Work Cited


  • Altman, Rick. The American Film Musical. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.

  • Annie [audiorecording] Burbank, CA: Columbia, 1982.

  • Annie [videorecording] Burbank, CA: Columbia/Tristar, 1982.

  • Annie: A New Musical (Original Broadway Cast) New York, NY: Columbia, 1977.

  • Annie's 1940 Timeline. August 2001. www.annie75.com/timeline/index40.html

  • Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990.

  • Doane, Mary Ann. "Film and the Masquerade-Theorising the Female Spectator" Screen Vol. 23 Num. 3-4. London: Society for Education in Film and Television Ltd., 1982.

  • e-mails to Abby Manzella on childhood memories about Annie

  • Fiske, John. Understanding Popular Culture. New York: Routledge, 1989.

  • Howe, Neil and Bill Strauss. 13th Generation: Abort, Retry, Ignore, Fail?. New York: Vintage Books, 1993.

  • Inness, Sherrie A. Tough Girls: Women Warriors and Wonder Women in Popular Culture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1999.

  • Lebeau, Vicky. "Daddy's Cinema: Feminity and Mass Spectatorship." Screen. Vol. 33 Num. 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992.

  • Manzella, Abby. Kaddy Korner: The TV Show. [audiorecording] Wyomissing Hills, PA: self-published, 1986.

  • Mazzarella, Sharon R. and Norma Odom Pecora, ed. Growing Up Girls: Popular Culture and the Construction of Identity. New York: Peter Lang, 1999.

  • Rosenfeld, Megan. The Washington Post. July 2001. "Annie's Girls: 'They're Children, but they're in an adult Profession'; In New Jersey Six Stage-Struck 'Orphans' in Search of a Scene." www.geocities.com/anniemovie/articles/orphans.html

  • Smith, Bruce. The History of Little Orphan Annie. New York: Ballantine Books, 1982.

  • Sobieski, Carol. Annie [screenplay]. 1980.

  • Traube, Elizabeth G. Dreaming Identities: Class, Gender, and Generation in 1980s Hollywood Movies. Boulder, CO: Westerview Press, 1992.

  • Vandereycken, Walter and Ron Van Deth. From Fasting Saints to Anoerexic Girls: The History of Self-Starvation. New York: New York University Press, 1994.






by Abby Manzella, American Studies at the University of Virginia, May 2002