In presenting this confrontation, OíConnor employs the devices of the aesthetic tradition of the grotesque. Her genuine belief in Christian metaphysics as a universal reality behind the perceived world challenges both the historical use of the grotesque and also the post-modern readings of the various forms of disability studies. These traditions respectively interpret the disruption engendered by the grotesque/monster/disabled as a revelator of the absence of authentic meaning behind the socially constructed reality. OíConnorís religious understanding posits a divine Presence, where others see only a void. Ultimately, this separates her philosophically not only from the dominant culture of her own time but also from the various political and intellectual movements that have arisen in reaction to it.