Caffin, Caroline. Vaudeville. New York: Mitchell Kennerly, 1914.

Green, Abel and Joe Laurie, Jr. From Vaude to Video. New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1951.

Levine, Lawrence W. Highbrow/Lowbrow: The Emergence of Cultural Hierarchy in America. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988.

McLean, Albert F. American Vaudeville as Ritual. University of Kentucky Press, 1965

Oberdeck, Kathryn J. The Evangelist and the Impresario: Religion, Entertainment, and Cultural Politics in America, 1884-1914. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press, 1999.

Sobel, Bernard. A Pictorial History of Vaudeville. New York: Bonanza Books, 1961.

Tosches, Nick. Where Dead Voices Gather. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 2001.

Trachtenberg, Alan. The Incorporation of America: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age. New York: Hill and Wang, 1982.

Stein, Charles W., ed. American Vaudeville as Seen by its Contemporaries. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1984.

Library of Congress' American Memory: American Variety Stage

Vaudeville Resource Page

Paul Volpe's Site on Sister Carrie and Legitimate Theatre in the Gilded Age

Looking at the Business of Theatre: 1896-1919

Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show