1) For references to the popularity of ghost stories, see Howard Kerr, Mediums, and Spirit-Rappers, and Roaring Radicals: Spritualism in American Literature, 1850-1900 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1972) 55; Helen Sword, Ghostwriting Modernism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2002) 4-5. For an indication of how the development of new, consumption communities might have contributed to this increase in popularity, see Thomas J. Schlereth, Victorian America: Transformations in Everyday Life, 1876-1915 (New York: Harper Perennial, 1991) 141-155.