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  • Anzaldua, Gloria. Borderlands: La Frontera, The New Mestiza. San Francisco: Aunt Lute Book Company, 1987.
  • Bennett, Juda. The Passing Figure: Racial Confusion in Modern American Literature. New York: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc., 1996.
  • Berzon, Judith R., Neither White Nor Black: The Mulatto Character in American Fiction. New York: NYU Press, 1978.
  • Bloom, Harold. Black American Prose Writers Before the Harlem Renaissance. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1994.
  • Boeckmann, Cathy. Scientific Racism and Genres of American Fiction 1892-1912. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2000.
  • Bogle, Donald. Blacks in American Film and Television: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1998.
  • Bogle, Donald. Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films. New York: The Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001.
  • Bowser, Pearl and Spence, Louise. Writing Himself Into History: Oscar Micheaux, His Silent Films, and His Audiences. New
  • Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2000.
  • Bowser, Pearl, Gaines, Jane, and Musser Charles, eds. Oscar Micheaux and His Circle: African American Filmmaking and Race Cinema of the Silent Era. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.
  • Browder, Laura. Slippery Characters: Ethnic Impersonators and American Identities. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2000.
  • Carby, Hazel V. Reconstructing Womanhood: The Emergence of the Afro-American Woman Novelist.. New York: Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • Cripps, Thomas. Slow Fade to Black: The Negro in American Film, 1900-1942.. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977.
  • Diawara, Manthia, ed. Black American Cinema. New York: Routledge, 1993.
  • Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. New York: Vintage Books, 1972.
  • Franklin, John Hope, and Moss, Jr., Alfred A. From Slavery to Freedom: A History of African Americans. New York: McGraw-Hill Inc., 1994.
  • Fusco, Coco. "Fantasies of Oppositionality", Afterimage. (December 1988).
  • Gaines, Jane M. Mixed Race Movies in the Silent Era. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2001.
  • Gates, Jr., Henry Louis. and McKay, Nellie, eds. Norton Anthology of African American Literature. New York: Norton, 1997.
  • Ginsberg, Elaine K, ed. Passing and the Fictions of Identity. Durham: Duke University Press, 1996.
  • Green, Ronald J. Straight Lick: The Cinema of Oscar Micheaux. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2000.
  • hooks, bell. Yearning: Race, Gender, and Cultural Politics. Boston: South End Press, 1990.
  • Lott, Eric. Love and Theft: Blackface Minstrelsy and the American Working Class. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
  • Piper, Adrian. "Passing for White, Passing for Black", Transition 58 (1992): 4-32.
  • Richards, Larry. African American Films Through 1959. Jefferson: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 1998.
  • Sollors, Werner. Interracialism: Black-White Intermarraige in American History, Literature, and Law. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
  • Sollors, Werner. Neither Black Nor White Yet Both: Thematic Explorations of Interracial Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.
  • Wald, Gayle. Crossing the line: Twentieth Century Passing in U.S. Literature and Culture. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000.
  • Warren, Jonathan W. and Winddance, Twine. "White Americans, the New Minority?: Non-Blacks and the Ever-Expanding Boundaries of Whitenes", Journal of Black Studies, Volume 28, Issue 2 (Nov., 1997), 200-218.
  • Young, Joseph A. Black Novelist As White Racist: The Myth of Black Inferiority in the Novels of Oscar Micheaux. New York: Greenwood Press, 1989.


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