1858-1925), staunch advocate of social reform.

Beyond the road descending to the site of HUNTER'S IRON WORKS is the stone-pillared entrance (L) to BELMONT, a two-story frame building, painted white, erected in 1761, enlarged in 1843, and again in 1916, by a studio wing, when purchased by Gari Melchers (1860-1932), portrait and landscape painter. Trained at Dusseldorf, Melchers achieved a reputation in Europe for his pictures of Dutch peasant life. In Virginia, his favorite subjects were mountaineer types such as those in The Pot Boils.

Right from Falmouth on State 17 traversing the lower Piedmont and bordered by small plots devoted to farming and dairying. Its undulating upper end passes into a region of whitewashed fences, stud farms, and impressive estates.

John Lederer, a'German Chirurgeon,'on August 20, 1670, set out from the Falls of Rappahannock, accompanied by 'Col. Catlet of Virginia, nine English horse, and five Indians on foot.' He proceeded up the north bank of the river toward the 'top of the Apalataean Mountains,' his goal, but on the way the Englishmen found fault with their leader and returned to Williamsburg and discredited his discoveries.

Along the highway near BEREA, 4.2 m., the Army of the Potomac moved westward on January 20-21, 1863, toward the fords of the Rappahannock, in an attempt to approach Lee's army from the rear. As the troops advanced a storm arose and converted the road into such a quagmire that the'Mud March'was abandoned.

At 8.3 m. is a boundary of the former gold mining district of Stafford County. The ore was discovered by German miners (see Tour 3b), who believed it held silver. Their story was discredited and the region remained unworked until much later.

RICHLANDS, 9.6 m. (25 pop.), has grown up on the vast Richland estate, part of four large grants made in 1703 to Robert 'King' Carter (see Tour 16b), who in the following year built a tobacco warehouse here. On this land the master of Corotoman started inland colonization and established three 'quarters.' On his death in 1732, Stanstead Quarters came under the management of his son, Charles Carter.

GROVE BAPTIST CHURC11 (L), 14.2 m., is a gray stone building erected in 1811. William L. Royall,jr., a 19-year old Confederate scout, was captured by a Federal cavalry detachment and placed in this church for safe keeping. Shortly afterward he was led to the Presbyterian Church, directly across the road, tried by a 'drumhead court-martial' for being a bushwhacker, and acquitted. The verdict had not been easily reached, for orders had arrived to hang the first bushwhacker caught. Fortunately, Lieutenant Colonel Timothy O'Bryan, in command, had frequently been a guest at Mount Ephraim, the Royall home, and had promised Mrs.Royall that her son would go unharmed if he were ever caught.

At 15 m. is a junction with County 651.

Left on this road 0.8 m. to the LIBERTY GOLD MINE (L), worked extensively before the War between the States; it was finally abandoned in 1937. A shaft, hoist, and several beehive rock crushers-spherical globes of reinforced concrete some l0 feet in diameter-are visible from the highway.

In MORRISVILLE, 18.6 m. (50 POP.), still a crossroads, once stood Richard Coventon's Ordinary.

Where the crossroads settlement of LOIS, 21.4 m., now stands, the Virginia assembly made a gesture in 1708 toward establishing a town to be called Fayetteville, but the enterprise failed.

At 26.4 m. on State 17 is a junction with State 295 (see Tour 4a).

In OPAL, 29.9 m., on State 17 is a junction with US 15 (see Tour 3b).

FREDERICKSBURG, 49.8 m. (50 alt., 6,819 pop.) (see Fredericksburg). In Fredericksburg are junctions with State 3 (see Tour 16a and Tour 10), US 17 (see Tour 6a), and State 2 (see Tour 1A).

Section b. FREDERICKSBURG to RICHMOND, 56 m.


This section of the highway passes from the rolling country of hazy distances into the flat sand-clay outer fringes of the Coastal Plain, covered with small farms dwarfed by vast reaches of forest.

In FREDERICKSBURG, 0 m., US 1 swings R. on Lafayette Blvd. to a junction with the Sunken Road at 1. 1 m. Straight ahead is the entrance to the National Military Cemetery on the slope of Marye's Heights, where are buried 15,206 victims of the War between the States-only 3,000 of them identified. At the junction is (R) the NATIONAL PARK SERVICE HEADQUARTERS AND MUSEUM (see Fredericksburg) of the Fredericksburg-Spotsylvania National Battlefield.

The Battle of Fredericksburg took place in December 1862 during the fourth major drive by the Northern army for the capture of Richmond. A hundred and twenty thousand strong, the Army of the Potomac, commanded by General Ambrose E. Burnside, marched south from Warrenton and, blocked by General R.E.Lee's army on the hills below Fredericksburg, camped from November 17 to November 20 on Stafford Heights across the Rappahannock. On December 11 Burnside bombarded Fredericksburg (already evacuated) and then, under fire, laid five pontoon bridges and within two days took most of his force across the river. On December 13 he ordered two attacks: the first at Hamilton's Crossing (see below), around which General T.J.Jackson had massed his corps, began about 10, o'clock. Under a blanket of thick fog General W.B.Franklin drew up his men in battle formation on the plains below the hill. As the fog lifted, the Confederates saw waving flags and the gleam of 48,000 bayonets. The first charge, led by General G.G.Meade, was repulsed, but a second charge, in which Meade was supported by another division, broke through General Jackson's line. Despite fierce fighting, the Federals were driven back and the Confederate line was restored. No more fighting took place there.

The second and more costly venture was General E.V.Sumner's attack on Marye's Heights. The Sunken Road at the base of the hill is protected by a stone retaining wall. From behind this parapet the Confederate troops successfully repulsed seven major attacks. As one division left its wounded and dead, retreating in disorder under fire from the heights, another moved forward in the icy wind to take its place. Two days later the Union army recrossed the Rappahannock, having lost a total of 12,653 men as against 5,377 Confederates.

Right from US I on the Sunken Road to BROMPTON (L), 0.2 m., a two-story brick house with one-story wings, built about 1837 by John Lawrence Marye. The high gabled roof of the main unit extends forward to form a portico-its pediment pierced by a lunette-supported by four slender Ionic columns. An elliptical fanlight over the door and the delicate detail of the portico cornice, repeated under the eaves of the wings, are noteworthy. Inside, a hall extends across the front. The drawing rooms, in the wings' have mantels of Italian marble imported for the White House but discarded because of slight defects. Brompton's peaceful existence on its hillside came to an abrupt end in December 1862, when Confederate officers used the porch as a vantage point to observe the progress of Federal troops below.

At 1.7 m. on US 1 is a junction with a park road.

Left here through a part of the Fredericksburg-Spotsylvania National Battlefield Park to HAMILTON'S CROSSING, 5.4 m., scene of action during the Battle of Fredericksburg. The park road winds along a ridge through landscaped grounds, passing a Contact Station (information) and restored trenches and gun pits.

Left from Hamilton's Crossing on County 634 to a junction with US 17 (see Tour 6a), 6.2 m.

At 4.4 m. on US 1 is a junction with State 51

Right on this road to SPOTSYLVANIA 6.7 m. (see Tour 10).

At 4.7 m. on US I is a junction with County 636.
Left here to the SITE OF LEE'S HEADQUARTERS (L), 1 m., occupied after the Fredericksburg campaign.

MASSAPONAX CHURCH (R), 8.7 m., a rectangular brick structure, built in 1859 and owned by a Baptist congregation, witnessed at least one battle during the War between the States-a long battle of words inscribed by soldiers on the rear wall of the gallery. 'How many traitors have you killed and where are you now?' wrote one Yankee. 'I don't know,' was the scribbled answer, followed by, 'In the hospital, I hope,' signed Rebel. 'John G. Hamilton, from Richmond. Homeward bound,' stands out among lines of vitriolic verse, scathing denunciations of leaders on both sides, crudely drawn cartoons-all tied together with faintly penciled signatures.

THORNBURG, 13 m., a crossroads, was called formerly Mud Tavern.
Left here on County 606 to NORTH GARDEN (L), 1.8 m., and STONEWALL JACKSON SHRINE (L), 5.6 m. (see Tour 1a).

At 16.1 m. on US I is a junction with State 208.

Left on this road is the entrance to BRAYNEFIELD (L), 5.9 m. (See Tour 1a).

Every few miles along US I in this area are markers calling attention to various episodes and the movements of troops through this section. LADYSMITH, 21.2 m., a collection of garages and restaurants.

2. Right from Ladysmith on State 229 to COUNTY LINE CHURCH (R), 4.4. m., a brick building covered with brown stucco lined to simulate stone. This church, built in 1841 on the opposite side of the road, was rebuilt on the present site in 1894. The first building owned by the congregation, on still another site, was so named because of its proximity to the line between Caroline and Spotsylvania Counties. The Baptist congregation was organized in 1784 when some members of Waller's Church withdrew and elected William Edmund Waller (1746-1830), brother of John Waller (see below), as their pastor.

At 5.1 m. is a junction with State 51; R. here 7.2 m. to WALLER'S CHURCH (R), a comparatively new brick building belonging to a Baptist congregation that was constituted December 2, 1769. The planting of Baptist churches in this section was effected through the preaching of Samuel Harris and James Read. When Waller's Church, called at first Lower Spotsylvania, Church, was organized, John Waller (1741-1802) became the first pastor. Until his baptism in 1867 this pioneer Baptist had a reputation for recklessness and profanity and was known as 'Swearing Jack Waller' and 'the Devil's Adjutant.'

Back of a white clapboard house (R) in GOLANSVILLE, 24 m., is a QUAKER BURYING GROUND, a little fenced-in plot covered with ivy and periwinkle beneath maple and paulownia trees; there are no markers.

At MT.CARMEL, 27.5 m., in a triangle is CARMEL CHURCH (R), a red brick building with a gabled roof extending forward to form a high pediment. It was built in 1874-the third church on this site-and repaired in 1923. The Baptist congregation was constituted in 1773-another church 'planted by S.Harris and J.Reed' (Read). Called at first Polecat Church, it was later named Burruss'Church for the firstpastor. In 1800 this church had 162 white and 342 Negro members and rose to the point of ordaining Negro deacons. At one time the congregation organized a temperance society, which carried on militant activities from an adjacent building. The frame structure was moved eventually to a village near by, where it became a saloon.

I. Right from Mt. Carmel on County 658 to a deserted MORMON CHAPEL (R), 3.6m., a small frame building that was probably built sometime after the War between the States. The establishment of this sect here was bitterly resented, particularly by Major John Page, who explained the reason for his feelings: 'I can't afford to let two of my neighbors be confirmed in the theory of Mormonism, who have lived in the practice of it all their lives!'

2. Left from Mt.Carmel on State 207 to the cedar-lined entrance (L) of ELLERSLIE, 2.2 m., a two-story frame house on a high basement, with outside end chimneys and one wing. It was built before 1800 by James Gatewood. The delicate tracery of a cutleaf mulberry brushes the unpainted clapboard. Frame outbuildings, former kitchen and slave quarters, still stand.

Across the North Anna River, 30.5 m., the armies of Lee and Grant faced each other from May 23 to May 26, 1864. Grant, frustrated in several attempts to secure vantage ground south of the river, moved eastward and crossed at Hanovertown.

ELLINGTON (R), 30.9 m., is a square brick house behind square columns of a two-story portico. Built by the Thomas H. Fox, whose initials 'T F' are cut high above the entry door, Ellington was used before and after the War between the States as a boys' academy called Fox School. Under spreading tree branches is the two-story brick building that held the classrooms. In 1864 General R.E.Lee, whose army was encamped by the North Anna River, stopped here for a glass of buttermilk. He was about to drink when a shot fired by a Federal battery passed close by him and imbedded itself in the door frame. He slaked his thirst, then rode quickly away. The buttermilk was blamed for a subsequent illness lasting several days.

At 32.5 m. is a junction with County 688.

Left here to DOSWELL, 0.2 m., a crossroads named for the Doswell family, which acquired Bullfield and converted it into a stud farm from which came the progenitors of Epinard and other thoroughbreds. In ante-bellum days Negro jockeys of the area achieved considerable reputation.

At 35.4 m. on US I is a junction with State 51.

Right here to the former HANOVER ACADEMY (R), 2.8 m., on a wide lawn shaded by oaks. The school was established in 1849 by Lewis Minor Coleman, later professor of Latin at the University of Virginia. Only two of the old buildings remain: a remodeled two-story, clapboard structure with dormers, two outside chimneys, and spacious porch; and a story-and-a-half clapboard-covered log building.

FORK CHURCH (R), 4.4 m., built in 1735, is a church of St.Martin's Parish. Conventionally rectangular, the structure has brick walls laid in Flemish bond above a heavy watertable. Two small and somewhat ungainly porticos that shelter the doors must have been later additions.

Inside, across the west end, is the usual gallery. Renovations made at intervals have removed all other distinctive old features.

Behind the church is a long, narrow brick-walled enclosure containing a single row of gravestones. Near by are tombstones of the Nelson and Page families.

Fork Church was so called because of its proximity to the confluence of the North and South Anna Rivers.

Left from Fork Church 2.5 m. on County 685 to SCOTCHTOWN (R), a severe-looking rectangular house suggesting the pictures of Noah's Ark. Broken trees and tattered box are all that remain of once beautiful grounds and gardens. Standing on a high brick foundation, this unusually large frame house, 100, feet long and 50 wide, has a high gabled roof, pierced by four chimneys, that would give a barren appearance if the ends of the ridge were not hipped. The unpainted clapboard walls, now silvery with age, are topped with carefully spaced corbels that strike a surprising note of elegance. Stone steps lead to small porches.

Colonel Charles Chiswell, a Scot who was accustomed to hop into his coach and rattle down Negro Foot road to Williamsburg when the 'Season' opened, built Scotchtown about 1732. That year William Byrd stopped here to ask information and advice, and recorded: 'I arrived about two o'clock, and saved my dinner. I was very handsomely entertained, finding everything very clean, and very good . . . I retired to a very clean lodging in another house, and took my bark, but was forced to take it in water, by reason a light fingered damsel had ransacked my baggage, and drunk up my brandy. This unhappy girl, it seems, is a baronet's daughter, but her complexion, being red-haired, inclined her so much to lewdness that her father sent her, under the care of the virtuous Mr. Cheep, to seek her fortune on this side of the globe . . . Mr. Chiswell made me reparation . . . by filling my bottle again with brandy.

In 1771 Scotchtown was acquired by Patrick Henry for £600. His first wife, Sarah Shelton Henry, died in 1776, and the following year Henry, then living in the Governor's Palace in Williamsburg, sold Scotchtown-not without a profit-to Colonel Wilson Miles Cary, one of the wealthy lower peninsula planters fearful of British invasion.

John Payne, the Quaker, became the next owner. Dorothea, one of his many children, who later married James Madison, preserved in her Memoirs a vivid impression of Scotchtown. In 1783 John Payne gave up the struggle with the poor soil and the battle with his conscience over the ownership of slaves and moved to Philadelphia.

Scotchtown has more legends than the average old house: the usual story is told of Tarleton's having ridden up the steps and through the halls; there are hints of an Indian raid, of a duel-responsible for the 'bloodstain' on the hall floor-and of a woman chained by her husband in the'dungeon'-a fearful name for what was doubtless the sweet-potato pit.

At 9.6 m. on State 5, is a junction with County 601; R. here 0.5 m. to OFFLEY (L), once the home of Thomas Nelson (see Tour 6b). Nothing remains of the house but one gaunt chimney in the midst of three wide-spreading oaks.

On State 51 at 10 m. is the junction with County 601; L. here 3.2 tn. to the entrance Of OAKLAND (R). The L-shaped frame house was built in 1899 on the charred foundations of a house erected not long after the Revolution. The oak-shaded circular drive touches the porch steps on the low dormer-windowed wing. In the living room are many portraits: Nell Gwynn by Sir Peter Lely; Addison by Sir Godfrey Kneller; DrJohnson, Dickens, and Thomas Nelson,Jr. by Chapman; the Artist Opie, and others.

At Oakland was born Thomas Nelson Page (1853-1922), who, after graduating from Washington College and from the University of Virginia, practiced law in Richmond until 1893.

In 1884 the Century Magazine published 'Marse Chan,' Page's first story. Later he wrote numerous novels, essays, short stories, and verse. Some are in Negro dialect, and almost all show the author's pride in the class from which he sprang and his nostalgia for the ante-bellum days he depicted with more charm than realism. Oakland is the locale of his story Two Little Confederates. Among his best known works are: In Ole Virginia, Red Rock, The Burial of the Guns, and Robert E. Lee, Man and Soldier. He was ambassador to Italy from ioi3 to ioiS. At Oakland lived his brother, Rosewell Page (1858-1939), historian and biographer.

ASHLAND, 39.8 m. (1,297 pop.), is a sprawling little town with its central street cluttered by noisy and very profitable railroad tracks. Victorian residences sit back on shaded lawns, aloof from the bright facades of the business block. A leisurely town of commuters, merchants, railroad employees, and professors, Ashland has an air of its own created by the students of Randolph-Macon College, who swarm the streets, overflow the drug stores, and rattle about in 'jalopies.' Unacademic industry throbs in one lone building-a shirt factory.

In 1848, Edwin Robinson, president of the Richmond, Fredericksburg & Potomac Railroad, bought 155 acres of wilderness-'slashes'-and around a well of mineral water created a health resort, Slash Cottage. Richmond came to dance in the ballroom; trains waited to let hungry passengers dine here. Churches sprang up. By 1855 the village discarded its earlier name and adopted Ashland, the name of Henry Clay's estate in Kentucky. Selected as a mustering place for Confederate troops when the War between the States began, it was later occupied alternately by both Northern and Southern troops.

In Ashland lived the Sheltons, whose daughter, it is said, was the inspiration for Poe's Lenore.

In 1866, the unsold part of the land passed into the possession of the railroad company, which, to foster growth, induced the Methodist Church -by means of a land donation-to move Randolph-Macon College here. RANDOLPH-MACON COLLEGE was the first college founded in the United States by the Methodist Episcopal Church. The rambling, brick buildings are hidden by tall trees. The campus, of about 35 acres, is particularly delightful in spring when thousands of daffodils cover the lawns. The school, founded at Boydton in 1830, was moved here in 1868. Rapid growth followed. In 1890 the Randolph-Macon system was organized (see Tour 5A and Lynchburg); its three institutions are affiliated with the Baltimore and Virginia Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and are controlled by one self-perpetuating board of trustees.

Left from Ashland on State 54 to a Junction with County 662,1.5 m.; L. here 1.3 m. to the entrance (R) to HICKORY HILL (open during April Garden Week), tall structure of irregular shape. It was built in 1734 and, after a fire, rebuilt in 1875 after designs of the day. In extensive gardens the outstanding feature is an ancient box walk, 307 feet long and arched 30 feet above the broad path. Hickory Hill has long been owned by the Wickham family. During the War between the States, it was the home of William F. Wickham, the father of General William C. Wickham of the Confederate army. One of General Robert E. Lee's sons, General W.H.F. (Rooney) Lee, while recovering here from a wound in 1863, was seized by a Federal cavalry detachment and taken to Fortress Monroe.

HANOVER, 6.6 m. (see Tour 1A) on State 54 is at a junction with State 2 (See Tour 1A).

At 46.4 m. on US I is a junction with a paved road.

Left here 0.5 m. to a junction with another paved road, the old Telegraph Road between Fredericksburg and Richmond; R. to the STUART MONUMENT (R), 0.6 m., a tall granite obelisk 'erected by some of his comrades to commemorate his virtues.' Upon this field, on May 11, 1864, General J.E.B.Stuart, having interposed his cavalry between that of General Philip Sheridan and the city of Richmond, was wounded during the second of two attacks by the Federal troops. Shot by a dismounted cavalryman, he was taken to Richmond, where he died on the following day.

SAINT JOSEPH'S VILLA (R), 48.6 m., a Catholic orphanage for girls, was erected in 1930-31 with part of the income derived from a $3,000,000 trust left in 1922 by Major James H. Dooley for the establishment of three eleemosynary institutions. On a beautiful landscaped tract are 14 buildings of buff-colored brick trimmed with terra cotta and roofed with green Spanish tile. The domed Romanesque church and a statue of Joseph with Jesus rise in the center of the plaza formed by a curving drive fringed by the octagonal administration building and by the school building and auditorium. In 1834 three Sisters of Charity opened an orphanage and school in Richmond, called St.Joseph's; the institution here is its successor.

The remains of EARTHWORKS at 50 m. were part of Richmond's outer fortifications during the War between the States. At this point General Philip Sheridan's cavalry, pushing toward Richmond, broke through on May 11, 1864, after the fight at Yellow Tavern, but turned eastward before reaching the city.

At 50.9 m. is a junction with State 2 (see Tour 1A). RICHMOND, 56 m. (15 to 206 alt., 182,929 POP.) (see Richmond).

In Richmond are junctions with US 33 (see Tour 9), US 250 (see Tour 1A), State 6 (see Tour 23), State 10 (see Tour 19), State 5 (see Tour 24), US 60 (see Tour 8), and US 360 (see Tour 20).

Section c. RICHMOND to NORTH CAROLINA LINE; 93.7 m. US 1.


South of Richmond US I is lined with tourist cabins, garages, and lunchrooms swathed in neon signs that at night convert the road as far as Petersburg into a glittering midway. Below the Appomattox River, the highway passes through southside Virginia, an undulating sand-clay country covered with tobacco farms and extensive pine and oak forests. It suggests Gertrude Stein's comment on Virginia: 'There were no houses, no people to see, there were hills and woods and red earth out of which they were made and there were no houses and no people to see.'

South on 9th Street from the State capitol in RICHMOND, 0 m., to rejoin US I (L), 2 m.

At 5.3 m. is a junction with County 1209.

Left here on a cinder road to a fork, 0.4 m.; R. here 1 m. to the RICHMOND-DEEP-WATER TERMINAL, erected in 1938-39 at an approximate cost of $11,750,000.

Near by is the SITE OF WARWICK, which was flourishing in 1748. In April 1781 the British came up the James and bombarded the village, burning Colonel ArchibaldCary's flouring mill-a serious blow to the Commonwealth since the mill supplied much flour for the Revolutionary forces.

The landscaped and brick-pillared entrance (L) to the Du PONT DE NEMOURS MANUFACTURING PLANT is at 6.7 m. In the brick buildings covering 26 acres, rayon, cellophane, and synthetic fiber are manufactured through the viscose process. This site was selected in 1927 because of the supply of labor and the proximity to water with a low iron content.

On this tract stood Ampthill, which was moved to Richmond in 1929. Archibald Cary (1721-86), dubbed by a recent biographer the 'Wheelhorse of the Revolution,' in 1749 inherited Ampthill, built by his father, Henry Cary,jr., and carried on and enlarged already established manufacturing interests: an iron foundry, the flouring mill at Warwick, and a ropery at Richmond. Called 'the Old Bruiser' and, at times, 'Old Irons,' Archibald Cary was known for his peremptory manner. Once, so it goes, Washington was a guest at Ampthill. When he rose to take his leave, Colonel Cary objected, not once but several times. Finally Washington made a definite move to depart. Insistent Archibald Cary banged his fist on the table with a 'By God! You shall Stay.' And Washington stayed.

The unused arched stone bridge, spanning Falling Creek, 7.5 m., was on the Manchester-Petersburg Turnpike laid out in 1826 by Colonel Benoit Claude Crozet (see Tour 17b).

At 8.5 m. is a junction with County 609.

Left here to DREWRY'S BLUFF, 0.8 m., rising high above the James River. Fortifications built here in 1862 on the land of Captain A.H.Drewry enabled the Confederate forces on May 15, 1862, to drive back the Union fleet, which was attempting to reach Richmond. Among the five Union boats was the ironclad Monitor, which had engaged the Merrimac (Virginia) in Hampton Roads two months earlier.

FORT DARLING, 200 yards R., was equipped for the most part with naval guns and commanded a wide bend in the river to the south. The fort and its connecting land defenses have been partly restored. O

n May 14-16, 1864, some 40,000 of General B.F.Butler's men were held back in the vicinity of the bluff by hastily gathered detachments of Confederate troops and county home guards until the arrival of General P.G.T.Beauregard. Defeated, Butler withdrew to Bermuda Hundred (see Tour 19) where, as General Grant expressed it, he was'bottled up.'Earthworks, thrown up by the Federals on the 114th and relinquished two days later, are still visible.

On July 23, 1863, a Confederate naval school was established here on the Patrick Henry, with Lieutenant William Harwar Parker as commandant. The 126 midshipmen engaged in many skirmishes, and fought more than they studied.

Beginning at 9 m. and extending a mile along US I is a double row of sodium vapor highway lamps installed in February 1936 by the Virginia Electric & Power Co. The object of the experiment is to determine the degree to which accidents may be decreased by highway lighting. HALF-WAY HOUSE (L), 11.3 m., was so named because of its position between Richmond and Petersburg. This rectangular frame building was first an academy, then a stage house, and is again an inn. The long double porch at the rear was added in 1918; new, too, are the log cabin in the yard and the shed that covers a well used for many generations by travelers.

At 12.6 m. is a junction with County 60.

Left here to a junction with County 615, 0.2 m.; L. 2.5 m. to OSBORNE'S WHARF. Dredging operations here, begun in October 1936, are part of the James River development project. A channel has been cut of sufficient depth and width to permit passage of ocean-going vessels. A modern steam dredge continued work begun in 1611 by Sir Thomas Dale, who, according to a method he had learned while campaigning in Holland, cut across a neck of land a ditch known as Dale's Dutch Gap.

The land in this vicinity was settled in 1625 by Captain Thomas Osborne. Public tobacco warehouses erected in 1748 at this bend of the river made the place an important shipping terminus for a number of years. On April 27, 1781, Benedict Arnold with his troops burned 25 vessels anchored here; and the following month, La Fayette's troops camped on the sloping banks.

At 1.5 m. on County 616 is a bridge crossing the old channel of the James to FARRAR'S ISLAND; on the island is a fork, 1.9 m.; L. here 1.5 m. to another fork; then L. 0.6 m. on a road that skirts the north side of the island to the site of HENRICOPOLIS, or the City of Henricus, third settlement in the colony, founded in 1611 by Sir Thomas Dale, high marshal of Virginia, and named for his patron, Prince Henry, eldest son of James I. Lulled into security by the Indians' apparent friendliness, the settlers of Jamestown felt safe in moving up the river. Dale, with 350 men (chiefly German laborers), came to what is now called Dutch Gap, began to clear the wilderness, and built the town of which Ralph Hamor, secretary of the colony, wrote: 'There is in this town three streets, of well framed houses, a handsome church, and the foundation of a more stately one laid of brick, in length an hundred foote, and fifty foote wide, beside store houses, watch houses, and such like; there are also, as ornaments belonging to this town, upon the verge of this river, five faire block-houses, or commanders, where in live the honnestes sort of people, as in farmes in England, and there keep continuall centinell for the townes security . . .'

In 1618 Governor Yeardley was instructed to choose a suitable site at the City of Henricus for 'the college and university of Virginia,' already imposed in the town's charter. Accordingly, 10,000 acres were set aside, £1,500 were collected in England, and George Thorpe was appointed superintendent. To provide additional revenue, tenants were established on the land, and, in 1619, an iron foundry was built. But in March 1622 came Opechancanough's carefully planned massacre. Henricopolis was wiped out.

At 13.6 m. is a junction with State 10, (see Tour 19). COLONIAL HEIGHTS, 21 m. (2,331 pop.), is a speed-conscious town with service stations and stores compact along the highway and suburban residences spreading east and west.

VIOLET BANK, at the end of Arlington Place, is a one-story clapboard house with hipped gambrel roof, outside chimneys-stuccoed white-and a high basement. Breaking the long line of the facade is a graceful portico, which extends from a recess created by two bays. The slender fluted columns of the portico support a roof surmounted by a solid balustrade. In this gray building, overlooking a shrub-enclosed lawn shaded by the far reaching branches of a gigantic cucumber tree, General R.E.Lee had his headquarters from June to September 1864.

The first building on this site was erected in 1770 by Thomas Shore, a shipping merchant. Luxuriously appointed with English furniture and numerous objets d'art, this earlier Violet Bank, named for the thousands of violets that grew under the oaks once shading the adjacent hill, was chosen by La Fayette as headquarters in 1781. The first mansion burned in 1810.

OAK HILL, Carroll Avenue, also called Archer's, Hector's, or Dunn's Hill, consists of two one-story clapboard structures connected by a deep inside porch that extends an uncovered section toward the street.

From the lawn of this house in May 1781 General La Fayette, with cannon behind a boxwood hedge that still fringes the hill, shelled Petersburg, then occupied by the British.

PETERSBURG, 22.3 m. (14 to 85 alt., 28,564 POP.) (see Petersburg).

The CENTRAL STATE HOSPITAL (L), 25.2 m., is devoted exclusively to the treatment of insane, epileptic, and feeble-minded Negroes. The 30 buildings, chiefly of brick, are on an estate of 1,814 acres, half of which is a farm worked by the patients. The capacity of the hospital is 3,465, and the number of inmates, 3,506 (1938). The institution was established in 1870 as Freedmen's Hospital at Howard's Grove near Richmond. In 1885 it was moved to its present site.

The frame TURNBULL HOUSE (R), 25.3 m., was General Lee's headquarters from November 1864 to April 1965. From the house Lee saw his Soldiers retreating when his lines were broken under a concerted Federal attack in the early light of April 2.

At 26.8 m. is a junction with State 142.

Left here to the SITE OF FORT GREGG, 0.9 m., an artillery position held by 300 Confederates, April 2, 1865, until Lee could form a new line-from Fort Lee towards the Appomattox-and prepare to evacuate Richmond and Petersburg.

In a field a short distance north at 27 m., General A.P.Hill, while trying to reach his corps, was killed by two Federal stragglers. General Hill, prominent in most of the major engagements of the Army of Northern Virginia, was one of Lee's most reliable officers.

In the stagecoach era, this section of US I was the Boydton Plank Road, over which traveled the fashionable world on its summer visits to the mineral water resorts in the hills. The coachman's horn once echoed through the countryside, giving advance notice to passengers and to landlords, who knew by the number of blasts how many guests would soon be seated at the long tables of the inn.

Around Burgess Mill, on HATCHER'S RUN, 31.3 m., a battle was fought on October 27, 1864. The Second Corps of Grant's army, moving toward the Southside Railroad in an attempt to cut Lee's communications and supported by two corps, attacked Confederate works on Hatcher's Run to the east and here encountered earthworks that stopped its advance. Unexpected resistance caused Grant to order a withdrawal.

BECK'S BEACH (R) is a popular resort with boats, bath houses, and a dance pavilion.

At 31.6 m. is a junction with County 613, the White Oak Road.

Right along this dirt road behind entrenchments, rested Lee's right wing in the early spring of 1865. General G.K.Warren, attacking Lee's works on March 31, was driven back, but returned with reinforcements, forcing the Confederates to retreat.

At FIVE FORKS, 6.4 m., Sheridan and Warren attacked Lee's extreme right on the afternoon of April 1, 1865, and overwhelmingly defeated infantry and cavalry under Generals George E. Pickett and Fitzhugh Lee. On the following morning a general Federal assault broke Lee's line south of Petersburg, causing the evacuation of that city and Richmond; the surrender at Appomattox took place one week later.

DINWIDDIE, 38.2 m. (250 POP.), seat of Dinwiddie County, tapers from widely spaced residences strung along the highway to braces of stores, banks, and churches, which cluster around the court green. Dominating the sloping square is the rectangular brick COURTHOUSE, painted white. The four-columned portico that shields an iron balcony over the entry door, pilasters between the windows of the sides, and a right one-story wing somewhat relieve the building's severity of line. Dwarfed by this solid-looking structure is the tall granite CONFEDERATE MONUMENT, its aloof soldier at rest.

Dinwiddie County, named in honor of Robert Dinwiddie, governor of Virginia (1751-58), was formed from Prince George County in 1752. Many valuable early records were destroyed during the 1860's.

Dinwiddie's history reaches back to May 1607, when Jamestown colonists came to the falls of the Appomattox River-an exploration that Captain John Smith duplicated the following year. Fort Henry, built here in 1646, became a trading post, and finally a town (see Petersburg). General P.H.Sheridan's large cavalry force, leading a westward movement to encircle Petersburg, occupied this village on the evening of March 29, 1865. Two days later the forces of General Fitzhugh Lee and General George E. Pickett drove back Sheridan's entire corps and camped near the courthouse for the night. Learning that Sheridan had been reinforced, the Confederates began to withdraw to Five Forks.

Diagonally across from the court green is the two-story, clapboard building that was WINFIELD SCOTT'S LAW OFFICE. Born in Dinwiddie County July 13, 1786, Scott graduated from the College of William and Mary (1805) and then entered the law office of David Robinson in Petersburg with whom he rode the circuit, which included Dinwiddie Court. His military career began in 1808. Commissioned captain of light artillery, he participated in the War of 1812 and the Mexican War, and rose to the highest rank in the U. S. Army. He retired in 1861 and died in 1866.

At 42.7 m. is a junction with County 646.

Left here to a junction with County 655, 5.2 m.; L. here 0.5 m. to SAPONEY CHURCH, of Bath Parish. The small frame rectangular structure, low-pitched with a gabled roof extending forward, was built in 1880 of material from the church of 1726.

In this region lived the Saponey, 'the honestest, as well as the bravest Indians we have ever been acquainted with,' according to William Byrd II, who camped in this section on his return from surveying the Virginia-North Carolina boundary (11728). 'All the grandees of the Sapponi nation did us the honor to repair hither . . ., he wrote. With them came 'four young ladies of the first quality.' The deliberate lure of these'copper colored beauties'and their surprising'air of cleanliness' were wasted on the swampy air. 'We resisted their charms,' soliloquized Mr.Byrd, 'notwithstanding the long fast we had kept from the sex, and the bear diet we had been so long engaged in. Nor can I say the price they set upon their charms was at all exhorbitant. A princess for a pair of red stockings cannot, surely, be thought buying repentance much too dear.'

WARFIELD, 57.5 m., a hamlet, is the SITE OF EBENEZER ACADEMY (L), the first Methodist school established in Virginia, founded by Bishop Francis Asbury (1745-1816) in 1793. It passed out of the hands of the church but remained a noted school for many years.

The SITE OF OLD BRUNSWICK COUNTY COURTHOUSE (L) is at 64 m. When the county was formed in 1720, it was directed that a courthouse, prison, pillory, and church be built here, though the courthouse was not erected until 1732. After Lunenburg County had been cut from Brunswick in 1746, the county seat was moved eastward.

SOUTH HILL, 78.7 m. (439 alt., 1,405 pop.), a comparatively new town with a spacious look, is the third largest bright-leaf tobacco market in the State. Auctions are held almost daily during the selling season, from October 1 to March 1, in four large warehouses, each with its own name and something of an individual atmosphere. There are also several large drying and rehandling plants, a large stemmery, and other facilities for handling tobacco.

Early in the winter mornings scores of springless wagons and automobile trucks, piled high with the golden leaves, come in from the rural district. Throughout the day buyers, growers, auctioneers, and others thread their way through the lanes of tobacco 'in the loose' on the warehouse floors. The leaves, heaped in large flat baskets, are arranged in rows, the size of the piles varying. The lingo used by the auctioneers is understood only by the buyers, who represent the leading tobacco manufacturers. Although nearly all business done here during the tobacco-selling season is on a credit basis, the growers pay cash, for their purchases after they have disposed of their crops. With the opening of the season, the town takes on new life, business booms, and an air of prosperity prevails.

South Hill is also one of the leading cotton markets in Virginia. A large lumberyard lies on the outskirts of the town.

In South Hill is a junction with US 58 (see Tour 7b), with which US 1 coincides to 84.8 m.

On the Roanoke River, 89.5 m., one of the first waterways used for transportation to the western part of the State, a well-organized fleet of flatboats operated as early as 1825.

Returning from a trip to 'settle the bound' between Virginia and North Carolina, William Byrd II and the other Virginia commissioners crossed here in November 1728.

At 93.7 m. the highway crosses the NORTH CAROLINA LINE, 23 miles north of Henderson, N.C. (see North Carolina Guide).

Tour 1A



Fredericksburg-Bowling Green-Hanover-Richmond; 53.8 m. State 2.
Asphalt-paved roadbed; heavy trucks barred.

State 2, an alternate to US 1 (see Tour 1b) between Fredericksburg and Richmond, is almost curveless. It follows roughly a Colonial trail over gently rolling terrain covered for the most part with pine forests.

State 2 branches southeast from US 1 (see Tour 1b), 0 m., in FREDERICKSBURG at the intersection with Lafayette Blvd. and coincides with US 17 to a junction at 5.8 m. (see Tour 6a). At 8.4 m. is a junction with County 612.

Left on this road to ROUND OAK CHURCH (L), 0. 2 m., a large T-shaped brick building. The Baptist congregation (white) to which it belongs was constituted in 1840 as the result of the Reverend Lawrence Battaile's zeal for religious work among Negroes. When he expressed a desire to go to Africa, his father suggested that he do missionary work at home and built a frame chapel on his estate for the purpose. Soon there was a large congregation of both white and Negro members. After the War between the States, the Negroes formed a separate congregation. The main part of the present building was erected in 1852, and the transepts were added in 1915.

GRACE CHURCH (L), a plain brick structure just south of the junction with County 612, was built in 1833 and is one of two churches that supplanted-on different sites-a Colonial church of St.Mary's Parish. Many of the communicants became members of the congregation at Round Oak.

At 11 m. is a junction with County 606.

Right here to a junction with County 609, 2.3 m.; L. here 1.2 m. to MILL HILL (L), birthplace of John Taylor (1754-1824). Now abandoned, the house seems a part of the exhausted soil. Orphaned at ten, Taylor was adopted by his cousin and maternal uncle, Edmund Pendleton, who sent him to Robertson's Academy (see Tour 1B) and in 1770 to the College of William and Mary. After his graduation Taylor studied law under Pendleton's tutelage and then launched into his career as soldier, statesman, politician, and agriculturist (see Tour 6a).

At 3 m. on County 606 is a junction with a lane bordered by Lombardy poplars; R. here 0.2 m. to the STONEWALL JACKSON SHRINE (free), a small one-story white clapboard building, in which General Thomas J. Jackson on May 10, 1863, 'crossed over the river' to 'rest under the shade of the trees.' Accidentally shot by his own men, Jackson was taken first to Wilderness Tavern and then brought to Guinea Station near by-away from the war zone. This house, then the office of Fairfield, home of the Chandler family, is now maintained by the National Park Service. In the rear room are mementos and the bed in which Jackson died.

On County 606 at 6.8 m. is NORTH GARDEN (R), a frame house, two-storied, with additions through which rise outside chimneys. Dominating the crest of a gently sloping hill, the house stands among an elaborate array of modern buildings. It was built not long after the Revolution by Captain Harry Thornton, who was devoted to racing and cockfighting-the wide hall of North Garden was frequently covered with blood and feathers. Captain Thornton became financially involved and spent many an anxious moment, hopping-when the sheriff arrived-across the dividing line between Caroline and Spotsylvania, Counties, which conveniently ran through his yard. One day sheriffs of both counties came simultaneously. In an offhand manner the captain mounted a horse and rode off. At a safe distance he wheeled about, raised his hat, and said, 'Gentlemen, I have the honor to wish you a very good day.' Soon after this escapade he moved to the less annoying confines of Kentucky.

At 8.6 m. is a-junction with US 1 (see Tour 1b).

VILLBORO (R), 13 m., a two-and-a-half story frame building with gable roof and a right wing, clings tenaciously to its treeless hill at the crossroads. This surviving part of a much larger building has felt no painter's brush, apparently, since it was profitable Todd's Ordinary-one of five Colonial taverns between Fredericksburg and Hanover. Liquor prices were fixed by a patriarchal court: 'Rum, the gallon, eight shillings; Virginia brandy, six shillings; Punch or Flipp, the quart, with white Sugar, one and three pence, with brown Sugar, one shilling; . . . a hot Dyet, one shilling; . . . a Lodging with clean Sheets, six pence; Oats, the gallon, six pence; Pasturage, the day, six pence per Head.'

Right from Villboro on State 208 to County 639, 3.4 m.; L. here 0.9 m. to BLENHEIM (L), a sturdy, two-story house of brick laid in Flemish bond. A graceful front portico, topped with a balustrade, is echoed on the left side and at the rear. Blenheim has lost none of its dignified charm despite lack of proprietary care. Here was born in 1846 James Hoge Tyler, Governor of Virginia from 1898 to 1902.

On State 208 at 10 m. is a junction with US I (see Tour 1b).

BOWLING GREEN, 19.6 m. (463 pop.), is the seat of Caroline County. New churches, service stations, and spacious-porched Victorian houses have not dissipated the atmosphere preserved by the buildings near the court green. One vestige of the i8go's lingers in fading letters-Bullard's Opera House. The little town wakes on court day when farmers assuage their of ten-thwarted gregarious instinct. From the old monthly court has grown the Social Court, a pleasant event that flowers the second Monday in every month. On these occasions anything can be bought on the streets from puppies to plantations.

Hemmed on two sides by rows of one-room lawyers' offices, the verdant green is dominated by the centrally placed square brick COURTHOUSE (1803-09), with a belfry and an arcaded loggia. The small brick jail, looking none too secure, is to the rear (R), and opposite is the brick Clerk's Office. On the green are a pump; a tall granite shaft topped with a moustachioed Confederate soldier, menacingly erect; and a marker announcing that La Fayette, on his way from Maryland to Richmond, camped here the night of April 27, 1781. Within the courthouse benign and rather modern portraits of Washington, Edmund Pendleton, John Taylor, and General William Woodford look out through the arches of the portico.

In 1727 Essex, King William, and King and Queen Counties contributed territory that became Caroline County and by its name honored the wife of George II. In 1742 another section of King and Queen County was given to Caroline. The courthouse, at the first county seat, about two miles north of the present one, was not without regal air, for Charles Bridges, an English artist, was paid 1600 pounds of tobacco in 1740 to decorate the facade with the king's arms. In the clerk's office at the old seat Edmund Pendleton served as apprentice and studied law. Later, Pendleton tutored in law two of his nephews who became men of note-John Penn (1741-88), who moved to North Carolina in 1774 and two years later was among the signers of the Declaration of Independence, and John Taylor.

The town grew up about a tavern at a junction of two roads on the Bowling Green estate of John Hoomes, who in 1794 donated four acres here for a new county seat and a building for a courthouse 'until one could be built of the same size and material as the former one.' When, however, one Kenner petitioned for two additional acres for public use, Hoomes appealed to the general assembly, requesting that the seat of justice be re-established at its former site. Kenner's petition prevailed, more taverns were built, the clerk's office was moved here, and the present courthouse was erected.

In 1868, during Reconstruction, Alice Scott Chandler (1839-1904) founded The Home School, later renamed Bowling Green Female Seminary. In 1901 the school was removed to Buena Vista.

A bronze marker, at the junction with County 626, within the town, commemorates the 'heroism' of Baptist ministers imprisoned in the jail at the old seat in 1771 for 'teaching and preaching the gospel without having episcopal ordination or a license from the General Court.' Brought to trial, the Reverend Bartholomew Chewning, James Goodrich, and Edward Herndon were remanded to gaol, there to remain till they gave 'security, each in the sum of twenty pounds & two securities each in the sum of two pounds for their good behaviour twelve months and a daye.' Similar charges were preferred against other ministers, and the same punishment was meted out. Patrick Henry, on one occasion, hurried from his home in Hanover County to the old courthouse to defend the ministers.

OLD MANSION (R), 20 m., was center of the original Bowling Green estate. Its weatherboarded bulk rises a story-and-a-half between ends of brick in Flemish bond. The steep hipped gambrel roof has dormers above a wide porch-a later addition- Old Mansion still overlooks a terraced garden and a circular drive lined with huge box bushes, gnarled and twisted. Although built by Major John Hoomes on land patented by him in 1670, Old Mansion is associated principally with Colonel John Waller Hoomes, a sportsman and importer of thoroughbred horses. His sons died one by one, under strange circumstances. Seated one day in the long dining room at a table set for 13, Hoomes distinctly heard horses' hoofs galloping around the track outside the house. No horses were visible. The following day Hoomes's eldest son became ill and died. With but slight variation, the same event preceded the death of his other sons.

But even then the Old Mansion was not done with drama. The Woodfords, later tenants, came under its spell. The story is that the husband, having transferred his affections from an invalid wife to a buxom housekeeper, to cut the Gordian knot swathed himself in a sheet, placed a jacko-lantern over his head, appeared before MrsWoodford's window, and frightened the poor woman into the arms of death. When rumor of the escapade got abroad, Woodford left the community-accompanied.

At 22.5 m. is a junction with State 14 (see Tour 1B).

The SITE OF NEWMARKET (R), 23 m., is an open field. The owner of this outstanding Colonial mansion, John Baylor III (1705-72), was a colonel of militia and a burgess, better known as an importer and breeder of thoroughbred horses. Fearnaught, imported in 1764, cost him 1,0000 guineas and brought forth a footnote by Patrick Nisbett Edgar in his pioneer studbook: 'Until the day of Fearnaught no other than quarter races were run in Virginia. Speed had been the only quality sought for.'

Colonel Baylor, contrary to custom, sent his daughters, as well as his sons, to England to be educated. Colonel George Baylor (1752-84), born here, as chief of Washington's staff carried the news of the Battle of Trenton to Congress, which presented him 'a horse, properly caparisoned for service.' Major Walker Baylor commanded the 'Washington Life Guards' at Germantown. One of his sons, Robert E.B.Baylor, was a member of the convention that framed the constitution for the State of Texas and in 1845 one of the founders of Baylor University, which was named for him. James Bowen Baylor passed his boyhood here. A representative of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, he determined the elements of the earth's magnetism from Canada to Mexico and was instrumental in determining several state boundary lines.

At 39.1 m. is a junction with County 614.

Left here to HORN QUARTER (L), 4.1 m., an ante-bellum plantation. The brick house dominates three terraces rising from a sluggish little stream that mirrors fringing box bushes. Above a high basement, its two stories are topped with a steep hip roof that terminates in a balustraded deck. The wide cornice rests on an elaborate frieze of circle and anchor design, no less ornamental than the carved wood panels set between the upper and lower windows. The front portico has columns in pairs at each side with pilasters behind them. On the lawn are two rectangular, one-story brick structures-one formerly the office, the other the kitchen.

The place was originally one of three adjacent plantations owned by the same family. Here was the 'quarter' where the horn was blown to summon the slaves from the fields. The present house was built during the first of the nineteenth century by George Taylor, who equipped an entire regiment of the Confederate army and donated to the 'Cause' all surplus crops grown on the estate during the war.

At 39.4 m. on State 2 is a junction with State 54 (see Tour 1b).

HANOVER, 39.7 m. (125 pop.), seat of Hanover County, spreads along intersecting roads, away from the main thoroughfare.

The COURTHOUSE (L), dominating the large, brick-walled green, is a charming one-story T-shaped structure with an arcaded piazza across the front, a tall hip roof covering the bar of the T, a fine cornice with heavy dentils, and walls whose glazed headers still emphasize the Flemish bonding. The courthouse was built about 1733.

In the courtroom among portraits of notable Hanover residents are those of Henry Clay, Patrick Henry, Thomas Nelson Page, and the Reverend Samuel Davies (see below).

On the shaded green is (R) the small new stone jail. Box-lined walks lead past the courthouse to the CONFEDERATE MONUMENT, a granite shaft pleasingly simple, beyond which is the old one-story brick Clerk's Office. About 1920 a duplicate of the original office was erected with a passage connecting it with the first.

In 1720 by enactment of the general assembly that part of New Kent County'which lyeth in the Parish of St.Paul'was given the name of Hanover County-in honor of the Elector of Hanover. It was in this county, through the preaching of the Reverend Samuel Davies, founder of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), that Presbyterianism in Virginia secured a strong footing. The Reverend Mr.Davies,who later rebuked George II for interrupting him in the midst of a discourse in England, came to the county in 1747. Patrick Henry accepted Davies's sermons as models of oratory and acquired from him ideas of religious liberty.

In the courthouse here Patrick Henry pled the Parsons' Cause on December 1, 1763, the case that won him first fame. From the beginning of the colony ministers' salaries had been paid in tobacco, fixed in 1696 at 16,000 pounds annually and, after 1748, 'laid in nett tobacco.' In 1758, a year when the price of tobacco was high, the general assembly re-enacted the law of 1755, providing that all tobacco debts be paid in currency at the rate of two pence per pound. The clergy, demanding the usual quantity of tobacco, appealed to the king, who sided with them. Then various clergymen sued for the remainder of salaries due them for 1758. Chief of these cases was instituted here by the Reverend James Maury. When the suit was tried in November 1763, the court found in Maury's favor. Moreover, a special jury was summoned to determine whether the plaintiff had sustained any damages. Apparently, the clergy had won. Accordingly, John Lewis, counsel for the defense, retired from the scene. It was then that the defendants employed Patrick Henry to represent them in the damage suit.

Patrick Henry's father, John Henry, one of the justices, presided at the trial. An uncle, the Reverend Patrick Henry, heeding his nephew's warning that unpleasant remarks about the cloth would be made, retired from the court green. Patrick Henry delivered an impassioned speech, defending the Act of 1758. The king, he said, had forfeited all rights to his subjects' obedience. As for the clergy, they had changed from shepherds to wolves 'so rapacious' that they would not hesitate to take away 'the last blanket from the lying-in woman.' At that the righteous gentlemen bristled and left the courtroom. The case ended. The jury retired and spent five minutes in awarding the Reverend Mr.Maury one penny damage-a verdict that also smacked the throne.

HANOVER TAVERN (R) spreads its long, frame, L-shaped bulk between gabled roof and a high basement of brick. A long veranda fills in the angle of the L. The tavern, erected about 1723, has grown with the years. Here Patrick Henry was living when he appeared in the Parsons' Cause. His father-in-law, John Shelton, had acquired the tavern in 1760, and Henry had moved here that year-to be near the courthouse. Lord Cornwanis in 1781, while pursuing La Fayette westward, stopped here awhile. The Marquis de Chastellux collected the story during his own visit after the Revolution: 'Mr. Tillman, our land-lord at Hanover Court House . . . though he lamented his misfortune in having lodged and boarded Lord Cornwallis and his retinue without his Lordship's having made the least recompense, could not help laughing at the fright which the unexpected arrival of Tarleton spread among a considerable number of gentlemen who had come to hear the news, and were assembled in the Court House.'

At 40.9 m. is a junction with County 605.

Left here to a private road, 0.4 m.; L. here 0.5 m. to the VIRGINIA MANUAL LABOR SCHOOL for delinquent Negro boys. Its many buildings are spread along a winding drive bordered with clipped privet. Founded in 1897 by Dr.John H. Smythe (Negro) to carry out the ideas of the Negro Reformatory Association of Virginia, the institution in 1920 was taken over by the State. Outside the classrooms and trade school, the overalled boys work in shops, on the farm, and in the gardens.

At 42.5 m. on State 2 are junctions with County 643 (L) and County 657 (R).

I. Left on County 643 to the VIRGINIA INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL (L), 1.2 m., a State institution for delinquent Negro girls. Lining the circular drive are five large buildings. The average annual enrollment is 100. The girls are kept busy in classrooms and developing their aptitudes for home economics, gardening, and poultry raising. There are physical training classes and recreational facilities. The school was founded in 1915 by the Virginia State Federation of Colored Women's Clubs, which purchased here a 148-acre farm with a small building and grist mill. From its beginning the institution has had as superintendent Janie Porter Barrett (Negro), whose interest in delinquent children was responsible for its founding.

2. Right from State 2 on County 657 to a junction with County 656, 2.9 m.; R. here 0.2 M. to SLASH CHURCH (L), a frame building erected in 1729. Like its contemporaries, Slash Church has a steep gabled roof and denticulated cornice. Used now by a congregation of the Christian denomination, it was formerly a church of St.Paul's Parish, of which the Reverend Patrick Henry was rector when his nephew flouted British rule in 1763.

County 656 continues northward and becomes County 654; at 1. m. is a junction with a private road; R. here 0.2 m. and L. 0.5 m. to the SITE OF CLAY SPRING, now occupied by a cottage. Near by is a MONUMENT constructed of millstones, commemorating Henry Clay, who was born here April 12, 1777. He attended the log school and carried grain to the mill of 'The Slashes,' studied law under George Wythe, and was admitted to the bar at the age of 20. He moved to Kentucky in early manhood. Called 'the Mill Boy of the Slashes' and 'the Great Pacificator,' Henry Clay was thrice Speaker of the House of Representatives, four times senator, Secretary of State under John Quincy Adams, thrice candidate for president, defender of the American tariff system, and author of the Missouri Compromise and of the Omnibus Bill of 1850. He freed his own slaves and advocated the plan of purchasing all slave children and setting them free. But acceptance by his followers of his political philosophy only served to postpone what Clay himself saw was inevitable-a clash between the North and South.

HANOVER WAYSIDE PARK (L), 44.7 m., is a wooded area (picnic facilities: campsites and trailer-sites;free) bordered by a large artificial lake (no boating or swimming).

At 47.7 m. is a junction with County 640.

Left on this road to a junction with County 606, 0.6 m.; L. here 0.8 m. to a private road; L. 1. 1 m. to TOTOM0I, long home of the Tinsley family. Two other structures had already occupied the site before the present rectangular house-with clapboarding and gabled roof-was built in 1702. Additions since then include small wings, a lean-to, and a two-deck porch, partially engulfed in folds of blue-green box. Half hidden by additions, tall twin chimneys form a solid wall extending to the second floor before separating. This well-preserved house rambles under the protecting branches of huge catalpa trees that cast shadows over a line of tall box. Back of the dwelling extends a broad formal garden in which box-edged flower beds radiate from the axis of a summer house and are welded together by a surrounding hedge of lilacs.

County 606 continues eastward, crossing TOTOPOTOMOY CREEK , 2.1 m. The stream was named for Totopotomoi, chief of the Pamunkeys and faithful ally of the English. Totopotomoi was killed in battle near here in 1656 while assisting the colonists in resisting the Ricahecreans (see Tour 6A). Grant's army, attempting to get between Lee and Richmond, in 1864 tried to cross this creek. Finding Confederate resistance too stubborn, Grant moved southward to Cold Harbor.

RURAL PLAINS (R), 2.3 m., a brick residence erected in the late seventeenth century stands on a shaded lawn. The story-and-a-half house has four front and five rear dormers in a hip-on-gambrel roof above a denticulated cornice. The windows, now widened, once had iron bars across them. Massive doors of maple have large English locks with small brass knobs.

Patrick Henry in his nineteenth year was married here in 1754 to Sarah Shelton, grandaughter of William Parks, editor of The Virginia Gazette. After his own house on a neighb0ring farm, Pine Slash, had been destroyed by fire in 1757, Henry lived here temporarily with his father-in-law.

At 6.6 m. is a junction with County 700; R. here 0.4 m. to the SITE OF THE STUDLEY HOUSE (L), marked by foundations and old trees. Patrick Henry was born here on May 29,1736, the son of John Henry and Sarah Winston Syme Henry. His mother's first husband was John Syme, and her son, John Syme, was heir to Studley. Soon after Patrick Henry and his brother William were born, the family moved to Colonel Henry's home, Mount Brilliant, where Patrick Henry spent most of his childhood. Later Studley was acquired by Judge Peter Lyons, and here Henry's opponent in the 'Parsons' Cause' passed his last years.

In A Progress to the Mines Colonel William Byrd tells of a visit to Studley in 1732, when Patrick Henry's mother was yet the widow of John Syme: 'This Lady, at first Suspecting I was some Lover, put on a Gravity that becomes a Weed; but so soon as she learnt who I was, brighten'd up into an unusual cheerfulness and Serenity. She was a portly, handsome Dame . . . and seem'd not to pine too much for the Death of her Husband . . . The courteous Widow invited me to rest myself . . . and go to Church with Her but I excused myself, by telling her she woul'd certainly spoil my Devotion. Then she civilly entreated me to make her House my Home whenever I visited my Plantations.' County 606 again crosses TOTOPOTOMOY CREEK at 8.7 m. Here, on June 13, 1862, General J.E.B.Stuart encountered Federal cavalry while on his memorable ride around the Federal army. Stuart, with 1,200 cavalry, had left Richmond June 12 to learn the position of the Federals, disrupt their supply base and lines of communication, and procure provisions for the Confederate army. He returned to Richmond June 15, having passed around McClellan's entire army. Federal cavalry, after attempting to stop him here, fell back for a further resistance a short distance southwestward.

LINNEY'S CORNER 9.8 m., is the scene of the clash between Stuart's men and Federal cavalry June 13.

At 10. 1 m. is a junction with US 360 (see TOUR 20a).

At 53.8 m. on State 2 is the southern junction with US I (see Tour 1b).

RICHMOND, 58.9 m. (15 to 206 alt., 182,929 POP.) (see Richmond).







Tour 1B



Junction with State 2-Sparta-St. Stephen's Church-King and Queen-Centerville; 58.1 m. State 14.
Asphalt-paved except for a few miles east of Sparta.

State 14 parallels the north bank of the Mattaponi River and southeast of St.Stephen's Church traverses a narrow peninsula called 'the Shoe String.' The region produces corn, wheat, tobacco, and vegetables. Along the way are patches of pine and oak forests richly sprinkled with dogwood, laurel, and holly.

State 14 branches southeast from a junction with State 2 (see Tour 1A), 0 m., at a point 2.9 miles south of Bowling Green.

MULBERRY PLACE (R), 0.3 m., has a late eighteenth-century house with a steep hip roof and four wide chimneys. Across the back are double galleries. This estate, named for a mulberry grove that once spread over more than 100 acres, was established by John George Woolfolk (1750-1819). His son Jourdan added to the fortune by operating the stage-coach line run in connection with the railroad between Petersburg and Occoquan. In 1836 the railroad company advertised that'the Stage Travelling, which is conducted by Messrs.J.Woolfolk & Co. . . . in the handsomest manner, being now only 67 miles, is becoming rapidly reduced by the extension of this Rail Road.'

At 6 m. is a junction with County 640.

Right here to WHITE PLAINS (L), 0.2 m., a weatherboarded house, painted white. The gabled roof, pierced by dormers, has an air as distinctive as that of the delicate Georgian portico. One of the outside chimneys has been partly engulfed by a one-story wing.

The estate, once a part of Edmundsbury (see below), was given by Edmund Pendleton to his nephew, another Edmund Pendleton, who probably built this house. White Plains has been the home of three Baptist ministers; Andrew Broaddus I (1770- 1848), Andrew Broaddus II (c. 1815-1900), and Andrew Broaddus III, who for more than 100, years were successively pastors of Salem Church. The first Andrew was the son of John Broaddus, commissary in the Continental army and an opinionated fellow, who so bitterly opposed dissenters that he published several pamphlets ridiculing them.

On County 640 at 1.8 m. is a junction with County 643; L. here 0.5 m. to the SITE OF EDMUNDSBURY (R), once the home of Edmund Pendleton (1721-1803), who, before he was 14 years of age, had been bound by the court of Caroline County 'unto Benjamin Robinson, clerk of this court, to serve him the full end and term of six years and six months as an apprentice.' He purchased and read law books and was licensed to practice law before the expiration of his apprenticeship. Pendleton finally settled here, where he acquired a large estate. In 1774 he was a member of the First Continental Congress, in 1775-76 chairman of the Committee of Safety, president of the Virginia Conventions of 1775 and 1776, and later head of the State's judiciary department.

At the outbreak of the Revolution, Pendleton was a leader of the 'cavalier' party. His wish was, he said, 'a redress of grievances and not a revolution of Government.' Although he opposed Patrick Henry's proposal to arm the militia, when the measure carried, he helped to put it into effect. He believed in a liberal suffrage and equality of man before the law and denied that government should be controlled by the wellborn or wealthy. In 1799 he published a document supporting the principles of Jefferson's party.

In SPARTA, 6.8 m. (40 pop.), among hills, several roads converge. SALEM BAPTIST CHURCH (R) is a massive rectangle of brick, painted white, with a gabled roof extending forward over a heavy pediment supported by tall Doric columns. The congregation was organized in 1802 as the result of the Great Revival that spread over Virginia in 1788.

NEWTOWN, 16.7 m. (50 POP.), is a hamlet of scattered old and new buildings.

I. Left from Newtown on County 625 to a junction with an unimproved private road, 1.5 m.; L. here 0.7 m. to THE GLEBE OF DRYSDALE PARISH. The square, storyand-a-half brick house, built about 1763, was the home of rectors until the glebes were confiscated in 1802.

2. Right from Newtown on County 625 to a junction with County 628, 2.6 m.; L. 0.8 m. to the SITE OF ROBERTSON'S ACADEMY (R) in a grove of oaks. About 1755 Donald Robertson, a Scot, established here a classical school for, boys. James Madison attended Robertson's Academy while staying in this vicinity with his grandparents. Among other pupils were George Rogers Clark and John Taylor of Caroline.

At 25 m. on State 14 is the junction with a private road.

Left on this road to SMITHFIELD, 0.6 m., among locust trees, bridal wreath, japonica, and forsythia. The two-story frame house, built in 1783 by William Hill, has a hip roof and massive end chimneys. The original beaded, heart poplar weatherboarding, fastened to oak studding by handmade nails, is intact. The interior is distinguished by much hand-carved detail and doors with brass hinged rings instead of knobs.

At 25.5 m. on State 14 is a junction with County 628.

Right here to GREEN MOUNT (L), 0.9 m. The long frame house, with a two-story central unit and one-story wings, has been made still longer by an addition placed between the main building and one of the wings. Dr. Benjamin Fleet built Green Mount about 1840. After his death his widow, Maria Louisa Wacker Fleet, an early advocate of higher education for women, conducted a girls' school here.

ST.STEPHEN'S CHURCH, 26.6 m. (see Tour 20a), is at a junction with US 360 (see Tour 20a).

At 28.1 m. on State 14 is a junction with a private road.

Right here to FARMINGTON, 0.8 m., an L-shaped frame house, on a hill overlooking broad fields. Robert Ryland, born here in 1805, became the principal of the Virginia Baptist Seminary, first president of Richmond College, a teacher in the National Theological Seminary (Negro), a founder of the Baptist Female Institute, and president of the Shelbyville (Ky.) Female College. From 1841 to 1865, while president of Richmond College, he was pastor of the First African Church.

BRUINGTON CHURCH (R), 31.4 m., in a quiet grove, is a large rectangular red brick building with white trim. In the gable above the front entrances is a graceful fanlight. The building belongs to a Baptist congregation brought together in 1780 through the preaching of John Waller, James Greenwood, and William Stovall. This building, the third, was erected in 1851.

Within the iron-fenced cemetery is the grave of the Reverend Dr.Robert Baylor Semple (1769-1831), first pastor of Bruington and historian of the Baptist denomination. The College of William and Mary, though formerly a unit of the Established Church and adversely affected by disestablishment, conferred upon this pioneer Baptist the degree of doctor of divinity, as did Brown University.

At 32.8 m. is a junction with County 629.
Right here to County 634, 1.8 m.; L. here 2.4 m. to HILLSBORO (R), a story-and-a-half house on a wide lawn, near the Mattaponi River. It has a brick basement, brick gable ends with double chimneys, frame front and rear, and narrow windows. The interior is elaborately paneled in walnut and has a black walnut stairway of unusual design. Hillsboro was built about 1730 by Colonel Humphrey Hill (1706-75). During the Revolution it was raided by British soldiers, and during the War between the States, by Union troops. A hole in the ceiling of the hall was made by a Federal soldier who, foraging for meat in the attic, fell through the plastering.

At 2.7 m. on County 629 is a junction with a dirt road; L. here 0.4 m. to the SITE of RYE FIELD (L), birthplace of Dr.Thomas Walker (1715-94), physician, soldier, explorer, and land agent (see Tour 17a).

Colonel Thomas Walker settled here about 1700, acquiring an estate that bordered for 10 miles on the Mattaponi River.

WALKERTON, 3 m. (90 pop.), on County 629, was once a thriving shipping point on the Mattaponi River. Now tomato packing is its chief activity. It was created a town in 1709. In 1748 the burgesses passed an act 'to prevent the building of wooden chimneys in Walker Town and also to prevent the inhabitants thereof from raising and keeping Hogs.' This act the king vetoed in 1751, and the general assembly, in an 'humble Address to His Majesty,' explained that 'what chiefly induced your Assembly to pass this Act was the prevention of the public warehouses for the reception of Tobacco in this town from the danger of fire.'

Before the War between the States, four or five two-masted vessels would be docked here at the same time; but after the building of the railroad between Richmond and West Point in 1860, the village lost its importance.

County 629 continues southward crossing the river; at 3.6 'M. is ENFIELD (L), a story-and-a-half frame house above a curve in the Mattaponi. The oldest part of the house was built by a member of the Waller family on land granted during the reign of Charles II. Near the house is a gnarled paper mulberry tree with bent limbs that have taken root and sent new shoots in many directions.

At 5.4 m. on County 629 is a junction with State 30 (see Tour 20A).

STEVENSVILLE, 37.3 m. (50 POP.), is an old crossroads community. Here was Bunker Hill, the ancestral home of the Bagby family and birthplace of John Garland Pollard (1871-1937), governor of Virginia from 1930 to 1934. Pollard was editor of the Virginia Code, Annotated and held among other posts those of attorney general of Virginia and dean of the Marshall-Wythe School of Government and Citizenship of the College of William and Mary.

At 37.7 m. is a junction with County 631.

Right here 1.5 m. to DAHLGREN'S CORNER, where young Colonel Ulric Dahlgren, Federal cavalry officer, was mortally wounded in a night skirmish with a home guard unit on March 2, 1864. In February 1864 Colonel Dahlgren and General H.J. Kilpatrick attempted to enter Richmond to release Federal prisoners. Frustrated and separated from most of his command, Dah1gren, with 165 officers and men, made his way to this vicinity, pillaging and destroying property. A lock of Colonel Dahlgren's hair, his watch, ring, and memoranda book were preserved by Juliet Jeffries Pollard--grandmother of Governor Pollard-and, after the war, were sent to his father, Admiral John A. Dahlgren in Philadelphia.

LOCUST COTTAGE (R), 38.3 m., in a grove of trees, is a small frame house that has replaced a building that housed Locust Cottage Seminary for girls, founded in 1838 by Mira Ann Southgate and her husband, James S. Southgate. Locust Cottage ceased to be a school in 1852.

BEL AIR (R), 39.2 m., now with two full stories, was originally one-and-a-half stories high, with a gambrel roof and dormers, outside end chimneys, and end lean-to's. This frame house was built about the beginning of the eighteenth century by the Lumpkin family. Major Thomas Jeffries acquired it about 1800 and gave it to his daughter Juliet, who married John Pollard, grandfather of Governor John Garland Pollard.

In a wide churchyard (R), 40.3 m., shaded by old trees is MATTAPONY CHURCH, built about 1755. The walls of the cruciform structure are laid in Flemish bond. This was a church of St.Stephen's Parish, constituted in 1691. Abandoned after the disestablishment, it was acquired in 1824 by the Baptists, who continue to use it. In 1922 it was gutted by fire.

At 43.4 m. is a junction with County 631.

Right on this road to a private road, 1.0 m.; R. here to the SITE OF NEWINGTON, 1.8 m., birthplace of Carter Braxton (1736-97), a signer of the Declaration of Independence. The house was destroyed by fire after the War between the States, and only out-buildings remain.

George Braxton (1677-1748) acquired Newington about 1710. His only son, George Braxton who married Mary Carter, was the father of Carter Braxton.

KING AND QUEEN, 44.5 m., seat of King and Queen County, is no smaller and no larger than it was when a visitor from Detroit saw it in 1897 and said: 'We found the village to consist of the following buildings--courthouse, clerk's office. . . . a diminutive jail, in which one lone prisoner languished, a general country store, and a farmhouse of moderate size, dignified as "the Hotel." '

The COURTHOUSE, a small one-story brick building, cruciform and set upon a neat greensward, was erected after the War between the States, to replace a building destroyed during the war. Among the numerous portraits of native sons are those of Alexander Fleet, author of Virginia's poor debtors' law; John Robinson, speaker of the house of burgesses; Thomas R. Dew, president of the College of William and Mary ~- Dr.Robert B. Semple, Baptist minister and historian; Carter Braxton, signer of the Declaration of Independence; the Reverend Andrew Broaddus, Baptist minister; William Boulware, diplomat; and Thomas Ruffin, Chief justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina.

King and Queen County, named for William and Mary, was formed in 1691 from New Kent County; its first seat was south of the Mattaponi River. When in 1701 that part of the territory became King William County, a new seat was established here. The community that sprang up after a courthouse had been built was wiped out entirely in March 1864 when Kilpatrick and his cavalry burned its buildings.

At 52.5 m. is a junction with County 611.

Right here to a private road, 1.5 m.; R. here 0.3 m. to the SITE OF PLEASANT HILL, built about 1740 by Colonel Augustine Moore when his daughter Lucy became the second wife of John Robinson (1704-66). 'Of cultivated mind and polished manners,' Robinson was born at Hewick (see Tour 6a). In 1738 he became speaker of the house of burgesses and treasurer of the colony and held both offices until his death. He was presiding when George Washington appeared as a member of the house of burgesses at the end of the French and Indian War. When resolutions commending his military services were passed, Washington rose to thank his colleagues but fumbled for words. 'Sit down, MrWashington,' said Speaker Robinson. 'Your modesty surpasses your valor, and that is beyond any language at my command.'

OLD CHURCH (R), 53.1 m., in a quiet triangle was erected about 1720 and is typical of the middle-Colonial rectangular church-low-pitched, with a gabled roof, compass windows, a main door in the west end, and a side door in the south wall. The 'Upper Church' of Stratton Major Parish, it replaced an earlier frame church. As finally constituted, Stratton Major Parish had two churches-Upper and Lower. When New Church (see below) was completed in 1768 for communicants of the entire parish, Old Church was closed, and its windows and doors were boarded up. After the Revolution it served as a school but after 1800 was again used as a church by both Methodists and Baptists. Twice it was damaged by fire and twice restored. When contention arose between Baptists and Methodists for possession of this building, the court ordered it sold; and the buyer in turn sold it to the Methodists. Though New Church disappeared, Upper Church is still a sound building.

At 54.8 m. is a junction with a private road.
Right here to a private road, 0.3 m.; R. again to the SITE OF LANEVILLE, 0.7 M. Foundations, measuring 285 feet from end to end, are the remains of a house built about 1750 by Richard Corbin.

There is a story that Corbin and his wife maintained only formal relations. Living at one end of his lengthy house, he assigned apartments to her at the other end. But he would call on her formally once a year. Then he would enter his'coach and four'in full regalia and be driven the length of the house. Richard Corbin procured for George Washington his first commission as an officer of the Virginia militia.

To Laneville his son-in-law, Carter Braxton, sent in 1775 the request that Corbin, receiver-general of the king's revenues, pay for the powder that Governor Dunmore had taken from the Powder Horn in Williamsburg. Corbin remained loyal to the king during the Revolution but lived here quietly and did nothing to thwart the Revolutionists.

In a woods at 57 m. is the SITE OF THE NEW CHURCH (L), completed in 1768 and destroyed in 1825. Since Stratton Major Parish already had two good brick churches' the decision to build a new church appea~s to have been based on a desire to surpass the elaborate new Poplar Spring Church (see Tour 6a) of neighboring Petsworth Parish. On February 27, 1760, it was directed that a church 'be Built on some part of the old field belonging to the Honble: Richd: Corbin Esqr: called Goliahs, 8o feet long and 50 feet wide in the Clear, the Foundations to be began 5 Bricks thick & so continue to the Surface of the Earth, from thence 4½ Bricks thick to the water Table which is to be 4 foot above the top of the Earth, thence 4 Bricks thick to 27 foot Pitch from the Surface of the Earth.' In 1664 it was agreed 'that the Honble: Richd: Corbin Esqr: send home to England for a Communion Table Cloth, a Cloth for the Desk, & 2 Surplaces for the use of the New Church.'Also, the New Church had an organ in 1769. Contrary to custom, the seats were not sold or rented to the parishioners but were assigned free according to social position. The communicants of the Lower Church were given pews on the north side and those of the Upper Church on the south side. Despite its splendor, New Church enjoyed but a brief period of glory. The Revolution and a quarrel between the vestry and the Reverend Mr.William. Dunlap ended services here in 1777.

Mr.Corbin forgot to give the parish title to the land. When the church stood abandoned in the early nineteenth century, a purchaser of Goliah's Field pulled the church down and sold the bricks.

CENTERVILLE, 58.1 m., is at a junction with State 33 (see Tour 6A).

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