Portrait of America: Survey Graphic in the ThirtiesHomeIntroductionEditor's NotesArticlesFurther Reading


Guiding Questions


1930s Resources

1930s Timeline


Chambers, Clarke A. Paul U. Kellogg and the Survey: Voices for Social Welfare and Social Justice. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1971.

Part Kellogg biography, part journal history. Relevant chapters are "Depression and the Coming of the New Deal," "Years of Crisis," and "The Survey and the New Deal, 1935-41."

_____. Seedtime of Reform: American Social Service and Social Action, 1918-1933. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1963.

Discusses the social worker's role in government reform efforts in the thirties.

Cooney, Terry. Balancing Acts: American Thought and Culture in the 1930s. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1995.

The chapter "New Deals and Old" has commentary on social science and the New Deal.

Graham, Otis L., Jr. An Encore for Reform: The Old Progressives and the New Deal. New York: Oxford University Press, 1967.

Graham says that many of the old progressives, such as Paul Kellogg, supported many New Deal reforms because the Roosevelt administration was the first to offer federal relief in the form of public housing, social security, and unemployment compensation.

Guimond, James. American Photography and the American Dream. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

Guimond analyzes the hard-times images of the FSA photographers and compares them to mainstream media depictions of life in the thirties.

Huff, Daniel D. "Every Picture Tells a Story." Social Work, November 1998, 43 (6), 576-83.

Huff argues that social workers such as photographer Lewis Hine recognized the power of the visual image and the importance of using photography in social work. Huff argues that social workers should use visual media "to provide the emotional context that is such a crucial component of all social problems." Discusses importance of Jacob Riis, Lewis Hine, Paul Kellogg, Dorothea Lange, and Roy Stryker.

Levine, Lawrence W. "The Historian and the Icon: Photography and the History of the American People in the 1930s and 1940s." in Documenting America, 1935-1943. eds. Carl Fleischhauer and Beverly W. Brannan. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Provides a good visual analysis of select photographs.

McCausland, Elizabeth. "Documentary Photography." Photo Notes, January 1939.

Stott, William. Documentary Expression and Thirties America. New York: Oxford University Press, 1973.

Good analysis of documentary writing and documentary photography in the thirties.

Survey Graphic.
New York: Survey Associates, Inc. 1930-1939.


Kay Davis, University of Virginia, © 2001-2003