BACKGROUND AND CRITICAL CONTEXT
--Establishes the place of The Confidence-Man in the body of Melville's work, and traces the history of its critical reception.
THE METAFICTION OF THE CONFIDENCE-MAN
--Sets out the interpretive basis of the current project.
THE CONFIDENCE-MAN AS HYPERTEXT
--Discusses the ways in which The Confidence-Man anticipates and meshes with the medium of hypertext.
Melville, Herman. The Confidence-Man: His Masquerade. New York: Dix & Edwards, 1857. Online Version: Scott Atkins, ed. 1996. Abbreviated--CM.
Melville, Herman. "Hawthorne and His Mosses." Online Version: Scott Atkins, 1996. Abbr.--HM.
Melville, Herman. Billy Budd, Sailor. The Norton Anthology of American Literature. Hershel Parker, ed. New York: Norton, 1989. 1038-1093. Abbr.-- BB.
 Newton Arvin, Herman Melville (New York: The Viking Press, 1957) 233.
 Elizabeth Foster cites as the cause the "gathering financial panic of 1857" (Foster, xxxi) while John Seelye gives a reason I personally prefer to believe: that it was "due to the finagling of one of the partners" (Introduction, The Confidence-Man, 1968).
 Raymond M. Weaver, Herman Melville, Mariner and Mystic (New York: 1921). Carl Van Vechten, "The Later Works of Herman Melville." The Double Dealer 3 (Jan., 1922), 9-20. [Van Wyck Brooks], "A Reviewer's Notebook." The Freeman 7 (May 9, 1923), 214-215. John Freeman, Herman Melville (London: 1926). Lewis Mumford, Herman Melville (New York: 1929) 247-255. Yvor Winters, Maule's Curse (Norfolk: 1938) 82- 85. Newton Arvin, Herman Melville.
 Two works of this sort are: Susan Kuhlmann, Knave, Fool, Genius: The Confidence Man as He Appears in Nineteenth-Century American Fiction (Chapel Hill, NC: UNC Press, 1973); Gary Lindberg, The Confidence- Man in American Literature (New York: Oxford UP, 1982).
 H. Bruce Franklin, The Wake of the Gods: Melville's Mythology (Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 1963) 153-87.
 Dryden, Melville's Thematics of Form. Abbreviated within subsequent text as MTF.
 A. Robert Lee, "Voices Off, On, and Without: Ventriloquy in 'The Confidence-Man.'" Herman Melville: Reassessments. Ed. A. Robert Lee. (Totowa, NJ: Barnes and Noble, 1984) 157-175.
 Gustaaf Van Cromphout, "The Confidence- Man and the Problem of Others." Studies in American Fiction 21 (Spr. 1993): 37-50.
 Franklin, Introduction, The Confidence-Man (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967) xix.
 Martin Heidegger, "The Origin of the Work of Art," trans. Albert Hofstadter, Martin Heidegger: Basic Writings, ed. David Farrell Krell (San Francisco: Harper Collins, 1993) 182, 185.
 For a treatment of Melville's "ventriloquy," see Lee 157- 175.
 Newton Arvin, in his biography of Melville, refers to it as a "montone of blackness." Herman Melville: A Critical Biography (New York: The Viking Press, 1957).
 Richard Boyd Hauck, "Nine Good Jokes: The Redemptive Humor of the Confidence Man and The Confidence Man." Ruined Eden of the Present: Hawthorne, Melville, and Poe. Eds. G.R. Thompson and Virgil Lokke (West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue UP, 1981) 245-282.
 Gary Lindberg writes in regard to the story of "man with the weed": "To give us our first lesson in what stories mean, the narrator omits the content and presents instead the transaction for which the story serves as instrument." The Confidence-Man in American Literature (New York: Oxford UP, 1982) 29.
 Van Cromphout, 45.
 Hauck, A Cheerful Nihilism (Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana UP, 1971) 77.
 The Republic. Trans. G.M.A. Grube (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Co., 1974) X, 247.
 Franklin, ed., The Confidence-Man 172 n.
 Mikhail Bakhtin, Problems of Doestoevsky's Poetics. Ed. and trans. Caryl Emerson (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1984). Bakhtin's point is especially interesting because it comes in his treatment of the "serio- comic" genres--specifically the "Socratic Dialog" and the "Menippean Satire"--out of which, he argues, the novel developed. The "dialogic" and satirical form of the whole of The Confidence-Man would seem to suggest the fruitfulness of further study along these lines.
 M.H. Abrams, Natural Supernaturalism: Tradition and Revolution in Romantic Literature (New York: Norton, 1973) Chp. 2, 102-103. Abbreviated--NS.
 The "mephitic breeze" around Cairo was, at the time Melville wrote, notorious, having been popularized most (in)famously as "Eden" in Charles Dickens's Martin Chuzzlewit (1844).
 Franklin notes, "From here on no avatar of the Confidence Man will appear as listed by the Negro 'widout massa,' Black Guinea...." 180, n.
 Hauck, "Nine Good Jokes," 280.
 Hershel Parker, "The Metaphysics of Indian-hating." In The Confidence-Man, Hershel Parker, ed. (New York: Norton, 1971) 323- 331.
 Peter J. Bellis makes much the same point in "Melville's The Confidence Man: An Uncharitable Interpretation." American Literature 59 (Dec. 1987) 553.
 The use of "smoke as a mask" is pointed out by Franklin, 183n.
 Franklin, 331n.
 Bellis, 551.
 Lee, 160.
 Van Cromphout, 37.
 George Landow, Hypertext (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1984).
THE CONFIDENCE-MAN: HIS MASQUERADE
scott eric atkins ||| sea2u@virginia