Tour 19

Richmond--Chesterfield--Hopewell--Surry--Smithfield--Suffolk--(Sunbury, N.C.); State 10. Richmond to N.C. Line, 107.7 m.

Hard-surfaced roadbed throughout, chiefly asphalt. Norfolk Southern R.R. parallels route between Suffolk and North Carolina Line. Hotel accommodations only in cities, tourist homes in smaller communities.

This highway follows the southern bank of the James River through land that lay within the earliest grants to English colonists in America. Much of the soil, once highly productive and later impoverished through unscientific farming, is being reclaimed by means of diversified plantings and modern agricultural methods. Northward the small farm prevails, producing grain, poultry, and milk. Southward is a fertile peanut and tobacco area, with here and there acres given over to cotton. Near the North Carolina line the route skirts the vast Dismal Swamp.

On the bank of the river, remote from the highway, are mansions that were once the seats of many of Virginia's most distinguished families. Some of these have passed into the hands of newcomers; others are occupied by descendants of the first owners; a few of the oldest and most beautiful are occupied by tenants.

State 10 branches south from US 360 (see Tour 20b) from Hull St., 0 m., on Broad Rock Road in RICHMOND and traverses a suburban district where among bungalows and nondescript cottages are older houses that conform to the dignity of an earlier architectural era.

BRANCH'S BAPTIST CHURCH (R), 3 m., is a T-shaped brick building, with Doric columns and Gothic windows. The congregation, organized May 10, 1828, was served until 1839 by neighboring ministers. Branch's Church was an arm of Chesterfield Church, organized in 1773.

The highway passes FALLING CREEK, 4.1 m., by which in 1619 John Berkeley established the first iron furnace in America. The revenue from the furnace was to be used by the proposed College at Henricopolis (see Tour 1). Projected by Sir Edwyn Sandys, the enterprise cost the London Company L4,000. In the early spring of 1622 it was described as being 'in a very great forwardness.' Shortly afterwards Berkeley and all his workers were slain, and the furnace was not revived.

Later, on these ruins, rose another iron foundry that passed into the hands of Archibald Cary (see Tour 1). The enterprise lasted until 1781 when it was destroyed by British guns.

CHESTERFIELD, 10.4 m, (150 pop.), seat of Chesterfield County, has maintained its atmosphere of eighteenth-century leisure. The brick COURTHOUSE, with a Tuscan portico, in an enclosure thickly shaded by old trees, was erected in 1917. The well-kept records date back to 1748, the year that Chesterfield County was carved from Henrico. The British destroyed the first courthouse in 1780-81. The OLD CLERK'S OFFICE, built in 1828, is a one-storied cottage-like rectangle of mellowed brick, now used by the superintendent of schools and the county auditor. The present CLERK'S OFFICE, built in 1889, was enlarged in 1930. On the site of the old jail is a granite shaft bearing the inscription: 'On this spot were imprisoned 1770-1774 John Tanner, David Tinsley, Joseph Anthony, Augustine Eastin, Jeremiah Walker, John Weatherford, Apostles of Religious Liberty.' Probably the most famous prisoner of the old jail was Colonel Henry Hamilton, former Governor General of Canada, known as the 'scalptaker' or 'hair buyer,' captured in 1779 by George Rogers Clark at Vincennes and brought first to Williamsburg and then to Chesterfield. 'While at Chesterfield,' wrote Hamilton, 'our confinement was rendered very tolerable . . . We had liberty to walk about in the neighborhood.' In Williamsburg he had had far less courteous treatment, for there 'the people were much incensed against him, on account of his dealing with the savages, and he was put in irons and kept in jail for some time.'

During the Revolution, Virginia militia were trained here by the great drillmaster, Baron von Steuben. The local barracks were one of the principal objectives of General William Phillips, who, with the aid of General Benedict Arnold, succeeded toward the end of the war in destroying them and large stores of tobacco.

The left section of CASTLEWOOD was built about 1776 by Charles Poindexter. Pavilions connect three small units on a high foundation.

Right from Chesterfield on County 655 to SWIFT CREEK RECREATION PARK (R), 3 m. (picnicking, bathing, boating, and fishing facilities), a large public recreational area including two lakes.

CHESTER, 15.4 m. (1,000 pop.), a sprawling residential village, was laid out in 20 lots of equal size. It was once an important shipping point and market center on the Petersburg Railroad. On May 10, 1864, the Union army destroyed the railroad tracks near Chester in their efforts to cut off supplies from Richmond. SALEM BAPTIST CHURCH, a simple frame building, houses a congregation constituted in 1802. In his History of the Middle District Association, Semple says that Salem started with 117 members and adds, 'It is worthy of remark that generally the Baptist cause prospered most extensively where it met with the most severe opposition.' In recounting the tribulations of Baptist ministers in Chesterfield County, he said, 'Some were whipped by individuals, several fined. They kept up their persecutions after other counties had laid it aside.'

At 17.4 m. is a junction with US 1 (see Tour 1).

At 22.7 m. is a junction with County 619.

1. Left here to County 618, 0.9 m., and R. to BERMUDA HUNDRED, 4.2 m., now a group of fisher-folks' shacks lining dusty roads. When the English settled at Jamestown, Opussoquionuske, the Indian woman who reigned over a village here, received her white visitors in regal state. In retaliation for an attack on the colonists, Captain George Percy drove the Indians from the town in 1611. Two years later the Bermuda Hundred settlement was effected, the name having been derived 'by reason of the strength of the situation' and a fancied similarity to Bermuda. Governor Dale assigned about 300 indentured men the task of building 'a commodious habitation and seat for the English.' Bermuda Hundred was long an important shipping point.

2. Right on County 619 to County 617, 1 m. Just south of this junction is the SITE OF POINT OF ROCKS, once the seat of the plantation granted in 1642 to Peter Batte. Henry Stratton, who acquired it from the Batte heirs, was the owner of ships that traded with the West Indies. In 1864 General B.F.Butler built a pontoon bridge here across the James and over it sent General A.V.Kautz's cavalry and other troops to attack Petersburg June 9, 1864.

Adjoining Point of Rocks to the west are the lands of COBBS, early home of the Bolling family. John Bolling, who settled here toward the end of the seventeenth century, was the son of Colonel Robert Bolling and Jane Rolfe, daughter of Thomas Rolfe and granddaughter of Pocahontas. This Colonel Bolling prospered mightily through trade with the whites and with the Indians, and 'partook freely at the same time of all the pleasures of society, for which his gay and lively spirit eminently fitted him.'

Congenital deafness manifested itself in the Bolling line. Thomas Bolling had three deaf children whom he sent to a school in Scotland conducted by Thomas Braidwood. William Bolling, another son of Thomas and heir of Cobbs, had a son, William Albert, who was born deaf. Hearing that John Braidwood, a grandson of the distinguished Scotch teacher, had come to America, he sent for him and started a school for his own son and other afflicted children. Soon, however, Mr. Braidwood 'fell into bad habits, contracted large debts with merchants of Petersburg, and suddenly fled to the North! Returning to Richmond in 1818, 'friendless, penniless, and almost naked,' he applied to William Bolling for aid. When six or seven pupils, including William Albert, were turned over to him, he managed to conduct himself in exemplary manner for some months before his old habits gripped him again. 'Braidwood finally fell to be a barkeeper in a tavern, where he died a victim to the bottle, in 1819 or 1820.' The State took over the work in 1838 with the establishment of its school for the deaf (see Staunton).

On December 22, 1935, a bus plunged through the open draw of the APPOMATTOX RIVER DRAWBRIDGE, 25 m., and carried to death 14 occupants, only one surviving.

HOPEWELL, 25.8 m. (41 alt., 11,327 pop.), the youngest of Virginia cities but one of the oldest Virginia communities, has broad streets but many of its houses show that they were built in haste during the boom days. At the outskirts, lanes wind to old houses that stand aloof to the inroads of progress. Hopewell owes its origin and its recent development to its position at the confluence of the two rivers, for ocean-going vessels can reach its harbor on the James and smaller vessels can run up the Appomattox to Petersburg.

City Point, now part of Hopewell, first lay within Bermuda City (renamed Charles Hundred), a plantation laid out by Sir Thomas Dale in 1613. In 1619, when the four 'corporacouns' were formed, City Point was one of the hundreds in the Charles City Corporation. Its first designation, Bermuda City, was changed to Charles City, lengthened to Charles City Point, and later abbreviated to City Point. But on March 22, 1622 (N.S.), its population was almost entirely wiped out during the Indian attack and the city did not materialize for many years. However, the deep waters off shore served the cities of Petersburg and Richmond as a harbor and in both the Revolution and the War between the States it witnessed naval and military maneuvers.

Hopewell is a city that munitions built. After the E.I. du Pont de Nemours Company erected its munitions plant on Hopewell Farm in 1913, the city was born. Incorporated July 1, 1916, it had during America's participation in the World War a population of approximately 40,000 augmented from time to time by soldiers from Camp Lee, five miles away, who came to Hopewell on their days of leave. Houses for workers went up overnight; large and small businesses prospered. After the lull that followed the signing of the Armistice, steady growth began with the coming of peacetime industries.

Now factories stretch far and wide within and beyond its corporate limits, and the air is filled with both profitable odors and sulphuric smoke. Several huge mills produce kraft and synthetic textiles, and an enormous plant lives off air, using the synthetic ammonia process for the fixation of the inactive nitrogen in the atmosphere. Other products of Hopewell are pottery, car liners and doors, insect sprays, sheet metal, machine equipment, and building supplies.

Probably the most illustrious son of Hopewell was John Randolph of Roanoke (1773-1833), the site of whose birthplace, Cawsons, is within the limits of the new city. William Randolph of 'Turkey Island' was his great-grandfather; John Randolph (1742-75), his father; and Frances, daughter of Theodoric Bland, Sr. (whose home Cawsons was) and sister of Theodoric Bland, Jr. (1742-90), was his mother. Soon after his father's death Mrs. Randolph married St.George Tucker (see Williamsburg), amiable and brilliant scholar of law, whose influence was of first importance in molding his stepson's mind. After attending private school and the College of William and Mary, Princeton, and Columbia intermittently, he studied law. In 1810 he moved permanently to Charlotte County (see Tour 3).

APPOMATTOX MANOR, end of Cedar Lane, on the curved shore of the Appomattox River, is a rambling T-shaped frame house representative of several architectural eras. Surrounded by spreading trees and ancient garden, it has successfully maintained its air of detachment from the city at its gates. The section that is the stem of the T, a story-and-a-half in height, with peaked roof and small dormers, antedates the larger section, which is now the front of the house and across which extends a veranda embellished with iron fretwork. Shell holes in the chimneys and grass-covered breastworks beyond the garden are reminders that the manor, on an exposed river front, was in a perilous situation during two wars.

The older part of the house, though built in the middle of the eighteenth century, is believed to incorporate timbers of a house built not long after 035, when Captain Francis Eppes received the plantation for transporting himself, three sons, and 30 servants to the colony. During the Revolution British soldiers set fire to the house and trampled the lovely garden. Slaves put out the flames, however, and the garden was restored. The house was shelled by Federal gunboats and later General Grant had his headquarters here during the siege of Petersburg. The garden, much more beautiful than ever because of the seeds and cuttings that had been brought from abroad, was again destroyed. The house was later restored, the garden replanted and replanned with a Confederate rampart as one of its enclosures.

CITY POINT HOUSE, E. side Prince Henry St., facing Maplewood Ave., a gray, two-story weatherboarded building, with outside chimneys . low wing, was built before the middle of the eighteenth century as a stage stop.

The SITE OF THE PROPOSED EAST INDIA SCHOOL, Pierce St., overlooking the James, is in the old part of Hopewell. In 1621, while the Royal James>/I>, of the fleet captained by Martin Pring, lay at anchor off the Cape of Good Hope, the Reverend Patrick Copeland chaplain of the Royal James, whom Dale had interested in the Virginia Colony, gathered from the 'gentlemen and marriners' aboard the sum of L70. 8s. 6d. to be used for the benefit of the English Colony in North America. The committee appointed to handle the money later decided that the sum should be used for the building of a school at Charles City. An unknown benefactor brought the contribution to an even L100. The Virginia Company ratified the action of the committee and set aside 1,000 acres for the school. At the next Quarter Court, February 9, 1622, a 'person, not willing as yet to be knowne' sent L25 in gold 'to helpe forward the East Indie Schoole'; and 'the gentlemen and mariners that lately came from the East Indies in two ships called the Hart and the Roe-Bucke . . . gave toward the building of the aforesaid free-schoole in Virginia the summe of L66, 13s, 4d.' In March 1622, the court appointed a Mr. Dike as usher and agreed to furnish free text books to the students. But the massacre of 1622 put an end to the plans. Consequently, the proposed school, designed for 'the education of children and grounding them in the principles of religion, civility of life and humane learning,' suffered the same fate that overtook the proposed university at Henricopolis (see Tour 1c), upon which 'it should have dependence.'

1. Right from Randolph St. (State 10) on Broadway in Hopewell to Crescent Ave. and L. to County 648, 2.3 m.; R. here to County 645, 2.6 m., and R. to (R) a U.S. REFORMATORY, 4.7 m.

Within the grounds is the story-and-a-half JOHN BUREN HOUSE, built on part of the Bolling estate. Wainscoting and other details place its construction at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Here also is the SITE OF FORT CONVERSE, used by the Union forces during the War between the States. Besieging Petersburg, General Butler stationed Negro troops here to protect his pontoon bridges.

2. Right from Randolph St. on Broadway to Main St.; L. on Main St. to State 36, 1.7 m.; R. here to County 648, 3.4 m., and R. 0.2 m. to CEDAR LEVEL (L) , a neglected weatherboarded, story-and-a-half house, with dormers on a roof that extends over porches, front and rear. At each end are two massive chimneys. Heavy oak timbers, paneled doors, and wainscoting are other features. Cedar Level was the home of Robert Bolling (1682-1749) P a surveyor and a son of the builder of Kippax (see below).

was once Halfway House, a tavern on the City Point-Petersburg stage route.

On County 648 at 0.6 m. is the entrance to KIPPAX: (R), a two-story frame house, with massive chimneys, and an ell. It stands on the site of the home of Jane Rolfe, wife of Robert Bolling, daughter of Thomas Rolfe and Jane Poythress, and granddaughter of John Rolfe and Pocahontas. Robert Bolling (1646-1709) came to Virginia at the age of 15.. Jane Rolfe died the year after her marriage, leaving one son, Major John Bolling (1676-1729). Both she and her father are buried here. Mrs. Edith Bolling Galt Wilson, second wife of Woodrow Wilson, is a descendant of Jane Rolfe's son, John.

At 29.7 m. on State 10 is a junction with State 36.

Left here to HOPEWELL AIRPORT (R), 1.6 m., on land settled in 1619 by Samuel Jordan, who built his house on this point jutting into the James River and still bearing his name. When Jordan died in 1623 he left a charming widow, Cecily, the first Virginia woman whose coquetry is a matter of record. Upon two of her suitors, the Reverend Greville Pooley and William Farrar, owner of Farrar's Island near by, she practiced her wiles so effectively as to cause the governor and council to issue a proclamation against women who engage themselves 'to two several men at the same time.' The Reverend Mr.Pooley, moreover, sued pretty Cecily for breach of promise, the first such suit in English America. The council, hearing the case, was divided. Then Cecily married Mr.Farrar and put an end to the matter. Pooley soon married another woman, and lived happily or unhappily till both he and his wife were killed by Indians.

At 2 m. is the HOPEWELL-CHARLES CITY FERRY (see Tour 24) (hourly service between 7 a-m. and 7 p.m.; car and driver $0.65, round trip $1, extra passenger $0.20, round trip $0.30).

At 32 m. on State 10 is a junction with County 641.

1. Right here to MERCHANT'S HOPE CHURCH (R), 0.5 m., a gaunt rectangular brick structure, its floor still paved with the original flagstones. Because a crown was found engraved on one of these, it is believed that the stones were brought from England. Though the interior has been greatly altered, an old Bible remains, declared by experts to be a New Testament of 1639 appended to the Old Testament of 1640. The year 1657, cut in one of the huge rafters of the barrel vaulted roof, has been considered the date of construction, though the design does not belong to such an early period. Merchant's Hope, a church of Martin's Brandon Parish, was named for a grant made in 1635 to the owners of a barque, The Merchant's Hope, in the transatlantic trade. Richard Quiney, brother of Thomas Quiney, who married Shakespeare's daughter Judith, later owned the land. The Reverend Mr. Peter Fontaine, who came to Virginia in 1716, was a rector of Martin's Brandon Parish, Weyanoke Parish, and Wallingford Parish, and, in order to discharge his pastoral duties, must have spent most of his time crossing the river.

2. Left from State 10 on County 641 to a dirt road, 0.3 m,; L. here 0.6 m. to TAR BAY HOUSE (R), on a tree-shaded lawn with gardens terraced toward a bend in the river. Daniel Colley built the two-story brick house in the first half of the eighteenth century and named it for his home in England.

The dirt road continues to BEECHWOOD (L), 0.9 m., almost demolished during the War between the States and subsequently restored. Situated on an eminence, it is surrounded by a sweeping lawn. This plantation was the home of Edmund Ruffin, whose writings on agriculture and experiments in scientific farming were the means of reclaiming impoverished lands in Virginia and who fired the first gun at Fort Sumter. Federal gunboats, cannonading along the river, took pot shots at the home of the man who was connected with the beginning of hostilities. On the hillsides are remnants of the marl beds that played a major role in Edmund Ruffin's efforts to redeem the Tidewater soil. Here Ruffin wrote many of the articles that might have revolutionized farming throughout the South. His later years were spent at Marlbourne (see Tour 20a).

On County 641, at 1.5 m., is the junction with another dirt road; L. here 2 m. to COGGIN'S POINT, where piles of bricks, a burying ground, and flowers and shrubbery mark the site of a house in which lived George Ruffin, the father of Edmund Ruffin. The Ruffin estate once covered more than 1,3oo acres. From this point on January 10, 1781, Baron von Steuben observed Benedict Arnold retreating down the James after his raid on Richmond. On July 31, 1862, from the same place, General D.H.Hill bombarded the camp of General McClellan on the north bank of the river.

At GARYSVILLE (25 pop.), 34.5 m., the RUINS OF GARY'S MILL and two old houses beyond the creek constitute the only evidence of the community's antiquity. The mill was built in the middle of the seventeenth century. Powell's Creek, at the edge of the scattered settlement, gives nominal honor to Nathaniel Powell, acting governor of the colony in 1619.

At 34.9 m. is a junction with County 639.

Left here to County 640, 2.1 m. and L. 1.3 m. to MAYCOCK PLANTATION. Near the river are breastworks thrown up during the War between the States. Samuel Maycock (or Maycox), one of the settlers slain in the Indian uprising of 022, patented the land in 1618. It was bought in 1774 by David Meade, of whose garden a commentator reported, 'Forest and fruit trees are here arranged as if nature and art had conspired together to strike the eye most agreeably.' From the jutting point of the plantation Cornwallis crossed the James, on May 24, 1781, advancing northward in pursuit of La Fayette.

On County 639 is FLOWER DE HUNDRED, 4.1 m., on an elevation above vestiges of terraced lawns and gardens. This frame plantation house, despite many years of neglect, has not lost its quiet charm. A two-storied central section with end chimneys is flanked by matching wings. In 1618 Sir George Yeardley patented and named the plantation and on it in 1621 built the first American windmill.

In 1862 to prevent the landing of Northern troops on the South side of the James, the Confederate Government ordered the burning of the new wharf here. In 1864, when General Grant crossed the river here, soldiers trampled standing corn, camped in fields and on the lawns, and destroyed woodwork and old furniture in the house; one of them gaily marched off wearing the bridal veil of a newly married daughter of the house.

BURROWSVILLE, 40 m., has allowed filling stations and general stores to obscure its few old homes.

Left from Burrowsville on County 616 to the SITE OF FORT POWHIATAN and HOOD'S FORT, 4.9 m., on a high bluff above the James. Still visible are the piles of an early wharf and earthworks of the fortifications. This place at which tobacco was received, inspected, and shipped began its military career on September 13, 1776, when the Council of Virginia ordered the 'whole amount of cargoes of salt, medicines, clothing for the Army . . . also go hogshead of tobacco and goo barrels of flour to be stored at Hood's' and had fortifications thrown up for their protection. With the outbreak of the War of 1812 the fortifications were strengthened. Toward the end of the War between the States the point was occupied by a regiment of Negro troops under command of General E.A.Wilde.

At 40.6 m. on State 10 is a junction with County 611.

Left here to BRANDON CHURCH (L), 0.2 m.; a nineteenth-century successor to the church in the part of Weyanoke Parish that in 1720 was added to Martin's Brandon Parish.

On County 611 is a junction with County 600, 1.2 m.: L. here 5.6 m. to UPPER BRANDON (L on a slope above the James River. Boxwood in untutored growth surrounds the house, and the lawn is shaded by enormous willow oaks, ashes, and magnolias. Like its older neighbor, Brandon (see below), the red brick house differs in design from other plantation homes in Virginia, and resembles those of early Maryland. A two-story central unit, with one-story wings and square portico, is linked with separate two-story buildings on high basements. Here are portraits of Maria Byrd by Charles Bridges, and of Martha Blount, reputedly the sweetheart of the misogynistic Alexander Pope.

The estate is part of the original Brandon grant. William Byrd Harrison, the son of Benjamin Harrison of Brandon and Evelyn Taylor Byrd--niece of the beautiful Evelyn whose ghost still lingers at Westover (see Tour 24)--built the house early in the nineteenth century. Along with Ruffin, Harrison was a pioneer in the use of lime to counteract the acidity of impoverished lands.

On County 611 is BRANDON, 5. 7 m., among old trees, high above a broad expanse of the river. The house looks toward the river through a vista bordered by a formal garden, outlined by dwarf boxwood that has grown to gigantic proportions. In one garden, faithfully preserved, are ancient cucumber trees, yews, and a pecan more than 300 years old and 30 feet in girth.

The house, measuring 210 feet from end to end, consists of a central unit two stories high and flanked by one story wings, connected with separate two-story rectangular buildings by hyphens. On the one-story porch are four fluted Corinthian columns. A large pineapple, symbolizing hospitality, caps the peak of the hip roof. A hall, from which rises a graceful stairway, separates the living room and the dining room. The mahogany balustrade is decorated with shell carvings, and the rooms of this unit are trimmed with carved paneling. Exquisite simplicity is the dominant characteristic of Brandon.

This land was patented in 1616 by John Martin and subsequently, with Merchant's Hope, came under the joint ownership of Quiney and Sadler, brothers-in-law. Quiney's moiety passed to his son Thomas, and then to Thomas's great-nephew, Robert Richardson. By 1720 the property was in the hands of Nathaniel Harrison. The oldest part of the house, the east wing, was built in the first half of the eighteenth century. The main section shows the influence of Thomas Jefferson. British ships fired on the house in 1776, and Federal forces in the 1860's burned outbuildings and tore away wainscoting.

CABIN POINT, 44 m., a cluster of houses and filling stations, is the ' Cabin Poynt' of commercial importance as early as 1639. In 1753 a town called Guilford was laid out here by John Cocke. In time it became a crossroads stage stop.

SPRING GROVE at 47.9 m. is a few stores and scattered houses.

Left here on State 40 to County 610, 0.3 m., and R. 4 m. to FLOOD HOUSE (L), a tiny frame structure in poor condition, on land that John Flood patented before 1639. In October 1646 it was enacted' that Captain John ffloud be interpreter for the collony and that for his service therein and transporting such Indians as shall be employed from tyme to tyme to the Gov'r in message or otherwise, he be allowed from the publique the salary of four thousand pounds of tobacco yearly.'

On County 610, at 4.6 m., is the entrance to EASTOVER (L), a weatherboarded house with one unit built in the late seventeenth century by George Jordan on a part of the Pipsico Plantation.

FOUR MILE TREE (L), 7.6 m., on land by the river, is a story-and-a-half house with hipped gambrel roof. In an ancient graveyard here is a blackened granite slab inscribed: 'Here lyeth buried Alyce Myles, daughter of John Myles of Branton near Herreford Gent: and late wife of Mr. George Jordan in Virginia, who departed this life the 7th of January 1650. She touched the soil of Virginia with her little foot and the wilderness became a home.'

The plantation received its name from a tree that in 1619 marked the western limit of the Jamestown corporation.

At 8.6 m. is the entrance to MOUNT PLEASANT (L), a two-story brick house above a garden with massive boxwood. The house, once burned, was rebuilt within its original walls. The land here and much more was included in a grant made in 1620 to Richard Pace and known as Pace's Paines. With Pace lived a converted Indian by the name of Chanco, who, in 1622, learning of Opechancanough's plan to murder all white settlers, revealed the plot to his patron. Pace provided for the safety of his family and 'before day rowed to Jamestowne, and told the Governor of it.' According to Captain John Smith, thousands were saved 'by this one converted Infidel.'

The entrance to SWANN'S POINT is at 9.5 m. Here an isosceles triangle commands a near view of Jamestown across the water and a far view of the James. A new house has been built b ere. A lane (L) leads to the GRAVE OF COLONEL THOMAS SWANN, 'who departed this Life Ye 16th Day of September in Ye Yeare of our Lord God 1680.'

During the War between the States the Federals established a telegraph line at the Point.

On State 40 CLAREMONT, 5 m. (434 pop.), is a leisurely village by the James, with modem homes in striking contrast to exquisite Claremont Manor. A granite marker in a circle near the water front commemorates the landing here on May 5, 1607, of English settlers. Prior to white settlement, the Quioughconock had a village here.

At the edge of the village is CLAREMONT MANOR, amid gardens that slope toward the curving James. Old trees, among which are giant magnolias, frame a garden outlined by dwarf boxwood whose size belies its name. Between the river and the house stretches a lane bordered by linden trees. The story-and-a-half main section of the house has five dormers in its gabled roof. The square central hall, from which the stairway rises, opens into large rooms. An ell stretching rearward also has dormers and a central chimney. Mantels, elegantly simple, carved woodwork and paneling, and a double-landing stairway are important architectural features. Close by are the bake house, loom house and other buildings essential to old plantation economy.

In 1632 Arthur Allen, who is said to have come to America because of a turbulent love affair, patented vast tracts of land in the present county of Surry and in 1649 the Claremont estate. In 1655 he built in lower Surry County a house that is now called Bacon's Castle (see below). It is believed that construction of Claremont Manor was started in the middle of the seventeenth century and that additions were made during the following decades. Claremont Manor, like its neighbors along the river, suffered at the hands of pillaging Federal forces.

From Claremont is a FERRY TO SANDY POINT (see Tour 24). (Hourly service from 6:45 a.m. to 7:45 p.m.; from April 15 to Nov. 1, half-hourly service between 9 a.m. and 7 p.m.; car and driver $0.80, round trip $1.00, each additional passenger $0.20, round trip, $0.30, other passengers $0.25).<./I>

GLEBE (L), 52.1 m., is a brick story-and-a-half house, on a high basement. Almost flat against the gambrel roof are three small dormers. In 1724 John Cargill reported to the Bishop of London that his house, an earlier one, was in such poor condition that it would be necessary for him to 'look for a house elsewhere.' Doubtless remedial measures caused the building of this house, which served a parish constituted in 1642 as Chippoakes and in 1647 renamed Southwark.

SURRY, 56.8 m. (243 pop.), seat of Surry County, an agreeable village that, holding to its past, has reluctantly accepted such modern innovations as electricity, filling stations, and water works. Along shaded streets old houses of diversified design merge in the modern pattern. The village was called the Cross Roads, McIntosh's Cross Roads, Scuffletown, and Smithville before it settled down to its courthouse town designation.

The SITE OF THE SURRY INN, at the crossroads, is occupied by a filling station. Here in early days stagecoaches changed horses and travelers stopped for the night. In 1782 Robert McIntosh, the tavern keeper, was hauled to court for failing to keep his liquor prices posted. Revolutionary officers and soldiers slept beneath this roof, and officers in the War of 1812 stopped here on their way to Norfolk.

The SURRY COUNTY COURTHOUSE, a modern brick building with a shallow, Ionic portico, was completed in 1923. In 1797 the county seat was moved here from Troopers, where it had been established in 1754, following its removal from Ware Neck, and the courthouse was built on land presented the county by Robert McIntosh and wife, March 23, 1796, 'in consideration for the friendly respect and attachment which they have for the said county.' In 1652 Surry had been cut off from James City County. The oldest building in the square is the CLERK'S OFFICE, a simple oblong brick structure, erected in 1825-26; the chimneys at its gable ends are ivy-covered. The CONFEDERATE MONUMENT differs somewhat from its fellows in that the soldier atop the granite shaft rests peacefully against his bent saber. THE MONUMENT TO CHANCO is a block of rough granite in which is embedded a bronze plaque commemorating the services of the Indian who saved many colonists in 1622.

Left from Surry on State 31 to the ROLFE [WARREN] HOUSE (L), 1.8 m. (open 9-5 daily; adm. $0.25), a charming story-and-a-half brick house, with a central hall opening, upstairs and down, into a room on each side. In the basement, an end chimney serves a huge fireplace. The mantels, wainscoting, and balustrades are exquisitely carved, and the walls are painted the true Colonial blue, which much scraping revealed beneath coats of many colors. Though long neglected, the house had suffered so little that in the restoration nothing of importance had to be replaced.

The house stands on property that was a gift from Powhatan or Opechancanough, either to John Rolfe or to Thomas Rolfe. By deed dated June 10, 1654, Thomas Rolfe conveyed to William Corker 'one hundred & fivety Acres of land in Surry County lyeing betweene Smith's fort old feild & the Divill's Woodyard Swampe . . . being due unto the said Rolfe by Guift from the Indyan King.' A suit recorded in 1677 fixes the construction date for the house as 1651 or 1652. Deponents stated that Thomas Rolfe was commonly on the place 'before & after & whilst ye said house was building.'

This only son of Pocahontas and John Rolfe had remained in England after the death of his mother in 1617 and was reared in London. He returned to America in early manhood and married Jane Poythress. Through an only daughter, Jane, the prolific line was established.

Near the house is a remnant of Smith's Fort, erected in 1609 and called on John Smith's map 'The New Fort.' In Early Colonial days a public landing here accommodated the usual warehouses.

On State 31 is a junction with County 637, 4.1 m.; R. here 1 m. to PLEASANT POINT (L), a frame house with brick ends, much like the Rolfe House. From its terraced slope it commands a far view of Hog Island and the shores of the James. The house was undoubtedly built before the end of the seventeenth century. Here the Confederates established one of their many signal stations on the James River.

On State 31 is old SCOTLAND WHARF, terminus of the JAMESTOWN (see Tour 8A) and SCOTLAND FERRY, 4.2 m. (hourly service from 6:45 a.m. to 8:45 p.m.; from April 15 to Nov. I half-hourly service between 9 a.m. and 7 p.m.; Sun. and holidays extra service at 10 p.m. and 11 p.m.; car and driver $0.80, round trip $1.00, each additional passenger $0.20, round trip, $0.30, other passengers $0.25).<./I>

At 61.3 m. on State 10 is County 633.

Left here to RICH NECK (L) 1 m., with a story-and-a-half above a high basement. Set almost flush with its steep gambrel roof are five dormers. The walls are sandy pink against the dark green of encircling boxwood, on a lawn sloping riverward. The house was built by Robert Ruffin, son of William Ruffin, the immigrant who settled in Isle of Wight County, and great-great-great-grandfather of Edmund Ruffin (see above). The house was the seat of the tract in Lawne's Creek Parish acquired by Robert Ruffin in 1685.

Construction of CHIPPOKES, 3.5 m., a commodious house named for an Indian Chief, was started before the War between the States and completed immediately thereafter. Close to the river stands the first Chippokes, simpler and much lovelier than its imposing descendant. It was built to conform with the early pattern that involved a river view, beaded weatherboarding, end chimneys, and dormers. On the plantation are slave houses that bear testimony, in their comfortable and well-designed simplicity, to the ante-bellum prosperity of the plantation.

The RUINS OF LAWNE'S CREEK CHURCH (L), 63.2 m., are roofless, vine-covered walls pierced by arched windows. Within, trees are growing above a carpet of ivy and periwinkle. Lawne's Creek Parish, created in 1639, became extinct in 1738. During Reconstruction days the church was set on fire by Negroes, who had used its cemetery and were loath to relinquish their occupancy when white people attempted to regain possession.

At 63.5 m. is a junction with County 630.

Left here 0.4 m. to (L) BACON'S CASTLE (open daily, adm. $0.25) at the end of a wide avenue of ancient maples. The west end, marred only by a small frame extension by the chimney, is now the most distinguished part. On the warm red brick front facade is a two-story gabled vestibule, a projection matched in the rear by a gable stairtower, giving the structure a cruciform. floor plan. The steep, medieval gable end with the stepped and curved parapet, typical of Tudor and Jacobean architecture, is centered by three tall, slender, clustered stacks with molded tops. The thick walls of the first story are cut by doors and windows with segmentally arched brick heads. Although half obliterated, the brick enframements of the second story windows still suggest architraves, and in spite of neglect, the interior, with deep window seats, low ceilings, and oaken beams, still suggests the period of construction. The plain paneling is of later era.

Bacon's Castle, built by Arthur Allen about 1655, was first called Allen's Brick House. Nathaniel Bacon, the rebel leader, never lived at the house that now bears his name; the 'castle' was seized in 1676 by William Rookings, Robert Burgess, and Arthur Long, his followers, and became a rebel stronghold. Depositions filed in 1677 record that 'Arthur Allen was by the late wicked Rebels forbid from his house.'

On County 630 at 5 m. is HOG ISLAND, so named because for many years after 1608 the colonists kept their hogs here. A garrison warned the settlers of approaching enemies. It is said that the keepers of the hogs did wood carving in their spare time and that the delicate tracery in wainscoting, balustrades, and mantels of many early houses was their handiwork. In 1610, when the colonists were abandoning Jamestown (see Tour 8A), they stopped here. During the War between the States the island was a Confederate signal station.

At 68.7 m. on State 10 is a junction with County 621.

Left here to BURWELL'S DAY, 0.4 m., frequented by swimming parties, picnickers, and amateur fishermen. The river, wide and deep, has a sandy beach. In the curve, popularly called a bay, was the Warrascoyack village where in 1608 Captain John Smith got corn for the starving colonists across the river.

At SHOAL BAY (L), 70 m., a modern house surrounded by boxwood and crepe myrtle, is a smokehouse and a two-story brick kitchen belonging to the early seat of the estate granted to Edward Bennet in 1621 and later owned by Dr. Richard Cocke, who scandalized the neighborhood by his lack of piety. He went so far as to tear down a church and use the bricks from its walls to build this kitchen and the wood from its chancel and pulpit for partitions in a barn--which on the very day it was finished was struck by lightning. In spite of Federal bombardment, the house survived, only to be destroyed by fire much later.

At 70.3 m. is a junction with County 677.

Right here to WRENN'S MILL (R), I m., still grinding meal after the manner it adopted 300 years ago. One of the original stones continues in use; the brick foundations are unchanged; and the miller does his work on shares and not for money.

Waterground meal from mills such as this--and many remain to fill the demand--is the stuff from which Virginia cornbread is made. Along State 10, spoon bread is found at its best. The delectable concoction is made by scalding white meal with boiling water, cooking it into a smooth mush, and then adding generous quantities of eggs and milk and shortening, salt, and baking powder. The mixture is baked slowly in a deep dish for about 45 minutes. The bread, encased by its crispy crust, is so soft that it must be eaten with a spoon.

George Hardy built the mill, first called Hardy's Mill and known to have been standing in 1646. The name of the mill was changed when the Wrenns came into possession of Hardy's land.

At 71.4 m. on State 10 is a junction with County 673.

Left here to FORT BOYKIN (L), 2.5 m., on a bluff commanding two bends in the James River. Beyond swinging gates are an undulating lawn, old oak and black walnut trees, mulberries and tulip poplars, and a garden, fragrant and varicolored. Within a 16-acre enclosure are earthworks, now grass-covered, that form the seven points of a star; a gun emplacement, almost hidden; and an ivy-covered earthen bank that was once a bomb-proof magazine. A small fort was built here during the War of 1812, probably on the site of fortifications thrown up during the Revolution. During the War between the States the fort was enlarged. The poet, Sidney Lanier, while stationed here in 1863, played his flute on the ramparts by the moonlight, wrote home of glorious nights and beautiful Virginia girls, composed one of his first poems, and started his war novel Tiger Lilies.

MORGART'S BEACH, 3.4 m., is a resort on the James. Roundabout are groves of Japanese persimmon trees.

SMITHFIELD, 74.9 m. (1,179 pop.), on Pagan's Creek, is the home of the Smithfield ham. Colonial houses stand beside those of the most ornate Victorian era and others of the early twentieth century yet, withal, the town has maintained its air of ancient tranquility.

A tobacco warehouse was here in 1633 and in the eighteenth century the place was the seat of Isle of Wight County. First known commercially as a point from which tobacco was shipped to foreign ports, Smithfield is now famed principally for its hams, though it also cleans and ships peanuts. From the Indians here the first settlers learned the process of curing the meat of razorback hogs. In the eighteenth century Mallory Todd perfected the primitive technique. According to an invoice, Mallory Todd, founder of E.M.Todd & Co., was shipping hams to the West Indies in 1779. The best of the hams come from the hog that is allowed to roam through the woods and fields in the spring and summer and thus grow strong and lean. In the fall he is turned into fields from which the major part of the peanut crop has been taken but where enough has been left to fatten him. After the killing, hams are packed in salt, then subjected to a slow smoking above smoldering hickory fires. Afterward they are stored for at least a year, though the thicker the mold the more the connoisseur is pleased. In and around Smithfield real 'Virginia hams' are procurable. Local cooks advise that hams be boiled 20 minutes to the pound, allowed to cool, be skinned, baked, and, for serving, sliced to paper thinness. The experts disdain coatings of brown sugar, cloves, and dressings of wine. Well-cured and cooked, Smithfield ham is deep red, with the fat translucent amber. In Smithfield are preserved orders from Windsor Castle for hams that were sent to Queen Victoria.

The OLD COURTHOUSE OF ISLE OF WIGHT COUNTY, NE. corner Main and Mason Sts., is a two-story brick building, now covered with plaster. This building was used from 1750 to 1800 for the legal business of the county. The OLD CLERK'S OFFICE, adjoining the former courthouse, is an ivy-covered cottage, now a beauty salon. The OLD COUNTY JAIL, the corner of Mason St., is a red brick building that has been converted into a residence.

MASONIC HALL, East Mason St., a two-story gabled building painted gray, houses Union Lodge No. 18 of the Ancient, Free, and Accepted Order of Masons, chartered in October 1787. The following year meetings were held in a building that had housed a school for which Elizabeth Smith, wife of Arthur Smith II, had donated L125, but which had fallen into disuse because hatred of all things British caused resentment against Mrs. Smith's stipulation that the principal of the school be a clergyman of the Church of England.

WINDSOR CASTLE, off Church St., in a section of Smithfield known as Jericho, is a story-and-a-half stuccoed brick house with dormers. Its tree-shaded enclosure was once terraced to the water's edge. The wide center hall opens into four square rooms on each floor. Here lived Arthur Smith upon whose land Smithfield was built.

Right from Smithfield on State 158 to ISLE OF WIGHT, 13.9 m. (see Tour 18).

At 79.2 m. on State 10 is a junction with County 659.

Left here to ST. LUKE'S CHURCH (L), 0.1 m., the Old Brick Church, as it was first known, in a quiet yard screened from the highway by a grove of large trees. The mellow red brick building is typical of early rural churches in England.

The massive square tower, which forms almost the whole front of the gabled nave has a Norman character, especially in its broad, low, central portal beneath a round arch of brick. The quoined corners of brick and a rudimentary pediment just above the door are the only architectural suggestions of the classical influence. String courses of raised brick divide the tower into three stages, the second of which is pierced on each side by a round-arched window composed of two lancet openings divided by brick tracery. The highest stage is pierced by plain round-arched openings. The thick walls of the body of the church, laid in Flemish bond like the tower, are cut by round-arched, double-lancet windows, four to a side, between heavily graceful buttresses that break back thrice above the high water table. The steep roof is terminated at the back by a many-stepped gable in brick that helps to frame a 'great' window. The design of this opening is late Gothic, and the lights of its upper tier are lancet, but the two lower tiers, of four lights each have round arches in pre-Gothic style. The furnishings of the restored interior, including pulpit and boxpews, have been copied from the simplest style common in England in the mid-seventeenth century.

Warrascoyack Parish was created in 1632 and a church was built almost at once under the supervision of Joseph Bridger. Evidence from the oldest vestry book, Volume Two, that the cypress shingles, generally serviceable for a century, were replaced in 1737 and the discovery of a brick apparently marked 1632 buttress the strong local tradition that the present church is the first building. Yet a brick church comparable in size was not completed at Jamestown, the capital, until the 1650's. The present St. Luke's was probably built about the same time or shortly afterwards, as the style of the two churches was similar.

Neglected from 1777 to 1821 and abandoned again after 1830, the church lost its roof in a storm in 1887, when part of the east wall also fell. This damage awakened interest in the venerable edifice, and its restoration was begun the same year.

SUFFOLK, 94.5 m. (58 alt., 10,271 pop.) (see Tour 18), is at junctions with US 460 (see Tour 18) and US 58 (see Tour 7a), and State 32.

South of Suffolk State 10 passes through a trucking district of small fertile farms that stretch westward from the Dismal Swamp (see Tour 6b).

At 107.7 m. State 10 crosses the North Carolina Line, 9 miles north of Sunbury, N.C. (see North Carolina Guide).

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