Title Page
Map of the Grounds
Introduction
Panama Canal
San Francisco
The Exposition's Architecture
The Exposition's Architecture
The Exposition's Architecture
The Exposition's Architecture
The Exposition's Architecture
Conclusion and Further Reading


Conclusion,
Notes and Bibliography

Created on a grand multicultural stage intended to promote peace and trade between nations, the Panama-Pacific International Exposition of 1915 largely became a vehicle for the current trends of
Expositon at night
Colorized panoramic of the brilliantly lit Exposition at night
racism and combative nationalism running through the United States. As they became a part of the larger world, San Francisco, California and the United States had a grand opportunity with the Exposition to express to foreign nations that they had disabused themselves of the provincial attitudes that had pervaded much of their history.

Though opening in a charged political climate with hostilities in Europe increasing in intensity each day, the Exposition had an opportunity to broadcast a message of peace through commerce to the world. The Panama Canal brought the nations closer together such that a mixture of cultures and economies, as many believed, could do nothing but help build the bonds of international brotherhood. No city in the United States, many thought, would understand the wide variety of people, and have a demeanor inclined towards their acceptance than the city by the Golden Gate. Unfortunately, the hopes and intentions of so many people seemed to disappear under a cloud of cultural myopia and militaristic jingoism.

The Panama Canal brought a great deal of the world's focus to the Pacific and brought a grand international exposition to San Francisco. However, despite the multiculturalism of the regional influences and the attempts of the Exposition's designers to demonstrate their sophistication through architecture, the Panama Pacific International Exposition failed to broadcast the same message of cosmopolitanism to the world.




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Notes

The Panama-Pacific International Exposition, though not quite as widely represented in secondary source material as her forebears, still maintains a notable presence in library and online collections focused towards World Fairs. Of course Frank Morton Todd's official Story of the Expositon will always remain the definitive source for all future studies of the Exposition (as all secondary sources significantly used his exhaustive history), several of the other sources were helpful to me in gaining a wider perspective of San Francisco's first foray into the international spotlight.

The best secondary source, I felt, was Burton Benedict's collection of essays in his Anthropology of World's Fairs. Not only did this investigate the creation of the fair (which I chose not to include as it trailed away from my focused topic), it also incorporates a wealth of material on the arts and exhibits of the Exposition. Any person wanting a well written, relatively brief overview of the PPIE should consider consulting this book first.

A number of websites have helped both myself in this project as well as make publically available the heretofore hard to find images and texts in reference to the Exposition. Their vast reservoirs of images (along with many I scanned myself) helped generate the "Tour" portion of this project.

You may want to visit the following websites for further investigation into the PPIE:



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Bibliography

Primary Sources
  • Barrett, John. Panama Canal: What it is, What it means, Washington, D.C.: Pan American Union, 1913.
  • Barry, John D. The City of Domes, San Francisco: John J. Newbegin, 1915.
  • Director of Exploitation, Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Letter to Gov. Woodbridge Ferris. 15 Jan. 1913. San Francisco History Center, San Francisco Public Library.
  • Johnson, Emory R. The Panama Canal and Commerce, New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1916.
  • Kelham, George. “Will the Panama-Pacific International Exposition be an Architectural Influence?” Pacific Coast Architect, 9 May 1915: 59.
  • MacDonald, William. “The California Expositions.” World's Fairs & Expositions. Ed. Jim Zwick. 2002. http://www.boondocksnet.com/expos/.
  • Macomber, Ben. The Jewel City, San Francisco: John H. Williams (Publisher), 1915.
  • Neuhaus, Eugen. The Art of the Exposition, San Francisco: Paul Elder and Co., 1915.
  • Panama-Pacific International Exposition Co. The Legacy of the Exposition: Interpretation of the Intellectual and Moral Heritageleft to Mankind by the World Celebration at San Francisco in 1915, San Francisco: Panama-Pacific International Exposition Co., 1916.
  • ---. The Blue Book: A Complete Souvenir View Book Illustrating the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco: Panama-Pacific International Exposition Co., 1915.
  • Rosskam, Edwin. San Francisco: West Coast Metropolis, New York: Alliance Book Co., 1939.
  • Todd, Frank Morton. The Story of the Exposition, 5 vols. New York: G. P. Putnam Sons, 1921.
Newspaper Articles (chronologically)
  • “A City of Lovely Light,” San Francisco Examiner, 21 Feb. 1915: supplement.
  • “Odd Scenes from Far Lands Shown,” San Francisco Chronicle, 23 Feb. 1915: 4.
  • Williams, Dr. Henry Smith. “Are We Importing Lunacy?” San Francisco Chronicle, 10 June 1915: 18.
  • “Big Crowd Gatheres to Hear Bryan,” San Francisco Examiner, 6 July 1915: 1.
  • “‘Destroyer’ is Blown to Bits,” San Francisco Examiner, 6 July 1915: 2.
  • “The Pacifist Ideal,” San Francisco Chronicle, 23 July 1915: Thought and Comment.
  • “Pacifists Seek to Chinafy America,” San Francisco Examiner, 23 July 1915: 1.
  • “Prepare Against War: Roosevelt,” San Francisco Examiner, 23 July 1915: 1.
  • “Ancient Race Being Forced from Land,” San Francisco Chronicle, 3 Aug. 1915: 3.
  • “Experts Warn of Race Perils,” San Francisco Examiner, 5 Aug. 1915: 4.
  • Williams, Dr. Henry Smith. “The Greatest Migration in History.” San Francisco Chronicle, 8 Aug. 1915: supplement.
  • “Love Ahead of Eugenics, Says Doctor,” San Francisco Examiner, 8 Aug. 1915: 59.
  • “Burbank Views Race Culture,” San Francisco Examiner, 8 Aug. 1915: 59.
  • “Regulation of Births is Urged by Eugenist,” San Francisco Examiner, 8 Aug. 1915: 59.
Secondary Sources
  • Armstrong, Elizabeth N. “Hercules and the Muses: Public Art and the Fair,”
    Brechin, Gray. “Sailing to Byzantium: The Architecture the Fair,”
    Dobkin, Marjorie M. “A Twenty-Five-Million-Dollar Miracle,”
    Starr, George. “Truth Unveiled: The Fair and Its Interpreters,” in
    Benedict, Burton, ed. The Anthropology of World's Fairs, Berkeley, CA: Scolar Press, 1983.
  • ---, et al. Catalogue to San Francisco's Expositions, 1915 and 1939: An Exhibit (20 Oct. 1982 - 31 Dec. 1983) Lowie Museum of Anthropology, UC Berkeley. Berkeley, CA: U of C Press, 1982.
  • Brechin, Gray. Imperial San Francisco: Urban Power, Earthly Ruin, Berkeley, CA: U of C Press, 1999.
  • Lee, Portia. Victorious Spirit: Regional Influences in the Architecure, Landscaping and Murals of the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, Diss. George Washington U, 1984.
  • Newhall, Ruth. San Francisco's Enchanted Palace, Berkeley, CA: Howell-North Books, 1967.
  • Rose, Julie K. “City Beautiful: The 1901 Plan for Washington, D.C.” Incorporation of America: The Hypertext. Ed. Alan Howard. American Studies Program, U of Virginia. Spring, 1996.
  • ---. “The World's Columbian Exposition: Idea, Experience, Aftermath.” Incorporation of America: The Hypertext. Ed. Alan Howard. American Studies Program, U of Virginia. 1 Aug. 1996 http://xroads.virginia.edu/~MA96/WCE/title.html.
  • Rydell, Robert W. All the World's a Fair: Visions of Empire at American International Expositions, 1876-1916, Chicago: U of Chicago Press, 1984.
  • ---, ed. Fair America: World's Fairs in the United States, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Inst. Press, 2000.
  • Schlereth, Thomas J. Victorian America: Transformations in Everyday Life, 1876-1915, New York: HarperCollins, 1991.


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