Tour 5

(Martinsburg,W.Va.)-Winchester-Woodstock-HarrisonburgStaunton-Lexington-Roanoke-Pulaski-Wytheville-MarionAbingdon- (Bristol, Tenn.). US 11. West Virginia Line to Tennessee Line, 343.4 m.

Asphalt roadbed throughout.

Pennsylvania R.R. parallels route between West Virginia Line and Winchester, Baltimore and Ohio R.R. between Winchester and Lexington, Norfolk and Western Ry., roughly between Greenville and Bristol. 

 All types of accommodations.

 US 11 passes southward between the Blue Ridge and main Allegheny Range, traversing the full length of Virginia's 'Great Valley,' an undulating plain drained by five rivers-the Shenandoah, James, Roanoke, New and Holston. The region is divided into the Shenandoah Valley and Southwest Virginia. Mineral wealth, fertile lands, and natural beauty make the Valley the State's richest section. Isolated by mountains, it was not settled until the third decade of the eighteenth century.

 During the entire period of the War between the States, the Shenandoah Valley was the scene of conflict, for the Valley was not only the granary of the Confederacy, but a perfect point from which to turn the flank of forces operating out of the District of Columbia. It was, moreover, the path twice taken by Lee for invasion of the North.

In 1862, General Stonewall Jackson, who had been ordered to threaten Washington and keep reinforcements from McClellan, fought the Valley Campaign, a model of military strategy. In four battles, Kernstown, Winchester, Cross Keys, and Port Republic, he crushed three Federal armies, and so frightened the Government in Washington that needed reinforcements were not sent to the Union army near Richmond.

During 1863, the Valley again echoed to the gun fire of contending armies when Ewell cleared the Valley of Milroy's troops and Lee swept across the Potomac to Gettysburg. 

 The next year, after General Jubal A. Early had marched up the Shenandoah, crossed into Maryland, and appeared before Washington, the available Union troops in northern Virginia were concentrated under General P.H.Sheridan, with orders to make the valley untenable to Confederate troops and completely useless as a source of supplies. Sheridan defeated Early at Winchester and Fisher's Hill, and was able to snatch victory from the hands of the Confederates at Cedar Creek. After this last battle had sent Early's forces whirling down the Valley, Sheridan systematically devastated the area, so successfully that, as he phrased it, 'a crow would have to carry his rations if he flew over it.'

 Section a. WEST VIRGINIA LINE to STAUNTON; 101.6 m. US 11

 South of the West Virginia Line, US 11 follows the Shenandoah River between the gently rounded peaks of the Blue Ridge and the more rugged Allegheny mountains. Apple orchards, grain fields, bluegrass pastures, and poultry farms flourish on rich limestone land. Stone, brick, clapboarded log, and frame farm houses stand in the lee of commodious barns. The towns are brisk centers of shipping. Under the slopes are limestone caves, fairylands in water-worked stone.

 In the first years of the eighteenth century Virginia offered trade monopolies to settlers west of the mountains; in 1716 the expedition of Governor Spotswood and his Knights of the Golden Horseshoe publicized the region; and in the late 1720'S Pennsylvanians obtained large grants of land and began bringing settlers south.

 US 11 crosses the West Virginia Line, 0 m., 13 miles south of Martinsburg, W.Va. (see West Virginia Guide).

On both sides of the highway are large commercial orchards. The early settlers converted much of their prolific apple crops into brandy, but with the advent of good highways and the railroads they began to send apples to distant markets. Today, the 10,000,000 apple trees in the valley of Virginia produce annually 7,000,000 to 10,000,000 bushels.

 At 2.9 m. is a junction with County 672.

 Right here to HOPEWELL MEETING HousE (L), 1.3 m., a large rectangular building of gray limestone erected in 1788-89; incorporated in it is a meeting house built by Thomas McClun in 1759. In the stone-walled graveyard is buried Alexander Ross, a Quaker who in 732 received a large grant of land with the proviso that at least one family settle on each 1,000 acres.

 Left from the meeting house on County 665 0.1 m. to the HOME OF ALEXANDER Ross (R), a large stone house. After Ross and other Friends settled in the region Ross's lands proved to be within the Fairfax Proprietary of the Northern Neck. The arrival of Lord Fairfax in 1738 caused the grantees no little anxiety, for his lordship immediately declared that their purchases were defective. Since the western boundary of the Proprietary had never been established, Fairfax agreed to confirm many of the grants if the long disputed point was settled. Accordingly, the Fairfax Line was surveyed and the grantees' titles were secured, though quit rents were henceforth extracted-an annual tax of two shillings for each 100 acres. 

KENILWORTH (R), 3.9 m., a gray stone house behind a hedge, was during the War between the States the home of the Quaker, William Stephenson. Jackson's troops camped on Kenilworth lands after the Battle of Winchester, May 25, 1862, and here occurred the Battle of Stephenson's Depot, June 15, 1863, when General R.S.Ewell, commanding a corps of Lee's army, captured wagons, cannon, and 4,000 of General R.H.Milroy's force, which was retreating from Winchester. The Confederate victory cleared the Valley of Union troops and allowed Lee to formulate his plan for invading Union territory, and thus, if successful, induce England's aid. Gettysburg followed 15 days later.

 At 4.8 m. is a junction with State 274.

 Left on this road to a junction with County 664, 1.5 m.; R. here 0.8 m. to JORDAYS WHITE SULPHUR SPRINGS (R), now largely a group of dismal old whitewashed buildings standing to the east of a more recent red brick structure. First used by the Indians during their ceremonials, the springs early became popular with the whites.

At 6.6 m. on US I I is a junction with County 66I.

 Left on this road to HACKWOOD PARK (R), 0.9 m., a massive gray stone house approached through a vast apple orchard. The house was built during the latter part of the Revolution by Major General John Smith, member of the Virginia legislature and later congressman. General Smith was made custodian Of 3oo Hessian prisoners interned at Winchester and 14 Philadelphia Quakers suspected of pro-British sympathies. When release for the survivors came, many of the Hessians settled in the valley, where their ability as masons was soon recognized, as it still is today.

At 7.4 m. is a view Of STAR FORT, on a wooded hill (R). The fort, built by Federals in 186 2, was abandoned a few months later. On the night of June 14, 1863, Union troops under General R.H.Milroy, withdrew from the fort after an attack by Ewell's corps had driven the Federals out of their outworks; several thousand Federals were captured the following morning. On September 19, 1864, when the Third Battle of Winchester took place between the armies of General Sheridan and General Early, Federal cavalry captured these works, turned the Confederate left flank, and forced evacuation of the town. 

 A red brick house (L), 8.1 m., among many trees stands on the SITE OF FORT COLLIER, thrown up around the home of Isaac Stine in 1861 by General Joseph E. Johnston, then Confederate commander in the Valley. From Fort Collier, fortifications formed a semicircle around Winchester. On the afternoon of September ig, 1864, Early's hardpressed Confederates were forced to this old line and later withdrew southward. 

 WINCHESTER, 9.7 m. (7 2 5 alt., 10,855 POP.) (see Winchester).
 In Winchester are junctions with State 3 (see Tour 5A), US 50 (see Tour 12), and State 7 (see Tour 13).

 The HOME OF ISAAC PARKINS (R), 10.5 m., a stone house standing upon a hillside, was built before 1746. Parkins (or Perkins), a close friend of Lord Fairfax, opened what were probably the first mills in this region.

 At 11. 1 m. is a junction with County 628. Once barring the road at this point was the Hillman toll gate. According to local tradition, Charlotte Hillman, keeping the gate, delayed General Sheridan and his troops in their pursuit of General Early after the Third Battle of Winchester. She stood her ground, with the long bar held defiantly across the road until Sheridan agreed to pay for himself and staff. He could not, he said, answer for his soldiers; whereupon all marched through, unaware that Charlotte was counting the men. After the war, a bill was sent to Washington and was eventually paid.

 From a vantage point at 11.9 m., General Jackson on the morning of May 25, 1862 observed Union forces spread out in an arc and began the First Battle of Winchester, which ended with a Confederate victory.

 KERNSTOWN, 12.6 m. (350 POP.), was first called Opequon, later Hogue's Ordinary for William Hogue's' house of entertainment.' 

The Battle of Kernstown, fought west of the village on March 23, 1862, was the first in Jackson's valley campaign. Although lost to the Confederates, the battle caused General Nathaniel P. Banks to return to the valley with his entire force and abandon his plans to join McClellan on the Peninsula. A small engagement took place on the same field, July 24, 1864, between part of General Jubal A. Early's troops and a detachment of Federals.

 SPRINGDALE, 14.5 m., a dignified small mansion of stone, stands close by the road, its two-and-a-half-story central section flanked by one-story wings. In the yard are the broken gray stone walls of JOIST HITE'S HOUSE, erected about 1734. John Hite, son of the pioneer, built Springdale in 1753. The dormers and portico were added in 1827. In 1730 joist Hite, a native of Strasburg, Alsace, received a large grant upon condition that he bring 4o families here.

 STEPHENS CITY, 16.9 m. (6o6 pop.), known previously both as Stephensburg and Newtown, was chartered in 1758.

 The HOUSE OF JACOB CRISMAN (L), 19.1 m., son-in-law of joist Hite, is of gray stone, built in 17 5 1. An underground passage gave safe access to a spring in case of need. A log building, still on the lawn, served as a powder magazine.

 At 19.2 m. is a junction with County 638.

 Right here to VAUCLUSE (L), 0. 7 m., a large brick house, painted yellow, in a grove above fertile acres. Here lived William Jones (b. 1756), son of the explosive lawyer, Gabriel Jones of Bogota (see Tour 5a). Gabriel Jones disinherited his grandson, William Strother Jones, Jr., writing, 'The best I can say of him is (and God knows its bad enough) that he is an idol disapate( young man, and is now left to live upon the reck of a miserable fortune left him by h s father (which I gave him) now almost spent by his extravigance . . .' 

 MIDDLETOWN, 21.7 m. (416 pop.), spread out on a low plateau and first known as Senseny Town, was chartered in 1796 by Dr.Peter Senseny. As early as 17 66 this village was recognized as a clockmaking center, and its reputation increased as wooden-wheeled timepieces gave way to those with brass, which bowed in turn to elaborately patterned eight-day clocks. The same artisans fashioned watches and surveyors' implements. One of them, Jacob Danner, constructed compasses of such mathematical precision that their reputation endures today. Here in 18 17 a threshing machine demonstrated its superiority over flail and threshing-floor.

 Right from Middletown on County 627 to County 622, 4.4 m.; R. here, with hills always in view, to MARLBORO, 5 m., named for marl deposits near by. General Isaac Zane of Philadelphia in 177 1 built a mill here, an iron foundry, and a distillery-now a barn. In his day Zane was second only to Lord Fairfax in wealth. Left 0.1 m. from Marlboro on County 628 to STEPHENS' FORT (R), a small whitewashed hexagonal building of stone erected before the Revolution.

 At 23.3 m. on US 11 is a junction with County 625

 Left on this road to County 6 11, 0. 7 m.; R. here to LONG MEADOWS (L), 2.4 m., a substantial red brick house built in 1845 by Colonel George Bowman, grandson of joist Hite, upon part of a tract joist chose for his son Isaac. The house is on the site of Isaac's home. In the graveyard near by are buried Isaac Hite, Sr., Isaac Hite, Jr., and Samuel Kercheval (1767-1845), author of the History of the Valley of Virginia.

At 23.4 m. on US 11 is another junction with County 625.

 Right here to BELLE GROVE (R), 0.5 m., a dressed limestone house of one full story on a very high basement. The walls are quoined with rough-hewn stone, and keyed flat arches of stone emphasize each window opening. Four widely spaced chimneys, also of stone, rise symmetrically from the broad hip roof. Belle Grove, designed in the Classical Revival style, has been altered by removal of the north wing and three of four porticoes. Planned and constructed by Major Isaac Hite,jr. (1758-1830), grandson of joist Hite, it was completed in 1794. At the College of William and Mary in 1777, Isaac Hite became the first man to be elected by the charter members of the Phi Beta Kappa Society. Major Hite's first wife, Nelly Conway Madison, was sister of James Madison (see Tour 16a). Here James and Dolly spent two weeks of their honeymoon. 

 For a time General Sheridan had headquarters here. On October 19, 1864 his army was routed from these grounds in the Battle of Cedar Creek (or Battle of Belie Grove). A surprise attack at daybreak demoralized two corps of Sheridan's army, which retreated some miles northward. Returning from Washington and learning the news in Winchester, Sheridan rejoined his army and in turn routed Early.

 HARMONY HALL (L), 25.4 m., first called Fort Bowman, is a small stone house built about 1753 by George Bowman, son-in-law of joist Hite, and enclosed by a stockade during the French and Indian War. George Bowman, who had married successively Anna Maria and Mary Hite, had four distinguished sons: John Jacob, later prominent in Kentucky; Abraham, a colonel during the Revolution; and Joseph and Isaac, members of the Lewis and Clark expedition.

 CRYSTAL CAVERNS (adm- 750, illuminated), 26.4 m., were formerly called Hupp's Cave.

 Hupp's FORT (R), 26.9 m., is a barnlike stone structure built about 1755 and fortified against Indian attacks. \par STRASBURG, 27.4 m. (1,901 pop.), a neat town with an atmosphere of thrift and efficiency, ships lumber, dairy products, flour, apples, and limestone and manufactures silk. Pottery making, begun during the nineteenth century, rose to such prominence here that at one time there were six potteries running full tilt. By 19o8 the industry that had caused the place to be called 'Pot Town 'had vanished.

 Strasburg was German-born. Called in succession Shenandoah River, Funk's Mill, Funkstown, and Staufferstadt (Stovertown), the village received its name Strasburg and legal status in 1761. In 1799 Peter Stover left to the community land and  $1o,ooo for schools.

 The white-painted COLONIAL INN, SW. corner King and Massanutten Sts., was built of brick about 1807 and first called Hotel Spengler. It contains much fine woodwork. \par Left from Strasburg on State 55 to WATERLICK, 4.9 m., once a stagecoach stop on the Powell's Fort Valley Turnpike. The MENNONITE BAPTIST CHURCH here was founded by the Reverend Mr.james Ireland, who was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1748.

 Right 1.2 m. from Waterlick on an improved road, formerly Powell's Turnpike, to the state-maintained FRONT ROYAL FISH HATCHERY (L). Fish bred here include several varieties of sunfish, largemouthed bass, and smallmouthed bass.

 The unpaved road continues (R) through PASSAGE CREEK GAP, 2.9 m., into the Massanutten Section of the GEORGE WASHINGTON NATIONAL FOREST. This gap is one of the openings to Powell's Fort Valley, named for a counterfeiter, who made coins with a silver content greater than that of legal money. A rich deposit of silver, known only to him, is said to have been the source of his metal. John Esten Cooke used the valley as the locale for his novel Lord Fairfax; or, The Master of Greenway Court.

 At 4.3 m. is a foot trail (R) to SIGNAL KNOB, used during the War between the States as a wigwag signal station by both armies.

At the Forest Service ELIZABETH FURNACE CAMP (picnicking facilities; shelters), 4.8 m., are the ruins of one of several early furnaces operated in this area.

At 29.3 m. on US I I is a junction with County 601.

 Right here to the crest of FISHER'S HILL, 0.8 m. Following his defeat at Winchester, September io, 1864, Early fell back to this position and was here again defeated by Sheridan on the 22nd. Sheridan's three victories over Early-and Read's poem 'Sheridan's Ride'-restored confidence in the Federal Administration and helped bring about Lincoln's reelection.

MAURERTOWN (pronounced Morrytown), 34.8 m. (125 pop.), laid out by Charles Maurer, was called for many years 'Jug Town' because the houses, of heavy logs and weatherboarding, were designed on a plan that simulated a jug.

 WOODSTOCK, 38.9 m. (1,552 POP.), seat of Shenandoah County, assumes a metropolitan air. Its industrial plants include creameries, apple grading plants, and farm-supply stores. First called MuIlerstadt for Jacob Miller, it was legally established in 1761. Miller, with his wife and six children, came from Pennsylvania in 1752. In 1761 he laid off a tract of 96 acres for a town. In 1766 John Peter Gabriel Miffilenburg (1746-1807), a Lutheran minister, arrived to take charge of the church here. Son of the Reverend Henry Melchior Mdhlenburg, organizer of the first Lutheran synod in America, John Miihlenburg was educated at the universities of Pennsylvania and Halle. Mfihlenburg went to London in 1772,and was ordained a priest in the Established Church, but he and his parishioners met June 16, 1774, and drafted a resolution declaring they would 'pay due submission to such acts of government as His Majesty has a right to exercise over his subjects and to such only.' The smoldering rebellion reached its climax on a Sunday in January 17 76. Muhlenburg mounted the pulpit of the log church and announced as his text Eccl.: 3 - 1-8: 'There is a time to \par every purpose . . . a time to war, and a time to peace.' The sermon rose to a dramatic finale: 'The time to fight has come!' he cried and, flinging aside the black folds of his cassock, he stood forth in the blue and buff of a Continental colonel and began to enroll his parishioners in the Eighth Virginia Regiment.

 A weekly newspaper, the Shenandoah Herald , established in 1817 by Major Benjamin Hogan, a cousin of Washington's, is still published here.

 In 1859 the artist Benjamin West Clinedinst was born in Woodstock. Educated at the Virginia Military Institute and the Rcole des Beaux-Arts, this genre painter is best known in Virginia for his panorama of the Battle of New Market.

 The stone SHENANDOAH COUNTY COURTHOUSE, but for modernizations,  looks as it did when erected in 1791-92. In 1772 the county was cut from Frederick and named Dunmore, but it soon dropped the name because of the unpopularity of Governor Dunmore.

 The MASSANUTTEN MILITARY ACADEMY, a boys' preparatory school on the southern outskirts of town, occupies red brick buildings, in front of which is a cannon. It was established in 1899 by the Reformed Church in America. The academy has about 12 5 cadets.

 Right from Woodstock on State 26 1, through MT. CALVARY, 2 m., to the SITE OF COLUMBIA FURNACE, 6.4 m., built about 1803 by George Mayberry and Benjamin \par Pennybacker-George Mayberry & Co-and operated until 1886.

Brick stacks and a boiler at 12.4 m. are the RUINS OF LIBERTY FURNACE, built about 1822 by William Newman, son-in-law of Benjamin Pennybacker. General Isaac Zane once made Liberty Furnace stoves embellished with Scriptural verses in German.

 EDINBURG, 44.4 m. (498 pop.), between a graveyard and a gulley, is a line of frame houses flush with the street. Edinburg was founded on land owned by Philip Bishop. Captured by Indians, he had escaped and changed his name to Grandstaff. The town rose to prominence because of its rifle factory, which supplied many guns for the War of 1812.

For a month during 186 2 the town was a basis of operations for General Turner Ashby, who involved the enemy in 28 skirmishes during that period. General Sheridan set the mills of the town on fire, but, persuaded by two young women that the people of the community depended on the mills for food, he had the flames extinguished. \par Edinburg has mills that have steadily ground flour since Major George Grandstaff built them in 1848.

 MOUNT JACKSON, 51.5 m. (575 POP.), which appears to have gathered accidentally around a group of shops, altered its homespun name of Mount Pleasant to honor the hero of New Orleans. Mount Jackson was for long the terminus of the valley division of the stage route and, until Reconstruction days, was the southern terminal of the valley's railroad.

 The UNION CHURCH (L), a little brick building surrounded by trees and tombstones, was built about 1825 on land left by Reuben Moore, who wrote: 'It is my will that the . . . land . . . remain for the free use of a meetinghouse and burying-ground for ever to be free for all Christian ministers'of any society to preach in.' 

 The CONFEDERATE CEMETERY (L) contains graves of 5oo soldiers, 112 of them unknown.

 Right from Mount Jackson on State 263, locally called the Orkney Grade, to the FUNKHOUSER HOUSE (R), 1.3 m., a white plastered log building erected in 1775 by Jacob Funkhouser. Here was born George Funkhouser, one of the founders of Bonebrake Theological Seminary, Dayton, Ohio. A much older log cabin, close to the road, is typical of early homes. At 11.7 m. is a junction with State 265; R. here I m. to a point where State 265 becomes County 717; straight ahead to a lane (R), 1.5 m., that leads 0.7 m. through woods to BIRD HAVEN. The Shenandoah Community Workers were organized here 'to develop and demonstrate practical methods of applied forestry . . . to give its members education in craftsmanship . . . all income of which shall be used for Community purposes.' Here local craftsmen fashion furniture, toys, fireplace equipment, hooked rugs, and quilts, from patterns evolved by their ancestors.

 On County 717 to SHENANDOAH ALUM SPRINGS (L), 1.7 m. The hotel, built in 1852 and extensively remodeled since, has grounds of ioc, acres in the GEORGE WASHINGTON FOREST area. State 263 continues to ORKNEY SPRINGS, 13.2 m. 0,75o alt., 75 POP.), greatly augmented in summer. It grew up around I I chalybeate springs. Before the Revolution Dr.John McDonald acquired 36o acres including the 'Yellow Springs.' By 1785 traffic had increased to such an extent that an Indian trail to this place had been made a public road. The village, with its public square, was laid out in 1803. Over the ORKNEY SPRINGS HOTEL hovers the spirit of the '6os, as epitomized by the name of one of the formal rooms: Ladies' Parlor. Chartered in 1838, the hotel entertained some 8,ooo guests a season in the 188o's, and continues popular today. On its many acres are the usual facilities for strenuous relaxation. In a wooded hillside near the public square, is an ecclesiastical retreat belonging to the Episcopal Diocese of Virginia. Scattered about the SHRINE OF THE TRANSFIGURATION, erected in 1924-25, are cottages, a community dining room, meeting halls, and a swimming pool.

At 54.1 m. on US I I is a junction with County 730

 Right here to the SHENANDOAH CAVERNS, 1.5 m. (adm. $1.00, children $0.75, special rates to parties). Beyond lengthy passageways, subterranean rooms become, with the aid of a guide's suggestion, a cathedral, a theatre, a hunter's lodge, and a crystal lake.

 Around the BUSHONG HOUSE (R), 57.2 m., a two-story clapboarded structure, the Battle of New Market took place on Sunday afternoon, May 15, 1864. While Grant and Lee battled in Spotlsylvania and the Valley was almost bare of Confederate troops, General Franz Sigel marched from Winchester to destroy the Virginia Central Railroad at Staunton. General John C. Breckinridge, with several brigades, was rushed from Southwest Virginia and joined by 257 cadets from the Virginia Military Institute. The Confederates attacked Sigel here and drove him north of Mount Jackson. The cadets followed the veteran troops and filled gaps as they appeared, capturing many prisoners and guns. Ten lads were killed and 47 wounded. Grant, hearing of this battle, exclaimed, 'The South is robbing the cradle and the grave.'

The HINES MEMORIAL PYTHIAN HOME (R), 58 m., housed in a red brick building on treeless land, is an orphanage named for Samuel Holder Hines, who died in an effort to save a fellow member of the order during a fire in a Richmond hotel in 1879. The tall house, first called Stanley Hall, was built in 1834 by Dr. John W. Rice, organizer and president of the company that built the Valley turnpike. Successfully preventing the extension of the railroad to New Market , he argued that cattle should not be frightened.

NEW MARKET, 58.4 m. (640 pop.), proud that there is not a smokestack in the town, has a few new houses around a group of old buildings that have not lost their German flavor. The town derives its sustenance from visitors to the commercialized caves and from produce of the surrounding farms. In 1761 John Sevier, later governor of the short-lived State of Franklin, and six times governor of Tennessee, married and moved to this crossroads, where he established an inn and a store. In 1774 Sevier sold his land. In 1785 Peter Palsel laid off a town.

 Lewis Summers wrote in 18o8:'Proceeded to New Market, a very handsome little town . . . The houses well built of brick I a good many stores & full of goods; containing 500 or 600 people. In 1817 the New Market Academy was established, and in 1821, the Lutheran Seminary. Almost a century later, in 1908, another school joined these-the Shenandoah Valley Academy, a coeducational institution of the Seventh Day Adventists.

The HENKEL BUILDING, SW. corner Congress St., was occupied until 1925 by the Henkel Press, established by Ambrose Henkel in 1806, when he was only 20 years old. Henkel, both editor and printer, published a German newspaper and a series of books, many of them for children. In 1817 he sold the business to his brother Solomon.

OLD POLYTECHNIC HALL, Water St., a dilapidated brick building, housed a classical school opened September 5, 1870. Polytechnic Institute was operated until 18go. During the summers between 1874 and 1882 the building held Virginia's first Normal School of Music.

 In New Market is a junction with US 211 (see Tour 22).

 US I I at 59.7 m. crosses the southwestern boundary of the Fairfax Grant. This disputed boundary was established in 1736. Fairfax's Proprietary had natural boundaries on all sides except the southwestern-an omission that permitted his lordship to lay claim to an unlimited amount of land until a line was established between points in the Blue Ridge and the Alleghenies. 

 At 61.7 m. is a junction with a paved road.

 Left here 1.9 m. to the ENDLESS CAVERNS (adm. $1.5o, children $0.75; free camp grounds, rest rooms, shower baths, benches, tables). The caverns were discovered in 1879 when Reuben Zirkle's dog ran a rabbit behind a large boulder.

COURT MANOR (L), 62.4 m., is a brick house with Doric portico. The grounds are ornate, with trees, shrubs, gardens, and pools. As Moreland Hall, the house was built sometime after 1820. The enlarged house is now center of a stud farm belonging to Willis Sharp Kilmer, owner of such winners as Sun Beau and Exterminator.

At 69.4 m. is a junction with County 72 1.

 Right here to EDOM, 4.8 m. (150 pop.), a compact village in a valley. Here lived Dr.Jesse Bennett, who in 1794 courageously performed a Caesarian operation on his wife and saved the lives of both the mother and child-for that time an amazing feat, which he failed to report. When conditions developed that made delivery of the child impossible and the mother's death seemed imminent, Dr.Bennett consulted Dr.Alexander Humphreys, teacher of medicine in Staunton (see Staunton), who refused to undertake the operation. Whereupon Dr-Bennett proceeded unassisted. It was not until 1809) 115 years later, that Dr.Ephrairn McDowell, in the wilds of Kentucky, performed the o6phorectomy that has given him recognition as the father of abdominal surgery.

 Right from Edorn 2.7 m. on State 26o to the entrance (R) to the LINCOLN HOMESTEAD  a substantial brick house painted buff. Its rear wing was built by Abraham Lincoln I, whose father, having come to Virginia from Pennsylvania in 1750, lived near by. Here was born Thomas Lincoln, the son of this Abraham and the husband of Nancy Hanks, mother of another Abraham Lincoln. When Thomas was six years old, his parents moved to Kentucky. The main portion of the house was built about 18oo by a Captain Jacob Lincoln. The graveyard on the hill above the house contains the graves of the immigrant and several members of his family. \par On County 721 is SINGER'S GLEN, 9.3 m. (99 pop.), first called Mountain Valley. About 1798 Joseph Funk, a Mennonite and self-taught musician, brought his bride to this spot in the wilderness, cleared land, and built a log house. Here he raised a large family, which he himself taught, with emphasis on music. As the school grew, augmented by neighbors' children, so did Funk's collection of hymns and folk songs. In 1816, he had published a volume entitled Choral Music, which passed through many editions and furnished hymns for rural congregations throughout the country. In 1847, after publishing a Mennonite history, Funk opened a Mennonite printing house. Besides his hymnals, he published The Musical Advocate, a magazine devoted to music. Timothy Funk, a son, became one of the best known itinerant teachers of singing in the Valley. Joseph Funk's grandson, Aldine Kieffer, composer of 'Twilight Is Falling,' continued the publishing business and revived The Musical Advocate under the title The Musical Million.

 The CAVERNS OF MELROSE (R), 69.7 m. (adm. $I), known first as Harrison's Cave, then as Virginia Caverns, were discovered about 1818 by David Harrison. Hundreds of names of both Union and Confederate soldiers decorate their walls.

SMITHLAND (L), 74.1 m., a large white-painted brick house with a twocolumned portico, was built about 1845 on the lands owned in Colonial times by Daniel Smith. The first session of the court of Rockingham County met here in an earlier house on April 27, 1778. Soon afterward, it was ordered that 'a square Log Jayle or prison 12 feet square' be erected 'on the most convenient spott of the sd. Daniel Smith's plantation.'

HARRISONBURG, 76.3 m. (1,937 alt., 7,232 POP.), called the'Hub of the Valley,'is the efficient seat of Rockingham County. It is a city wherein the old and new are pleasantly merged. Manufacturing more than 50 products, this busy community ships poultry, dairy products, livestock, processed fruits, rayon, and air conditioning equipment in considerable quantity.

 Harrisonburg was founded by Thomas Harrison, who, with his wife Sarah, had settled about 1739 at this point where the Indian Road crossed the Spotswood Trail. In 1779 the couple conveyed land to the county for the erection of a courthouse, and the following year Harrison procured the passage of an act establishing the town. Popularly known in its infancy as Rocktown, the settlement grew rapidly, fostered by Harrison's sons Reuben and Robert, who supplied lands in 1797 for municipal expansion. In 1794 Bishop Asbury started a Methodist school here, in which not only were gaming and 'instruments of music' outlawed, but no scholar was 'permitted on any account whatever to wear Ruffles or powder his hair.'

 At the turn of the century hogs were excluded from the streets; in 1805 a new jail became part of the municipal equipment; in 182 2 Lawrence Wartmen started the Rockingham Register, a vigorous weekly that lasted until 1912.

 Charles Triplett O'Ferrall (1840-1905), member of Congress (1882-93) and governor of Virginia (1894-98), was a citizen of Harrisonburg from 1869 to 1893

ROCKINGHAM COURTHOUSE, Court Square, is a towered granite building, erected in 1897 and fifth court building since 1781. Named for Charles Watson Wentworth, Marquis of Rockingham, Rockingham County was formed from Augusta in 1778. During the War between the States the Rockingham records were loaded in a wagon to be carried to a place of safety. Though General Hunter overtook the vehicles and set fire to the papers, the flames were smothered with green hay and some of the records were saved. 

WARREN HOTEL, 28 N.Court Square, a three-story brick building painted white and fronted by verandas, was erected in the late 1700's by John Warren, a son-in-law of Thomas Harrison, and remodeled in 1858. \par The STONE HOUSE, NW. corner Main and Bruce Sts., a story-and-ahalf cottage with a single dormer in its slate roof, is now the rear wing of a brick house. It was built in 1753 by Thomas Harrison and his wife.

 MADISON COLLEGE, 84o-6o S.Main St., occupies 17 buildings, constructed of local blue limestone and arranged in a horseshoe on the campus. Established in 19c,8 as a state normal and industrial school, the name was changed in 1916 to the State Normal School for Women, in 1924 to the State Teachers' College at Harrisonburg, and in 1938 to Madison College. The college has an enrollment (1937-38) Of 136, students, confers bachelor degrees in education and the liberal arts, and offers a two-year teacher-training course.

 The CITY PRODUCE EXCHANGE  56 W.Gay St., in a four-story building with two acres of floor space, is equipped with a poultry-killing and dressing machine, and cold storage and packing rooms.

The highway at 79 m. passes a mile and a half west of the spot where Brigadier General Turner Ashby, was killed, June 6, 1862, as he led a bayonet charge against the 13th Pennsylvania 'Bucktails' Infantry. After his horse-the one Jackson had ridden at Manassas-had been shot beneath him, he leaped to his feet and called, 'Virginians, charge!' A second later, as the shouts of his men announced the repulse of the enemy, Ashby himself was shot. Jackson wrote, 'As a partisan officer, I never knew his superior. His daring proverbial, his powers of endurance almost incredible\'85"

 MT. CRAWFORD, 84 m. (272 POP.), is no larger today than it was in 1835 when Martin's Gazetteer credited it with '25 dwelling houses, I house of public worship free for all denominations, 2 common schools, 2 taverns, and sundry stores and shops. 

 Right from Mt.Crawford on State 257 to BRIDGEWATER, 2.8 m. (8oo pop.), with the North River twisting through its center. The one business street from which \par narrow lanes go winding is lined with stores that serve prosperous farm folk and college students. Beginning as a port for flatboats, the community was first called Dinkletown for John and S.J. Dinkle, who had a carding machine, a sawmill, and a gristmill herein 1810.

 BRIDGEWATER COLLEGE, with five major buildings, is on a 25-acre campus that adjoins the college farm of ioo acres. The college is operated by the Church of the Brethren,or Dunkards. It confers bachelor degrees and has a student body Of 235 (1937-38). Bridgewater College had its beginning in 188o as the Spring Creek Normal and Collegiate Institute. In 1882, as Virginia Normal School, it was moved to this town, and in 188o it became a college. In 1923 Daleville College (see Tour 21a) was combined with Bridgewater, and in 1929 Blue Ridge College of New Windsor, Maryland, became affiliated with Bridgewater.

 FORT DEFIANCE, 93 m. (50 POP.), is a scattering of houses around a church and a school. On a tree-dotted knoll above outcroppings of rock stands AUGUSTA CHURCH (R), a dressed stone structure with gabled roof above cottage windows. A wing and portico have been added. Traces of an embankment, foundation for palisades erected in 1753 during Indian raids, remain around the church, which was built in 1748 by the Scotch-Irish Presbyterians.

 The settlers' numerous 'supplications' for a pastor were finally appeased in 1740, when the Reverend John Craig 'was set apart for the work of the Gospel ministry in the south part of Beverley's Manor.' He had landed at New Castle, Delaware, three years before, after a voyage in which he had been washed overboard and then thrown back onto the ship. In 176o he here baptized a converted Mohammedan named Selim, an Algerian found starving in the forest sometime before. When Selim had acquired sufficient knowledge of English he said that a wealthy farmer had sent him to school in Constantinople; that on his way home the boat on which he was traveling had been captured by a Spanish man-of-war and he had been made prisoner. Transferred to a French vessel that landed in New Orleans, he had been given to the authorities and sent to the Shawnee towns on the Ohio River. Having learned of the settlements to the east, he had escaped and attempted to find them and seek passage home. Selim was given a letter to Robert Carter, who provided his return passage to Algiers. But he reappeared in Virginia after his father had turned him away because of his new religion. His mind then became deranged and he was sent for a time to the Insane Asylum at Williamsburg. Free again, he made a round of protracted visits. Later he went to South Carolina where all record of him has disappeared.

 Adjoining the church is AUGUSTA MILITARY ACADEMY (R), a preparatory school known as the Augusta Male Academy when founded in 1865 by Charles S. Roller. On the large campus are barracks, a parade ground,  a gymnasium, and a library.

 STAUNTON, 101.6 m. (1,385 alt., 11,990 pop.) (see Staunton).

In Staunton is a junction with US 250 (see Tour 17b).

 Left from Staunton on State 254 to BELLEFONT (L), 2.2 m., an unusually large two \par story log house, now covered with brick veneer and enlarged. John Lewis (1678-1762), founder of Staunton, built the house. Charged with the murder of an oppressive landlord in Ireland, Lewis, accompanied by his family and a group of followers, had come to America in 1732. The GRAVE OF JOHN LEWIS, marked by a simple slab, is near the house.

 Section b. STAUNTON to JUNCTION US 5 2; 164.2 m. US 11. 

 Within constant view of both the Blue Ridge and the Allegheny Mountains, US 11 passes through the valleys of the James, Roanoke, and New Rivers, where rounded hills, pastures, orchards, and grain fields vary the quiet scene. Wedge-shaped Southwest Virginia, settled after 1745, was developed through land companies.

US I I continues south from the corner of Augusta and Beverley Streets, 0 m., in STAUNTON. 

 FOLLY (R), 5.2 m., is a red brick house, Jeffersonian in style and proportion. The single floor on a high basement is crowned by a decked hip roof. The two principal facades have classic porticoes and Palladian entrances. From the sides extensions ramble out beneath great oaks and elms in the picket fenced yard. The Jeffersonian influence is also apparent in a serpentine brick wall around three sides of the garden. The house was built in 1818 by Joseph Smith, a friend of Jefferson.

 At 10.8 m. is a junction with State 12 (see Tour 5a).

 GREENVILLE, 12.3 m. (350 POP.), is the village which Kate Smith, the radio singer, recalls as her birthplace.

SMITH'S TAVERN (L), a brick structure with frame extension in front and large stone chimneys, served many nineteenth-century travelers. The Marquis de Chastellux wrote in 1782, before the building had become an inn, 'Mr.Smith, a poor planter . . . had neither forage for our horses nor anything for ourselves.'

At the hamlet of MIDWAY, 18.4 m., is a junction with County 606.

Right here to WALNUT GROVE (L), 0.9 m., the restored McCormick homestead. Working here Cyrus Hall McCormick (1809-84) perfected the mechanical grain reaper in 1831. By 1847, when his sale of reapers totaled 778, McCormick moved west to the grain country. The house and many outbuildings have been restored. In the workshop stands one of the original binders.

 RAPHINE (needle; Gr. raphis), 2 m., so named to honor James Ethan Allen Gibbs, who in 1857 invented the 'twisted loop rotary hook sewing machine.' Gibbs was born \par in 1829 at RAPHINE HALL (L), a red brick house. In 1858 he and James Willcox of Philadelphia put on the market the Willcox & Gibbs Sewing Machine.

 FAIRFIELD, 24.4 m. (175 POP-), small though it is, boasts several eighteenth-century houses. Once when George Washington was a guest at the ALRIGHT TAVERN (L), a 14-room building, rain poured through the roof and ruined a painting he had just purchased.

CHERRY GROVE (R), 25 m., is a weatherboarded log structure in which was born James McDowell (1795-185 1), governor of Virginia from 1843 to \par 1846, a Progressive Liberal who favored emancipation of slaves and wider educational facilities in Virginia.

In the brick-walled McDOWELL BURYING GROUND (R), 25.7 m., is a shaft, thick, square, and Moorishly embellished, erected to the memory of Ephraim McDowell (1673-1777), first settler in this part of the valley, who died at the age of 104. Near by is the grave of his son, Captain John McDowell (see Tour 11a).

 TIMBER RIDGE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (L), 29 m., is a low T-shaped limestone building incorporating one built in 1756. On the interior is a tablet to the'Noble Women who Helped with their own Hands.'

 On Timber Ridge Plantation, south of the cemetery, is the SITE OF THE BIRTHPLACE OF SAM HOUSTON (17931863), who became commander-inchief of the Texans at the Battle of San Jacinto (1836), President of the Republic of Texas (1836-38 and 1841-44), and finally State governor (1859-61).

 LEXINGTON, 35.4 m. (1,ooo alt., 3,752 pop.), seat of Rockbridge County, meander tree-shaded streets, some walled with houses, others lined with sloping, boxwood-filled lawns. The business district and spreading suburbs belong very much to the present. During scholastic sessions student voices break the pastoral symphony created by the agricultural affairs of a county seat. In summer, Lexington settles down to sociability and tourists.

A part of the Borden Grant, acquired in 1739 by Gilbert Campbell, who left his 'house and personality' to his son Isaac in 1750, this land became the town of Lexington in 1777. Wiped out by fire in 1796, it was rebuilt from the proceeds of a lottery. The Rockbridge Repository, now the Lexington Gazette, first appeared in I 801.  Lexington's peaceful seclusion was disturbed on June 10, 1864, by General David Hunter, who bombarded the town and later allowed his troops to burn many buildings.

 Standing on a terraced square, the ROCKBRIDGE COURTHOUSE, SW. corner of Main and Washington Sts., erected in 1896, is a two-story red brick building, behind which is LAWYERS' ROW, a group of one-story brick offices that terminate in the JAIL, the stone part of which dates from 1779, the year the first courthouse was built. Formed from parts of Augusta and Botetourt Counties in 1777, Rockbridge County by 1835 was dotted with stores, grist mills, furnaces, and forges. \par The OLD BLUE TAVERN, NW. corner of Main and Jefferson Sts., a three-story brick building with pillared porches, was built in part by Matthew \par Hanna in 1785.

 In the LEXINGTON PRESBYTERIAN CEMETERY, E. side of Main St., are buried Stonewall Jackson, his grave marked by a bronze statue by E.V.Valentine; approximately 400 Confederate soldiers; and two governors of Virginia, James McDowell and John Letcher.

 WASHINGTON AND LEE UNIVERSITY, W. end of Henry St., spread out along the crest of a sloping greensward at the northwest edge of town. The long WASHINGTON COLLEGE group (center unit open 9-S weekdays for information), red brick with three tall white porticoes in line, was completed \par soon after 1824. 

 In 1749 the institution was founded by Presbyterians as Augusta Academy some 20 miles northeast, but in 1776 it was patriotically renamed Liberty Hall. In 1780 it was moved to the vicinity of Lexington, where it functioned until the rock building burned in 1802. Chartered in 1782 as Liberty Hall Academy, in 1796 it received 200 shares of James River Canal Company stock from George Washington, a strong reason for changing the name to Washington Academy two years later. In 1813 it became Washington College. Closed during the War between the States, it reopened in 1865 on borrowed funds with General R.E.Lee as president. In 1871, soon after Lee's death, it received its present name.

 Washington and Lee University, which bestows both bachelor and master degrees, in 1869 became the first college to conduct courses in journalism. Its enrollment in 1937 was nearly 1,000. 

 Facing the long colonnade is the LEE MEMORIAL CHAPEL (open 3-5 daily, adm. 250), a brownish-red structure of Victorian-Gothic character, built in 1867. In the galleried interior, behind the altar, is the white marble recumbent FIGURE OF LEE by E.V.Valentine. Among a large number of portraits are Washington's first, in the uniform of a British colonel, by Charles Willson Peale, and one of La Fayette, also by Peale. In the crypt below lie the remains of Lee and members of his immediate family.

Adjacent to the University is the VIRGINIA MILITARY INSTITUTE, long known as the 'West Point of the South,' but more recently as the home of Brother Rat.' The institute occupies nearly 4o buildings, of which the 7 largest, in gray stone and stucco-covered brick, are buttressed and crenellated. East of the large parade ground are quadrangular BARRACKS. The Institute opened in 1839 with 23 Virginia cadets and Colonel Claude Crozet (see Tour 17b) as president of the board of visitors. During the period of the Confederacy the Institute temporarily closed. Reopening in January 1862 as an emergency training school, it was burned by General David Hunter. This was the pioneer normal school in the State. Before its first class had been graduated, the legislature decreed that its mission should be the training of teachers. Civil engineering, however, was a part of the first curricula. In 1846 courses in industrial chemistry were introduced; and in 186o it became a general scientific college, with agriculture (since discontinued), engineering, and fine arts its three schools of application. The present enrollment (1939) is about 700.

 In the NICHOLS ENGINEERING HALL, S. side of parade grounds, a stuccoed building in Tudor style, are the GENERAL FRANCIS H. SMITH MEMORIAL Rooms (open 9-5; Sat. 9-1), containing a large collection of interesting military relics. In front of the building stands a fine bronze seated figure of Virginia Mourning Her Dead, the NEW MARKET MONUMENT by Sir Moses Ezekiel, who, as a cadet, was present at the battle. The castellated, gray stone residence (private), N. side of parade ground, was occupied by Matthew Fontaine Maury (see Tour 10), a member of the faculty from 1868 until his death five years later. \par Over the rostrum of the STONEWALL JACKSON MEMORIAL HALL, S. side of parade ground, is a very large canvas by Benjamin Clinedinst, depicting the charge of the corps of cadets at the Battle of New Market. \par In Lexington are junctions with US 6o (see Tour 8b) and US 501 (see Tour 11a).

 NATURAL BRIDGE (Open 7 a.m.-9'30 p.m. daily; adm. $I), 49.2 m. (736 alt.), is a go-foot bridge of stone spanning a 215400t gorge cut by Cedar Creek. This serviceable wonder, over which the highway passes, has long been the drawing-card for an adjacent summer hotel, a rambling old structure with gossipy verandas. Surrounding cottages and trailer and recreational facilities inject a modern note. On July 5, 1775, for the paltry SUM Of 20 shillings, Thomas Jefferson was granted ' 15 7 acres . . . including Natural Bridge on Cedar Creek,' on which he had long cast an appreciative eye. He built a log cabin of two rooms here, one of which was reserved for visitors, installed slaves as caretakers, and then thoughtfully introduced a large book 'for sentiments,' a tome time-crammed with illustrious names. \par At Natural Bridge is a junction with State 249 (see Tour 11a).

 FOREST TAVERN (L), 51.2 m., of mellow rose brick and formerly called 'Forest Oak,' has been restored and is now an inn. Part of the slave quarters stand near by. The builder of Forest Oak was the Reverend Samuel Houston (1758-1839), who fostered the State of Franklin and helped draft its constitution. He returned to Virginia, however, and in 1791 became pastor of High Bridge Presbyterian Church near by.

 At 58.7 m. is a junction with County 6 11.

 Right here along Purgatory Creek past the ruins (R), 0. 5 m., of a stone furnace, operated in I 8oo and abandoned in 186 2; past the stone ruins (R), 0. 7 m., of a mill built in 1805 and washed out by a seven-day f reshet in 1870, to (R) GRF Y LEDGE, 1. 1 M., a vast stuccoed brick bulk that clings like a medieval stronghold to an eminence. Part of the house was built in 1845.

Reversing the traditional directions, the road winds through a woodland paradise to reach PURGATORY SPRINGS (R), 3.7 m., bubbling up in the lee of Purgatory Mountain. Creek, springs, and mountain got their names from the reply of General Andrew Lewis when asked about his journey after return from an Indian-harassed expedition up the valley in 1750.

 BUCHANAN, 60.8 m. (834 alt., 625 pop.), rent in two by the rushing waters of the James, is in the shade of mountains. The combination of apples, wheat, bone-buttons, the Norfolk & Western Railway, and Scotch-Irish -dispositions has produced an atmosphere of industry and complacency.

 To prevent the eastward trend of French settlements, the Virginia government offered huge grants in this area on condition that homesteads be established. Colonel James Patton received a grant of I 2o,ooo acres. His company-the Wood's River Land Company-and the Loyal Land Company, with Dr. Thomas Walker of Castle Hill (see Tour 17a) as its agent, were the principal operators.

 In 1811 this town was established and it eventually became the terminus of the James River and Kanawha Canal and of the Buchanan & Clifton Forge Railroad.

The brick and frame house diagonally opposite the Botetourt Hotel is the BIRTHPLACE OF MARY JOHNSTON (see Literature, < ahref="richmond.html">Richmond, and Tour 21a), writer of historical novels. In this mountain village Miss Johnston spent the first 15 years of her life, gaining from her father's large library the foundation for her literary career.

 Left from Buchanan on State 43 to the PEAKS OF OTTER 12m. (see Tour 11a).

 Across the James from the former landing place of Looney's Ferry, 62 m., is the SITE OF CHERRY TREE BOTTOM, selected by Colonel James Patton for a plantation, but not settled until 1756 when John Buchanan, husband of Margaret Patton and executor of his father-in-law's estate, moved to these lands.

 At 74.3 m. is a junction with State 294.

 Right here to County 676, 0.9 m.; R. again to BRICK UNION Cmmen (R), I m., a Lutheran church built about 1835 by a congregation the Reverend John George Butler of Pennsylvania had organized in 1796. The congregation clings to its German Bible and its early records.

At 77.6 m. is a junction with US 220 (see Tour 21a), which unites with US 11 for 11 m.

 CLOVERDALE, 78.7 m. (500 pop.), among rounded mountains, derives its name from the estate of James Breckenridge.

 MEADOW VIEW INN (R) evolved from a fortlike log dwelling with 'peepholes' to the present rambling, modern-looking structure. \par Across the creek is the SITE OF CLOVERDALE FURNACE, an iron works started about 1787 by Robert Harvey, operated in i8oo, by Samuel G. Adams, in 18o8 by Carter Beverley, and in 1810 by John Tayloe.

 HOLLINS COLLEGE (R), 80 m., occupies I I structures which stand among faculty residences on a large campus. Behind them are mountains that vary in color with each change of season. The white-trimnied, rose-red brick buildings form an open quadrangle.

The Valley Union Educational Society opened here in 1842 a coeducational institution, the Valley Union Seminary. The society had purchased the Roanoke Female Seminary, founded in 1839 at Botetourt Springs. The history of Hollins began, however, in 1846, when Charles L. Cocke took charge. The seminary, encumbered by debt, could offer no salary and even borrowed the $I,500 that Mr. Cocke and his wife had saved. In his report to the trustees in 1857 Mr.Cocke said that 'in the present state of society in our country young ladies require the same thorough and rigid mental training that is afforded to young men . . .'In 1852 boys were excluded.

 In 1855 Mr. and Mrs. John Hollins of Lynchburg gave $5,000 toward a new building, and the name of the school was changed to Hollins Institute. By 1900 when the dormitories accommodated 225 girls, the accumulated debt to the Cocke family was $101,253 and the trustees prevailed upon Mr. Cocke to accept the institution in settlement. He died the following year, and the family carried on, Miss Matty L. Cocke assuming the presidency. The name of the institute was changed to Hollins College in 1911. In 1932 the college was transferred to a self-perpetuating board of trustees. It confers bachelor of arts degrees and has more than 300 students. Among the students each year are daughters, granddaughters, and frequently great-granddaughters of former Hollins 'girls.'

 ROANOKE, 87.7 m. (904 alt., 69,2o6 pop.) (see Roanoke).

In Roanoke is a junction with US 220 (see Tour 21a).

 ZION LUTHERAN CHURCH (L), 92.2 m., is a weather-boarded log building erected in 1828 by a congregation organized soon after 1796.

 At 93.6 m. is a junction with County 700.

Right here to the VETERANS FACILITY HOSPITAL, 1 m., established in 1933 for the care of soldiers injured in the World War.

 SALEM, 96.1 m. (1,006 alt., 4,833 pop.), quiet, lengthy, and encircled by mountains, is the seat of Roanoke County. Though actively resisting the tentacles of aggressive Roanoke, the town appears leisurely and conservative after the Victorian manner. Ancestors of all people worth knowing are remembered; afternoon tea is still in good standing; and ladies lead lives not too hurried for formal calling. Yet coal trains rattle through the industrial section, where bricks, elevators, and cigarette machines are made, and on Main Street churches vie in number with shops that cater to college students and a rural clientele.

After purchasing 31 acres of the 625-acre grant made to Andrew Lewis in 1768, James Simpson laid out Salem on 16 acres in 1802. On the main line of travel down the Valley, Salem became a stopping-place with numerous inns: The Old Time Tavern, the Bull's Eye, the Indian Queen, the Globe, and the Mermaid Tavern-the last a 'tippling place' run by James Simpson's son-in-law, Griffin Lumpkin, whose interests ran to profitable horse-races and cock-fights.

 The buff brick ROANOKE COUNTY COURTHOUSE (R), standing in the center of the town, was completed in igio and supplanted the building erected in 1841. Roanoke County was formed from Botetourt in 1838 and later received a part of Montgomery County. The 18 original justices held their first meeting in the convivial atmosphere of Farris Tavern; and the court convened for three years in the home of the jailor.

 The LUTHERAN ORPHAN HOME OF THE SOUTH, end of Virginia Ave., cares for some ioo children, and the BAPTIST ORPHANAGE OF VIRGINIA, end of Broad St., for about 200 children.

 The GRAVE OF GENERAL ANDREW LEWIS, East Hill Cemetery, is marked by an obelisk erected after the body of the general was reinterred here in 1897. Settling in the vicinity before 1769, Andrew Lewis (170-81), son of the founder of Staunton, was soon a leader. During Dunmore's War, an uprising led by the Shawnee chieftain Cornstalk in 1774, General Lewis defeated the Indians at Point Pleasant, an event that freed Virginia from hostile Indians and brought Lord Dunmore, conveniently elsewhere during the fight, into political disrepute.

 The red brick buildings of ROANOKE COLLEGE, a coeducational institution formally related to the Lutheran Church, are spread out on a campus below Fort Lewis Mountain and McAfee's Knob. Established in 1842 near Staunton as the Virginia Institute, the school was incorporated in 1845 as the Virginia Collegiate Institute, and two years later moved here. Today, Roanoke College, accommodating annually some 455 students majoring, for the most part, in pre-professional courses, offers the degrees of bachelor of arts and bachelor of science.

Right from Salem on State 3 11 to State 114, 10.2 m.; R. here 0.4 m., to State 123, and L. to CATAWBA SANATORIUM, 1.1 M., a State institution for the treatment of tuberculosis, established in 1901. Below thickly treed Catawba Mountain, the long, open-air wooden pavilions-with 3oo beds-cluster around the administration building and dining hall.

On State 311 is NEW CASTLE, 23 m. (i,8oo alt., 259 POP.), seat of Craig County. Overshadowed by three tall peaks, this isolated little mountain town, so long satisfied with a flour mill, a weekly newspaper, and two banks, has recently acquired public utility plants and a desire for more industry. Established as one of the series of forts Governor Dinwiddie ordered built in 1756 along the western frontier, the town in time became New Fincastle. Subsequently, when its mail was confused with that of Fincastle, the town shed its'Fin.'

The CRAIG COUNTY COURTHOUSE, a columned brick structure with belfry and wings, replaced in 1921 one erected soon after the county was formed in 1850 from parts of Botetourt, Roanoke, Monroe (now in West Virginia), and Giles Counties. The name doubtless honors Robert Craig, instrumental in the formation of the county. \par FORT LEWIS MOUNTAIN and the village of the same name, 99.9 m., derive their name from a stockade fort built by Major Andrew Lewis as a place of rendezvous for the troops intended for Lewis's expedition against the Cherokees (1758-62).

 Brick, two-storied FOTHERINGAY (L), 110.4 m., its rectangular length and tall end chimneys silhouetted against hazy-blue Poor Mountain, was probably built by George Hancock (1754-1820) on land first owned by William Robinson, who sold the property to Joseph Kent (see Tour 5c) about 1796. Eventually acquired by Colonel Henry Edmondson, Fotheringay became the Edmondson Place.

 A marble vault, glistening on the the mountain side, contains the bodies of George Hancock and his daughter Julia, who was the first wife of William Clark, the explorer. Accustomed, from this vantage point, to watch his slaves labor in the valley below, George Hancock continued the supervision even after death, according to the Negroes, who insisted that 'de Gennul, he still set up dah in a stone chair so's he can see his slaves at deh work.' \par In SHAWSVILLE, 112.4 m. (i,65o alt., 1oo pop.), once stood Fort Vause. Built in 1754 by Captain Ephraim Vause at his own expense, this stockaded house was attacked when the Indians swept through, killed or took prisoner Captain Vause's 'Wife & two Daughters, two Servants, and one Negro,' 'burned to ashes' the stockade, the' Barn & other Buildings and made off with 'above eighty head of Cattle & Horses.' The Council of War held in Augusta Courthouse (Staunton) the same year, ordered the stockade rebuilt. 

 CHRISTIANSBURG, 123 m. (I,97o alt., 2,100 POP.), seat of Montgomery County, is high up on the northern rim of the Blue Ridge Plateau and clings tenaciously to the expression, 'Down to the top of the mountain.' From the town's shaded public square flows justice; from its stock yards, beef; and from its factories, overalls, lumber, and canned vegetables.

 Founded in 1792 on land donated by Colonel James Craig, the town was first called Hans Meadows-the result of an early Teutonic migrationand then Christiansburg for Colonel William Christian, brother-in-law of Patrick Henry.

The MONTGOMERY COUNTY COURTHOUSE, a gray limestone building topped with a gilded eagle, preserves the records of two counties: Montgomery, which it now serves, and extinct Fincastle. Montgomery County was named for General Richard Montgomery, who was killed at the Siege of Quebec in 1775.

 The CHRISTIANSBURG INDUSTRIAL INSTITUTE, at the northern edge of the town, is a Negro high school supported jointly by Montgomery County and the Friends' Freeman's Association of Philadelphia. The institute is an outgrowth of a primary school established in 1866 by Charles S. Schaeffer, who settled in Christiansburg after the war and organized the first Negro Baptist church.

 Right from Christiansburg on State 8 (see Tour 5B).
Left from Christiansburg on State 8 across Pilot Mountain and Little River to FLOYD, 21.6 m. (2,431 alt., Soo po .), first called Jacksonville, the seat of mountainous Floyd County. A thin fringe of residences surrounds two business blocks that have captured none of the aggressive hum of the one town industry, a shirt factory.

In Floyd was born Robley Dunglison Evans (1846-1912), commander of the USS Iowa at the Battle of Santiago Harbor, 1898, who, after his appointment as rear admiral in 1901, commanded both the Asiatic (1902) and Atlantic Fleets (1905-08). The brick FLOYD COUNTY COURTHOUSE was erected in 1845, replacing a log cabin \par that housed the first meeting of the court soon after the formation of Floyd from Montgomery County in 183 1. Named for John Floyd, governor of Virginia from 1830 to 1834, the county was later increased in size by an addition from Franklin County. In the HILL CEMETERY, at the western edge of the village, are the GRAVES OF DANIEL HENRY, a brother of Patrick Henry, and of ANNIE MARIA SMITH (1817-33), a New England school teacher who lived for a while in Richmond, and then taught in western Virginia. Her friendship with Edgar Allan Poe found permanent expression in his poem For Annie. On the crest of a sloping lawn east of the courthouse is the PHLEGAR HOUSE, built of logs in 1822 by Abram Phlegar but now covered with clapboards.

RADFORD, 132.7 m. (1,900 alt., 6,227 pop.), flung out on the brink of New River's deep gorge, hides behind its corporate mask two separate units, Radford and East Radford, each with its own business center. Lumber yards, iron foundries, railroad repair shops, and education are the town's principal industries.

Successor to the village of Lovely Mount, Central Depot, equidistant from Lynchburg and Bristol, grew up after the Virginia & Tennessee Railroad established machine shops here in 1856. In the wake of the New Division of the Norfolk & Western Railway, opened in 1883, came a stove foundry, brick kilns, and iron furnace. Two years later the little town was incorporated and named for the man who had formerly owned the property, Dr.John Bane Radford.

 On RADFORD STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE campus, a natural terrace overlooking the New River, are 10, large brick buildings that face each other across a walk-threaded sward. Exhibits in the museum, a log house built about 1776 on Meadow Creek and moved here, tell the story of southwestern Virginia's domestic past.

Since its opening in 19 13, the college has increased steadily in size. Since 1935 it has offered the degrees of bachelor of arts and bachelor of science, and a two-year normal course. The winter and summer quarter enrollment for the 1937-38 session was 895 students.

ARNHEIM, a brick house on the high, school grounds, was the home of Dr.John Bane Radford, whose widow, Harriet Kinnerly, became the second wife of William Clark, the explorer.

 Left along the river on the main street of Radford, which becomes County 6o5, to a \par junction with County 611, 3.8 m.; R. here to INGLES FERRY, 4.1 m. (Wl 250) where a flat boat attached to a cable is carried across the New River by the eddying current. On the east side, where William and Mary Draper Ingles settled after the Draper's Meadow Massacre (see Tour 5B), a three-pence ferry was established in 1762. 

 From DUBLIN, 140.8 m. (500 POP-), large numbers of cattle are shipped.

 Left from Dublin on State ioo through rich grasslands to County 6ri, 2.1 m.; L. Here 2.4 m. to DUNKARD's BOTTOM MONUMENT (R), a chimney-shaped memorial constructed from the chimney rock of a house built in 1771 by Colonel William Christian on the site of a settlement established about 11745 by a group of dissatisfied Dunkards that strayed south from Ephrata in Pennsylvania. 'The Duncards are an odd set of people,' explained Dr.Thomas Walker in 1750, 'who make it a matter of religion not to shave their Beards, ly on beds, or eat Flesh, though at present, in the last they transgress, being constrained to it, as they say, by want of sufficiency of Grain and Roots, they having not long been seated here. I doubt the plenty & deliciousness of the Venison & Turkeys has contributed not a little to this.'

 On State 100 is NEWBERN, 2.9 m. (2 17 POP.), seat of Pulaski County from 1839 to 1893.

 PULASKI, 148.9 m. (1900 alt., 708 pop.), the present seat of Pulaski County, bustles with industry when farmers come in from the valleys. Into this town, spread out in a fertile pocket of the Alleghenies, pour grain, produce, iron, zinc, lumber, and coal.

Coal discovered to the northwest in 1877 suddenly rocketed this railroad flag stop, Martin's Tank, into industrial importance and a more dignified name, Martin's Station. Cheap fuel soon lured zinc and iron furnaces, nuclei for the town's subsequent growth. Railroad repair shops, textile factories, and lumber mills are the mainstays of its present commercial vigor.

 The PULASKI COUNTY COURTHOUSE, of Peak Creek sandstone, was built after the county seat was brought here in 18o3 from Newbern. The county was formed in 1839 from parts of Montgomery and Wythe Counties and named for Count Casimir Pulaski (c. 174879), the Pole who fought for the American cause. 

 On the side of Draper's Mountain and overlooking a vast expanse of shimmering valley is PULASKI WAYSIDE PARK (picnicking facilities), 151.6 m. \par At 154.1 m. is a junction with State 101.

Left on this road to State ioo, 4.3 m.; R. here to RED HORSE TAVERN (L), 5~9 m., a frame house that incorporates several rooms of an inn built about 1790 and sold in 1813 to Thomas Galbreth, husband of Katherine Kissecher, who feasted Washington and his cabinet in York, Pa., and prepared the wedding banquet for Jerome Bonaparte and Elizabeth Patterson in 1804. In 1813, armed with an early copy of the Declaration of Independence presented to her by Washington, a teapot whose contents had warmed the cockles of many a distinguished heart, an enviable culinary reputation, and a husband, she came to Southwest Virginia where her talents mellowed at the Sign of the Red Horse.

 The SITE OF FORT CHISWELL (L), 163.4 m., in the lee of Mays Mountain, is marked by a pyramid of boulders. Built in the fall of 176o under the direction of William Byrd III, the fort was named for John Chiswell, owner of the lead mines near by (see Tour 7). From 1778 until 1789 this was the seat of Montgomery County.

 At 164.2 m. is a junction with US 52 (see Tour 7c) and State 121.

 Right on State 12 1 to the SITE OF ANCHOR AND HOPE ACADEMY (L), 1. 1 m., where the Reverend Thomas E. Birch conducted a school of oratory and preached to congregations assembled from homes near by. 

 MAX MEADOWS, 2 m., in rich lowlands, was once called the 'Valley of Contention and Strife' because of petty feuds among settlers. The MANSION HOUSE (R) is a two-storied log building with stone end chimneys. Built by Hugh McGavock, it was a mansion only in comparison with the cabins round about.

 Left from Max Meadows on County 61o, 0.5 m. to the HUGH McGAVOCK HousE (L), a clapboarded structure that incorporates a late eighteenth-century log house that James McGavock willed in 1900 ''unto my Sun Hugh and his heirs.'

 Section c. JUNCTION US 52 to TENNESSEE LINE; 77.6 m. US 11. 

 This undulating southern section of US 11 pierces the valley between blue mountain walls. In the distance stand rounded knobs, with grass cropped close by cattle and sheep that are eventually shipped, along with farm produce, grain, and ores, through the valley towns.

 US I I continues south from the junction with US 5 2, 0 M. to a junction at 2.9 m. with a dirt road.

 Right here through a gate to KENTON, 2.1 m., a two-story, brick house overlooking wide lowlands. At the foot of a hill remains one of the many buildings that once surrounded the house built by Joseph Kent, who married Margaret MeGavock in 1787 and seven years later, after the sale of Fotheringay, moved here. The Kenton land had been the frontier homestead of an uncle of John C. Calhoun, Ezekiel Calhoun, who was killed in an Indian raid.

WYTHEVILLE, 8.1 m. (2,3 So alt., 3,327 pop.), seat of Wythe County, lies on a high plateau. Wide Main Street, a dressed-up section of the Wilderness Road, has pushed sidewalks back under the high porches of century-old houses. Jurisprudence, the sale of livestock, and flour, lumber, and textile mills give a commercial solidity to the town.

 First called Abbeville, honoring the South Carolina birthplace of Jesse Evans, the settlement was legally established in 1792 as Evansham, a name that clung until its incorporation in 1839.

 Being near the lead mines and the only salt works in the South, Wytheville was in a constant state of turmoil as the contending forces intermittently poured through. In July 1863 a Union cavalry detachment descended on the town intending to tear up the railroad, but was routed by the home guards forewarned by Mary Tynes (see Tour 15).

 Two Virginia governors were born here: Henry Carter Stuart (18551933), governor from 1914 to igi8, and Elbert Lee Trinkle (1876-1939), governor from 1922 to 1926. Henry Carter Stuart's administration was characterized by efforts to promote agriculture and to raise the living standards in rural Virginia. Deeply interested in education and social problems, E.Lee Trinkle emphasized human welfare and did much to eradicate for a time sectionalism in Virginia.

 In the WYTHE COUNTY COURTHOUSE, a porticoed structure of gray brick built in I goo, meet not only the county court but, once a year, the state court of appeals. In this courthouse is on display a bell cast in Germany, seized at the Battle of Lake Erie (1813), and presented to the county for use in an earlier courthouse. Wythe County was formed in 1789 from Montgomery County and named for George Wythe (see Williamsburg).

 VILLA MARIA ACADEMY, a preparatory school for girls supervised by the Sisters of the Visitation, has a campus overlooking the town. This school, founded at Abingdon in 1867 and chartered a decade later, was moved here in 1902. 

 SAINT MARY'S ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH, a long, rectangular building with a wide white-columned portico, was built in 1842-43. \par Right from Wytheville on US 21 (US 52) to ST. JOHN's EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH, 1 m., a rectangular, frame building erected in 1851 by the oldest congregation in this region.

 BLAND, 22.2 m. (250 POP.), is the seat of Bland County. Called Seddon when incorporated in 1872, this isolated town is the legal and business center of a remote agricultural district.

 The BLAND COUNTY COURTHOUSE is a two-story, red brick building with a disproportionate white belfry.

 In 1861 Bland County was formed from parts of Wythe, Tazewell, and Giles Counties and was named for Richard Bland (1710-76), called by Jefferson 'the wisest man south of the James River.' He was a delegate to the General Congress in Philadelphia (1774) and a political pamphleteer.

 US 21 (US 5 2) crosses the West Virginia Line (see West Virginia Guide) at the crestof East River Mountain, 42.3 m., three miles east of Bluefield (see Tour 15).

 MARION, 34.2 m. (2,124 alt., 4,156 pop.), seat of Smyth County, has a Main Street liberally sprinkled with new facades and makes furniture, flour, leather, and brick. This aggressive county mart which has a private school, an asylum, and two newspapers, supposedly at political loggerheads but both edited by Robert Anderson, son of Sherwood Anderson, was founded in 183 1 and named for the 'Swamp Fox' of South Carolina.

 THE SMYTH COUNTY COURTHOUSE, a massive stone building heavily embellished, is a twentieth-century creation. Smyth County, formed from parts of Wythe and Washington Counties in 1832, was named for Alexander Smyth (1765-1830), lawyer, soldier, and congressman.

MARION COLLEGE (junior), founded in 1873 by the Lutheran Synod of Southwestern Virginia and chartered the following year as the Marion Female College, has a student body of about 200.

 SOUTHWESTERN STATE HOSPITAL, established in 1887, cares for the mentally ill from this section, and the criminal-insane from the entire State. With a farm, garden, and dairy, this institution has a capacity of about 1,350 patients.

In Marion are junctions with State 88 (see Tour 7).

 Right from Marion on State 88 to HUNGRY MOTHER STATE PARK, 3 m.

 (open May 15 to Nov. I , adm. 10 cents, for overnight campsite $ 2. 50, children under 10 free; rowboats 25 cents an hr., $1.25 a day; overnight accommodations $2.5o a person; cabins equipped with electric lights, stoves, and water heaters, payment by coin meters; $15 a week for 2 persons, $20 for 3 Or 4 persons, $5 for each additional person; reservations made at Virginia Conservation Commission, Richmond), a large recreational area lying at the foot of Walker Mountain. Bathing from the sand beach of the lake, which twists among high, forested mountains, is no less popular than fishing in the water well-stocked with perch and bass. Bridle and foot paths lace through the knobs. Tradition is that a woman and her baby, captured by raiding Shawnees and held prisoner, escaped and wandered into this region. Reaching the peak now known as Molly , s Knob, she collapsed, while the child waded down the shallow creek to a group of houses, crying, 'Hungry-Mother, Hungry-Mother.'

 On the small hill (R), 42.1 m., is the SITE OF ASPENVALE, home of General William Campbell (1745-8 1), who while on military duty in Williamsburg in 1776-77 married the sister of Governor Patrick Henry, whom he brought here. Together with Walter Crockett, he took the law in his own hands during the Revolution and ordered a number of British agents hanged-the unorthodox method of meting out justice later adopted by Colonel Charles Lynch (see Tour 7c) .

 CHILHOWIE, 44.5 m. (7 12 pop.), ships quantities of apples and cabbages. This was Central Settlement on Holston, established by Colonel James Patton.

Atop the steep hill (R) stands the TOWN HOUSE , a dilapidated weatherboarded building, which includes a log house believed to have been built by Colonel James Patton about 1748. The house became a tavern and popular meeting place.

 Left from Chilhowie on State 79 to US 58, 3.7 tn.; R. here to County 6c*, 3.8 m.;

 L. on County 6oo to KONNAROCK TRAINING SCHOOL, 12.8 m., a lengthy shingle-covered building, erected in I825, among rounded hills overshadowed by White Top Mountain. Started by the United Lutheran Church in 1923 , this school for mountain children gives elementary and grammar school work with emphasis on cooking, sewing child care, and home making. For a week during the summer a doctor's helpers institute is conducted here to train local women in practical nursing and midwifery.

Right 2 m. from Konnarock Training School on County 603 to IRON MOUNTAIN LUTHERAN SCHOOL, founded in 1931 by the Brotherhood of the United Lutheran Church for training mountain boys in agriculture. In addition to practical work on the 425-acre farm, the boys are trained in manual arts and crafts.

 Above the Konnarock School, County 6oo climbs wooded slopes to the summit of WHITE TOP MOUNTAIN, 17.8 m. (5,52o alt.), which affords a view of lofty and inaccessible MOUNT ROGERS (5,71o alt.), the highest peak in Virginia. A 5oo-acre prairie slithers across the crest of the mountain, giving the appearance, from a distance, of a glacier. Surrounding this white swathe are flora not found at lower altitudes and an evergreen locally called lashorn.

 For two days in August every year the White Top Music Festival (see Music) is held on the plateau where several rustic cabins have been built. \par A stone pyramid marks the entrance (L), 47.4 m., to modernized FORT KILMACKRONAN, a stuccoed stone house with a white portico. Construction of the first unit was begun in 1776.

At 50.4 m. is a junction with State 81.

 Right here to PLASTERCO, 8 m., a community around the lime-dusted plant of the United States Gypsum Company. The mineral, lying here at the base of Pine and Little Brushy Mountains, occurs in irregularly shaped masses.

 The town of SALTVILLE, 9 m. (1,739 alt., 2,975 pop.), gazing up at the tall, black chimneys of the salt works that belch smoke and fumes, has been created through the \par commercial development of salt deposits that lie below large, marshy flats.

 The MATHIESON ALKALI WORKS has several shafts, equipped with pumps, to varying depths, a few to 2,000 feet. Some 6oo tons of limestone are used daily to change the sodium chloride into commercial products. The development of the property, called Buffalo Lick, was begun by General William Russell, who left Aspenvale and settled here in 1788. More than 2oo,ooo bushels of salt were being produced here annually in the early part of the nineteenth century. During the War between the States, the salt works, the main source of supply for the entire Confederacy, were heavily guarded. It was not until December 1864 that Saltville was captured and the salt works were destroyed.

 ELIZABETH CEMETERY was the graveyard of Elizabeth Church established by Elizabeth Henry Campbell Russell, whose character resembled that of her brother, Patrick Henry. 'Madam Russell' was one of the first converts to Methodism in the Holston Valley and an opponent of slavery. Freeing the Negroes that had been left to her, she wrote: 'Whereas by the wrong of man it hath been the unfortunate lot of the following Negroes to be slaves for life . . .I and whereas, believing the same to have come into my possession by the direction of Providence, and conceiving from the clearest conviction of my conscience . . . that it is both sinful and just, as they are by nature equally free as myself, to continue them in slavery, I do, therefore, by these presents . . .make free the said Negroes.'

 At 53.6 m. is a junction with County 737 

 Right here to EMORY AND HENRY COLLEGE (R), 1.2 m., founded by the Methodist Church. The red brick buildings are on a sloping campus covered with trees and bluegrass. Named for Bishop John Emory (1789-1836) and for either Patrick Henry or his sister Elizabeth, the college opened in April 1838 as a manual labor school. During the war its buildings were used as a Confederate hospital. In 1922 the institution was made coeducational. It grants art and science degrees and has about 470 students.

ABINGDON, 62.6 m. (2,057 alt., 2,677 PON, seat of Washington County, radiates from shady Courthouse Square. Old houses, chiefly of brick, wall in undulating Main Street, which is crowded on Saturday with townspeople, 'Knobites' in for the day, Negroes from the King's Mountain quarter, and, in summer, with slack-clad actors, set designers, an4 other people attached to the experimental theater. Chemical factories, wagon works, lumber mills, a milk condensory, and a cigar factory are the chief support of the town, though burley tobacco is also shipped in quantities.

 Wolf Hills was the name given to the settlement made between 1765 and 1770 on land granted to Dr. Thomas Walker in 1752. The small fort built here was enlarged in 1776 to afford refuge for settlers terrified by the Cherokee uprising. Black's Fort was attacked several times during the year but survived and became the center of I 2o acres of land donated for a county seat. In 1778 the village was established as Abingdon, and by 1793 it had become distributing center for all the mail sent to southwest Virginia.

 On December 14, 1864, some 10,000 Federal troops, under General George Stoneman, burned the depot, jail, barracks, and wagon-shops-all storehouses for Confederate supplies. The following day, a straggler from the Federal army-a former resident of Abingdon set fire to the remaining buildings on Main Street.

Abingdon was the home of John Campbell, Secretary of the Treasury (18 2 9-3 9); the Confederate general, Joseph E. Johnston; George W. Hopkins (1804-61), congressman and charge d'affaires to Portugal; and three Virginia governors, Wyndham Robertson (1836-37), David Campbell (1837-40), and John Buchanan Floyd (1849-52).

The columned, brick WASHINGTON COUNTY COURTHOUSE is the sixth to serve the county, which was formed in 1776 from vast Fincastle County. \par SINKING SPRINGS CEMETERY, strewn with tombstones dating from 1776, is adjacent to the site of Sinking Springs Church, 'the mother church of the Appalachies,' built by a Presbyterian congregation organized in 1772.

 MARTHA WASHINGTON INN is a large, two-story, brick building erected in 1830-32 by Brigadier General Francis Preston and his wife, Sarah Campbell Preston. Of the ten Preston children, William C. became a senator from South Carolina and minister to Italy; John S., a Confederate general; and three daughters, the wives of governors-John B. Floyd and James McDowell of Virginia, and Wade Hampton of South Carolina. Enlarged and remodeled, the house was occupied from 1858 to 1932 by Martha Washington College, a Methodist school for girls.

THE BARTER COLONY occupies the three brick buildings formerly used by the Stonewall Jackson Institute, a Presbyterian girls' school founded in 1869 and closed in 193 2. Around an inn, theater, workshop, and dormitory revolves the life of the Barter Theater, established in 1933 by Robert and Helen Fritch Porterfield. Edible commodities, from calves to huckleberries, are accepted on payment for tickets.

 BRISTOL, 77.6 m. (1,695 alt., 8,845 pop.), with crowded, narrow streets, is separated from Bristol, Tennessee (12,000 POP.), only by the invisible State line that bisects State Street. Although welded physically, the two cities, studded with 35 churches, are separate municipal units, each with its city government, post office, school system, and water supply. Though a mart for produce from fertile lands near by, Bristol, Virginia, derives its brisk tempo from the production of iron, lumber, textiles, paper, and leather.

 Surveyed in 1749 by John Buchanan, the Sapling Grove tract, part of James Patton's I 20,000 acre grant, became after the French and Indian War the property of Colonel Evan Shelby and Isaac Baker,Sr, of Maryland. In 1771 they built their homes-Colonel Shelby on the present Tennessee section and Isaac Baker, Sr., on that which now lies in Virginia. When news was bruited about in 1850 that the State line would be the terminus of the Virginia and Tennessee Railroad, Colonel Samuel Goodson, who then owned the Baker area, envisioned the town of Goodsonville on his property, had it surveyed, and sold all the lots. When the railroad was completed in 1856, the flourishing town was incorporated as Goodson, a name that was changed to Bristol when it received a city charter in 1890. The question of the long-disputed Virginia-North Carolina (and later Tennessee) boundary line--first run by Colonel William Byrd in 1728, continued in 1749 by Joshua Fry and Peter Jefferson, and momentarily settled by a compromise in 18O3-flared up afresh in 1897 and again in igoo when commissioners were appointed to re-establish the boundary between White Top Mountain and Cumberland Gap. Because of this long dispute, finally settled in 1903 by the U.S. Supreme Court's decision sustaining the boundary established in 1803, the site has been under the jurisdiction of North Carolina (1779), the State of Franklin (1785-89), the Federal Government 1789) in the territory south of the Ohio River, Tennessee (1796), and Virginia.

The porticoed brick buildings Of SULLINS COLLEGE, a nonsectarian girls' preparatory school and junior college, overlook Bristol from Virginia Park, which contains Lake Sycamore. During July and August the school maintains Camp Sequoya for girls. The school was founded in 1870 by the Reverend David Sullins. After afire in 1915, the college erected the present buildings, which accommodate 390 students and a faculty Of 37 (1937-38).

VIRGINIA INTERMONT COLLEGE, a Baptist preparatory school and junior college for girls, is housed in a long series of connected buildings of varying architectural design shaded by a grove of oaks through which the wall of blue mountains looms in the distance. Founded at Glade Spring in 1884 as the Southwest Virginia Institute, the school was moved to Bristol in1910. Two years later the name was changed, The student body numbers about 400.

In Bristol are junctions with US 11E, US 11W, and US 421 (see Tennessee Guide).

Tour 5A

Winchester-Front Royal-Luray-Waynesboro---junction with US 11; 119.6 m. State 3-State 12.

 Asphalt-paved roadbed throughout. Between Front Royal and Waynesboro route paralleled by Norfolk & Western Ry. All types of accommodations.

 State 3-12, an alternate to US 11, passes through the eastern Shenandoah Valley. Winding beside rivers and streams, always in view of the Blue Ridge Mountains, it offers scenery far more beautiful than that of the arterial highways. Because the limestone soil creates rich pastures and produces wheat and corn, this section is thickly settled. Apple trees in serried ranks alternate with the open fields. There are many caverns which attract visitors in all seasons.

 State 3 branches south from US i I at Millwood Ave. and Loudoun St. in WINCHESTER, 0 m., in union with US 5a (see Tour 12) to a point at 1.1 m. \par A low earthworks on a hilltop (L), 4.8 m., was constructed as part of the defeqses of Winchester in the War between the States.

The highway crosses Opequon Creek (pronounced o-peck-on) at PARKINS' MILL, 5 m., an important facility of frontier days.

 DOUBLE TOLL GATE, 8.7 m., at a junction with State 277, was on an earlier turnpike. \par Left on State 277 to WHITEPOST, 1.9 m., a hamlet. Its outstanding feature is a tall white post surmounted by an oldfashioned lantern that duplicates one erected by Lord Fairfax to mark the route to his estate.

 Right from Whitepost 1.2 m. on State 12 to GREENWAY COURT (R), formerly the wilderness manor of Thomas Lord Fairfax, master of the 5,000,000 acre proprietary of the Northern Neck. Only the LAND OFFICE remains of the structures erected by Fairfax in 1748. This little house, two low stories of gray stone, stands close to the highway at the edge of stony fields. Here quit rents were collected and here George Washington, the youthful surveyor for Fairfax, is said to have kept his instruments. Lord Fairfax inherited the Northern Neck grant from his mother, a daughter of Thomas, Lord Culpeper. In 1669, Charles II had granted to several loyal friends an the land between the Rappahannock and the Potomac Rivers. In 1673 Lord Culpeper bought out the grantees and became sole proprietor.

Fairfax's life here was not happy. He had come to Virginia thoroughly embittered because his fianc6e had married another man; he would invite no women to his lavish parties. Quit rents were not always willingly paid, and he was forever occupied with lawsuits over boundaries. Like many other landed Virginians he was a Tory. When the news of Cornwallis's surrender came, the old man turned in his bed to remark that it was time for him to die.

 CEDARVILLE, 15 m., a hamlet, stretches its gray houses and gray stone fences along a gray highway. A log and stone building on the top of a slight rise (R) was the HOME OF ROBERT MCKAY, a Quaker who received a large grant here on condition that he settle 100 families on the land in two years. He complied with the provision in 1737.

RIVERTON, 17.7 m. (500 pop.), against rocky hills, is on a high triangle formed by the north and south forks of the Shenandoah River. Important in the days of river transportation, it waned after 1854 when the railroad down the Valley was built.

 At 18.6 m. the highway passes near the spot where two of Mosby's guerillas were hanged Sept. 22, 1864, by order of General George A. Custer. Five others were shot in Front Royal the same day. Later Mosby retaliated by capturing and executing an equal number of Custer's men.

 FRONT ROYAL, 19.7 m. (5o8 alt., 2,424 POP.), seat of Warren County, with many houses of rough-hewn stone, has retained much of its nineteenth-century flavor despite a textile-mill boom and the flood of automobiles bound for the Skyline Drive. The town also does wood-working, canning and preserving, and distilling. \par Front Royal, chartered in 1788, was at first a frontier village, called 'Hell Town,' on the packhorse road to the north. Two legends account for the name Front Royal, According to one, British officers during the Revolution, when drilling their men near a large oak tree, gave the command, 'Front the Royal Oak' and the sentence was shortened to 'Front Royal.' According to another story, the sentry's command 'Front' and the password' Royal' were linked by common usage.

Front Royal was one of the bases from which the pretty Confederate spy Belle Boyd worked most effectively. In 186 2 when a Federal regiment occupied Front Royal, she invited General Nathaniel P. Banks and his officers to a ball. While the weary officers slept after the festivities, according to the story, she made a daring horseback ride to give Jackson valuable information she had garnered. The next morning, May 23, 1862, the Confederates attacked the Union force here and captured 750 of the 1,000 men. In the afternoon General Jackson arrived.

The WARREN COUNTY COURTHOUSE, a large gray stone building erected in 1936, is on the site of the first one built in 1837, a year after Warren County was formed from parts of Shenandoah and Frederick counties and named for General Joseph Warren, a Revolutionary officer killed at Bunker Hill.

 The AMERICAN VISCOSE CORPORATION PLANT (visited by arrangement), several large brick factory structures opened in 1939 at the western outskirts, is one of the chief artificial silk mills operated by Courtaulds, Ltd. (see Roanoke).

 RANDOLPH-MACON ACADEMY, a unit of the Randolph-Macon System (see Tour 1b), is a military preparatory school for boys, housed principally in one large brick building on a wooded hill. The school, established here in 1892 by the Methodist trustees of Randolph-Macon College, has more than 2oo students. In Front Royal are junctions with State 55 (see Tour 4A), the Skyline Drive (see Tour 4A), and State 12. \par South of Front Royal, State 12 winds close beside the Shenandoah River.

 RILEYVILLE, 35.8 m. (350 POP.), on the high banks of the twisting stream, is a gathering place for gregarious country folk.

 LURAY, 43.9 m. (835 alt., 1,459 POP.) (see Tour 22), is at a junction with US 2 11 (see Tour 22). 

 At 44.7 m. is a junction with County 642.

Left hereto State 266,1.6 m., which runs straight ahead to IDA VALLEY HOMESTEADS, 6.6 m., a resettlement project for mountaineers evacuated after the creation of Shenandoah National Park. About 20 small frame houses have been erected on farms of from 8 to 12 acres.

At 54.5 m. is a junction with County 6 16. 

Right here to RIVERDALE FARM (L), 1.8 m., called Fort Long. This land, which Philip Long settled before 1729, was a part of the Massanutten Grant. \par Two small stone houses behind a mid-nineteenth-century brick farmhouse were homes of pioneers. From one of these an underground passage, now partly caved in, leads to a fort beneath a corn crib. This cellar fort is ingeniously built of rough limestone blocks. The arched ceiling is an interesting example of pioneer engineering. Loop holes extend upward at an angle Of 45 degrees. From the cellar of the lower cottage a passage, restored and lighted, leads to a well.

 NEWPORT, 57.4 m., now a group of houses among craggy foothills, was once a bristling port

 SHENANDOAH, 64.5 m. (1,98o pop.), a railroad town on steep slopes of Massanutten foothills, grew up around the Shenandoah Iron Works, which shipped ore down the river on flat boats.

 In BEAR LITHIA SPRINGS (R), 67.3 m., once a popular resort around waters that were bottled and sold widely, are several old buildings, shabby reminders of another day. The springs are on land once owned by Jacob Bear.

 The MILLER HOMESTEAD (R), 68.3 m., is a large, sprawling frame farmhouse that incorporates a log house built about 1768 by Adam Miller, father-in-law of Jacob Bear.

 ELKTON, 69.9 m. (9 7 1 alt., 965 POP-) (see Tour 9), is at a junction with US 33 (see Tour 9), with which State 12 unites for 8.5 miles (see Tour 9).

At 81.7 m. is a junction with County 659.

Left here to BOGOTA (L), 2.8 m., built about 1847 by Jacob Strayer. Brick walls, rising above stone foundations, have three gabled ends with chimneys. Near by had been the home of Gabriel Jones, king's attorney, 'the man with the celestial name and the very uncelestial temper.' There is a story that a judge reprimanded another attorney for making Mr. Jones swear so.'

 LYNNWOOD (R), 3.6 m., a brick house built in 1813, incorporates a log house Of 1751 that was the home of Thomas Lewis, a son of the pioneer John Lewis (see Tour 5a).

 Around LEWISTON CHURCH, 4.2 m., a narrow frame building with a belfry, was fought the Battle of Port Republic in which General Jackson on June 9, 186 2, defeated the forces of General James Shields. This enabled Jackson to proceed eastward to help check McClellan before Richmond.

PORT REPUBLIC, 85 m. (200 pop.), at the head of the south fork of the Shenandoah River, flourished in the days of water transportation, and was notorious for the frequent fights among its river men, who used fists, thumbs, feet, and skulls as weapons.

GROTTOES, 87.4 m. (534 POP.), took its name from limestone caverns near by.

At 88.1 m. is a junction with County 664.

Left on County 664 to GRAND CAVERNS, 0.5 M. (open 7 a.m. to 9 P.m., adm. $I) Bernard Weyer discovered the passages in 1804 while looking for a groundhog trap.

WAYNESBORO, 104.3 m. (1,311 alt., 6,226 pop.) (see Tour 17b), is at a junction with US 250 (see Tour 17b).

 STUART'S DRAFT, 112.9 m., spreads over rolling lands to the northwest of acres that Colonel James Patton, monarch of Southwest Virginia, bought from William Beverley (see Staunton) in 1736 and 1740. Patton's house, Spring Hill, stood about two miles from the hamlet. Patton, a sea captain, transported colonists to Virginia and carried products from the New World to England. His sister Elizabeth, with her husband, John Preston, and several children, settled near Stuart's Draft in 1740.

At 119.6 m. is a junction with US i I (see Tour 5b), at a point 10.8 miles south of Staunton.
                                                            Tour 5B

 Christiansburg-Blacksburg-Pearisburg-Narrows-Rich Creek; 42 m. State 8.

 Asphalt-paved roadbed throughout. Virginian Ry. and Norfolk & Western Ry. parallel route. Accommodations in Blacksburg and wayside tourist homes and camps.

After passing along a plateau, then through the rugged beauty of several mountain ridges, this route follows the valley of the rapid New River northwest to West Virginia.

State 8 branches north from a junction with US 11 (see Tour 5b) in CHRISTIANSBURG, 0 m. (I,97o alt., 2,100 POP.) (see Tour 5b).

BLACKSBURG, 6.9 m. (2,135 alt., 1,4o6 pop.), is dominated by Virginia Polytechnic Institute. Faculty houses stand between hotels and boarding houses along shaded streets, and robust youths in mufti and uniform crowd the movie houses and shops. The college and town are on lands once owned by Colonel James Patton. Homesteads were surveyed and sold to a handful of pioneers who formed a settlement here-Draper's Meadows-in 1745. On Sunday July 8, 1755, a band of Shawnee, in an attempt to repossess their lands, swooped down on the whites, killed four, took six prisoners, and destroyed the homes. Colonel James Patton, visiting here, cut down two Indians with his broadsword but was shot by a savage. William Ingles and John Draper escaped, but their wives and children were captured and taken to the Shawnee town on the Scioto River. After several months of captivity Mrs.Ingles, n6e Mary Draper, escaped at Big Bone Lick (now in Kentucky). Armed with a tomahawk and accompanied by an old Dutch woman, she followed streams east, finally reaching the home of Adam Harmon just west of Draper's Meadow. Mrs.John Draper, adopted by the family of an Indian chief, remained in captivity until 1761, when she was ransomed,

The VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, an agricultural and mechanical college supported mainly by public funds, operates nine experiment stations and has a broad extension program. Part of the 32 buildings on a large campus are around an oval drill field. These structures, designed in neo-Gothic style and built of limestone, contrast sharply with the brick buildings, chiefly barracks and recreational centers, on the northeastern part of the campus. On the opposite side of the drill field is the stadium, beyond which lie the riding ring, the numerous barns and silos, green houses, and an amphitheater. During the winter session about 1,200 Students become cadets and are instructed in military science and tactics by officers of the regular army. Some 8oo other students, among whom are about ioo women, are in residence. Undergraduate and graduate courses are given, leading to both bachelor and master degrees in science, in agriculture, engineering, applied sciences, and business administration. A summer quarter, popular with Virginia public school teachers who pay no tuition, combines courses in academic subjects with a large number of technical courses. Informational bulletins on agriculture, industry, and rural sociology, prepared by the college, are widely disseminated throughout the State. The engineering experiment station conducts industrial investigations. Four branch schools in State industrial centers offer the first two years of the engineering curricula. The Virginia Agricultural Extension Service, with 5oo acres of land here, carries on experimental work in horticulture, animal husbandry, dairying, plant pathology and bacteriology, agricultural chemistry and economics, wildlife conservation, and farm and household engineering. Through bulletins, correspondence, and farm and home demonstration agents the institution assists the rural population of the State. Virginia Polytechnic Institute is a land-grant college established in 1872 under the provisions of the Morrill Act. Preston and Olin Institute, a Methodist school founded in 1854, became the nucleus of what was at first called the Virginia Agriculture and Mechanical College. In 1888 the agricultural experiment station became a department of the institution. 

 SMITHFIELD, on the west side of the campus, is an L-shaped, story-anda-half frame house built between 1772 and 1774 by Colonel William Preston (1729-83). A small transom tops the double-doored entrance of the fa~ade that is further relieved by dormers. In the basement is a huge fireplace flanked by generously proportioned ovens. The hall contains a stairway in Chinese Chippendale design. Three walls of the adjacent living room have a dado; the fourth-the chimney end-is paneled to the ceiling. At Smithfield was born James Patton Preston (1774-1843), governor of Virginia (i8i6-ig), who inherited the estate from his father and left it to his three sons, two of whom built SOLITUDE and WHITEHORN, now on the campus. Their sister Letitia became the wife of John Floyd, governor of Virginia (183034), and mother of John Buchanan Floyd, governor of Virginia (1849-52), who was born at Smithfield. Southeast of Smithfield is the Preston burial ground. \par West of Blacksburg, State 8 crosses Brush and Gap Mountains affording views of the beautiful Alleghenies.

 At 17.9 m. is a junction with State I 12.

 Right here up the steep side of Salt Pond Mountain to MOUNTAIN LAKE (hotel accommodations), 7 m. (3,5oo alt.), a deep body of water (bass, rainbow trout) so clear that trunks of trees are visible far beneath the surface, an oval mirror reflecting rounded hills covered with hemlock, laurel, and azaleas. 

 PEARISBURG, 33 m. (688 pop.), seat of Giles County, is shadowed by a tall peak, Angel's Rest. A tannery, a lumber mill, and a chick hatchery are the town's industrial establishments. 

 In 1782, Captain George Pearis established a ferry here across New River. Later Captain Pearis provided land, together with timber and stone necessary to erect public buildings, as a seat for the court, and the town of Pearisburg was legally brought into existence.

 The GILES COUNTY COURTHOUSE, a red brick building erected in 1836 and since enlarged by wings, is shaded by the huge oaks of the court green. An octagonal cupola on the hip roof dwarfs the two-story portico. Giles County, formed in 18o6 from Montgomery, Tazewell, and Monroe (now in West Virginia) Counties, was named for William B. Giles, congressman for four terms and governor of Virginia (182 -30).

 The very large CELANESE CORPORATION OF AMERICA PLANT (opened 1939), by New River on land acquired from the Giles County Chamber of Commerce, has capacity for more than 10,000 employees.

 NARROWS, 37.9 m. (1,547 alt., 1,345 POP.), close by a deep gorge through which pass two railroads, the state highway, and the swirling waters of the New River, has a tannery, a hosiery mill, and a public utilities plant.

In the winter of 1863 about 1,ooo Confederate soldiers, commanded by General John McCausland, were quartered here. A fort, built on an eminence, had its guns ranged on the gorge, which was further defended by the vigilant signal corps station on East River Mountain.

 At RICH CREEK, 42 m., close to the West Virginia Line, is a junction with US 219 (see West Virginia Guide).