African-American History & Culture, Facts on File, 2004

Baraka, Amiri. Blues People: Negro Music in White America. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1980.

Clarke, John Henrik, ed. Marcus Garvey and the Vision of Africa. New York: Vintage Books, 1974.

Cullen, Countee. "Poet on Poet." Critical Essays on Langston Hughes. Ed. Edward J. Mullen. Boston: G.K. Hall & Co, 1986. 37-39.

Dubois, W.E.B. The Souls of Black Folk. New York: Penguin Books, 1995.

Dubois, W.E.B. "Talented Tenth"

Dubois, W.E.B. "Criteria for Negro Art"

Gates, Henry Louis, Jr. and McKay, Nellie Y., Eds. Audio Companion to The Norton Anthology of African-American Literature, 2nd Edition. New York : W.W. Norton & Co., 2004.

Hickey, Neil and Edwin, Ed. Adam Clayton Powell and the Politics of Race. New York : Fleet Publishing Corporation, 1965.

Huggins, Nathan. Harlem Renaissance. New York : Oxford UP, 1971.

Hughes, Langston. "Caribbean Sunset." The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. Ed. Arnold Rampersad. New York : Knopf, 1994. 98.

---. "The Cat and the Saxophone." The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. Ed. Arnold Rampersad. New York : Knopf, 1994. 89.

Johnson, James Weldon. Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. New York : Penguin Books, 1990. 122-23.

Johnson, James Weldon, ed. "Preface." Book of American Negro Poetry. New York : Harcourt, Brace, & Co, 1931. 1-46.

Kinney, John William. Adam Clayton Powell, Sr. and Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: A Historical Exposition and Theological Analysis. Dissertation

Lewis, David Levering. When Harlem Was In Vogue. New York : Knopf, 1981.

Locke, Alain, ed. The New Negro: Voices of the Harlem Renaissance. Simon & Schuster. New York. 1995.

New American Standard Bible. Zondervan Press. Grand Rapids, Michigan. 2002.

O'Daniel, Therman B., ed. Langston Hughes, Black Genius: A Critical Evaluation. New York : William Morrow & Company, Inc., 1971.

Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr. Adam by Adam: The Autobiography of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.. New York : First Carol Publishing Group, 1994.

Powers, Peters. "'The Singing Man Who Must be Reckoned With': Private Desire and Public Responsibility in the Poetry of Countee Cullen". African American Review. Winter, 2000.

Rampersad, Arnold. The Life of Langston Hughes. 2 vols. New York : Oxford University Press, 1986.

Survey Graphic. March, 1925. Vol. VI, No. 6. Harlem Number. http://etext.virginia.edu/harlem/.

Washington, Up from Slavery.

Washington, "Atlanta Exposition Address"


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