1. Joel Snyder, American Frontiers (Aperture, 1981) 114-115.
  2. ibid, 14.
  3. ibid, 99.
  4. Marth A. Sandweiss, "Undecisive Moments," Photography in the Nineteenth-Century America, ed. Martha A. Sandweiss (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1991) 99.
  5. Timothy Sweet, Traces of War: Poetry, Photography and the Crisis of the Union (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990) 84.
  6. Henry Peach Robinson, "Idealism Realism, Expressionism," Classic Essays on Photography, ed. Alan Trachtenberg (New Haven: Leete's Island Books, 1980) 96.
  7. Alan Trachtenberg, "Naming the View," Reading American Photographs, ed. Alan Trachtenberg (Hill and Wang, 1989) 140-141.


  1. James D. Horan Timothy O'Sullivan: America's Forgotten Photographer (New York: Bonanza Books, 1986) 3.
  2. ibid, 4.
  3. ibid, 6.
  4. ibid, 36-37.
  5. ibid, 3.
  6. ibid, 59.
  7. ibid, 49.
  8. Alan Trachtenberg, "Albums of War," Reading American Photographs, ed. Alan Trachtenberg (Hill and Wang, 1989) 107-109.
  9. James D. Horan Timothy O'Sullivan: America's Forgotten Photographer (New York: Bonanza Books, 1986) 27.
  10. Alan Trachtenberg, "Albums of War," Reading American Photographs, ed. Alan Trachtenberg (Hill and Wang, 1989) 74.
  11. ibid, 74.
  12. ibid, 74.
  13. Keith F. Davis, "A Terrible Distinctness: Photography of the Civil War Era," Photography in the Nineteenth-Century America, ed. Martha A. Sandweiss (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1991) 132.
  14. Alan Trachtenberg, "Albums of War," Reading American Photographs, ed. Alan Trachtenberg (Hill and Wang, 1989) 74.
  15. ibid, 75.
  16. ibid, 75. and

    Timothy Sweet, Traces of War: Poetry, Photography and the Crisis of the Union (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990) 7-9.

  17. Alan Trachtenberg, "Albums of War," Reading American Photographs, ed. Alan Trachtenberg (Hill and Wang, 1989) 78.
  18. ibid, 80.
  19. Timothy Sweet, Traces of War: Poetry, Photography and the Crisis of the Union (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990) 1.
  20. ibid, 1-2.
  21. Alexander Gardner, Photographic Sketchbook of the War. (New York: Dover Publications, 1959) plate 36.
  22. ibid, plate 37.
  23. Timothy Sweet, Traces of War: Poetry, Photography and the Crisis of the Union (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990) 136.
  24. Estelle Jussim and Elizabeth Lindquist-Cook, Landscape as Photograph (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985) 47.
  25. Rick Dingus, The Photographic Artifacts of Timothy O'Sullivan (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1982) 51-52.
  26. Raymond Williams, Keywords. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1983) 279.
  27. ibid, 311.


  1. Rick Dingus, The Photographic Artifacts of Timothy O'Sullivan (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1982) 1.
  2. ibid, 1.
  3. James D. Horan Timothy O'Sullivan: America's Forgotten Photographer (New York: Bonanza Books, 1986) 42.
  4. Timothy Sweet, Traces of War: Poetry, Photography and the Crisis of the Union (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990) 1.
  5. Alexander Gardner, Photographic Sketchbook of the War. (New York: Dover Publications, 1959) plate 36.
  6. James D. Horan Timothy O'Sullivan: America's Forgotten Photographer (New York: Bonanza Books, 1986) 1.
  7. Timothy Sweet, Traces of War: Poetry, Photography and the Crisis of the Union (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990) 1.
  8. Franny Nudleman explains.
  9. Estelle Jussim and Elizabeth Lindquist-Cook, Landscape as Photograph (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985) 27.
  10. Timothy Sweet, Traces of War: Poetry, Photography and the Crisis of the Union (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990) 8.
  11. ibid, 8.
  12. ibid, 85.
  13. Abraham Lincoln, Selected Speeches and Writings (New York: Vintage Books, 1989) 290, 293.
  14. Timothy Sweet, Traces of War: Poetry, Photography and the Crisis of the Union (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990) 8-9.
  15. ibid, 126-127
  16. ibid, 126.
  17. William A. Frassanito Grant and Lee, The Virginia Campaigns, 1864-1865 (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1983) 14.
  18. ibid, 223.
  19. ibid, 223.
  20. Henry Peach Robinson, "Idealism Realism, Expressionism," Classic Essays on Photography, ed. Alan Trachtenberg (New Haven: Leete's Island Books, 1980) 94.
  21. Rick Dingus, The Photographic Artifacts of Timothy O'Sullivan (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1982) xii-xiii.
  22. Robert Adams, Why People Photograph (Aperture, 1994) 31, 33, 35.


  1. Robert Adams, Why People Photograph (Aperture, 1994) 142.
  2. Alan Trachtenberg, "Naming the View," Reading American Photographs, ed. Alan Trachtenberg (Hill and Wang, 1989) 163.
  3. Rick Dingus, The Photographic Artifacts of Timothy O'Sullivan (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1982) 4.
  4. John Szarkowski, American Landscapes. (New York: The Museum of Modern Art, 1981) 6.
  5. Martin Christadler, "American Landscape: Geology and the Sacred, Commerce and Manifest Destiny," Gustave Le Gray, Carleton E. Watkins: Pioneers of Landscape Photography: photographs from the collection of the J. Paul Getty Museum, ed. Margret Stuffman and Martin Sonnabend et all. (Mainz: H. Schmidt, 1993) 118.
  6. Joel Snyder, American Frontiers (Aperture, 1981) 42.
  7. Rick Dingus, The Photographic Artifacts of Timothy O'Sullivan (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1982) 82.
  8. ibid, 82.
  9. ibid, 82.
  10. ibid, 82.
  11. Weston Naef in collaboration with James N. Wood, Era of Exploration: The Rise of Landscape Photography in the American West, 1860-1885 (Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1975) 16-17.
  12. Rick Dingus, The Photographic Artifacts of Timothy O'Sullivan (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1982) 82.
  13. Anne Farrar Hyde, An American Vision: Far Western Landscape and National Culture, 1820-1920 (New York: New York University Press, 1990) 9.
  14. Joel Snyder, American Frontiers (Aperture, 1981) 44.
  15. Rick Dingus, The Photographic Artifacts of Timothy O'Sullivan (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1982) 81-82.
  16. Estelle Jussim and Elizabeth Lindquist-Cook, Landscape as Photograph (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985) 28.
  17. Joel Snyder, American Frontiers (Aperture, 1981) 40.
  18. ibid, 18.
  19. ibid, 18.
  20. ibid, 51.
  21. ibid, 45.
  22. Weston Naef in collaboration with James N. Wood, Era of Exploration: The Rise of Landscape Photography in the American West, 1860-1885 (Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1975) 128.
  23. Robert Adams, Why People Photograph (Aperture, 1994) 153.
  24. ibid, 153.
  25. John Sampson, "Photographs from the High Rockies," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, vol. XXXIX, September 1869, 7.
  26. James D. Horan Timothy O'Sullivan: America's Forgotten Photographer (New York: Bonanza Books, 1986) 249.
  27. John Sampson, "Photographs from the High Rockies," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, vol. XXXIX, September 1869, 7.
  28. Rick Dingus, The Photographic Artifacts of Timothy O'Sullivan (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1982) 45.
  29. Robert Adams, Why People Photograph (Aperture, 1994) 135-136.
  30. ibid, 147.
  31. Rick Dingus, The Photographic Artifacts of Timothy O'Sullivan (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1982) xiii.


  1. Rick Dingus, The Photographic Artifacts of Timothy O'Sullivan (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1982) 49.
  2. ibid, 49.
  3. John Sampson, "Photographs from the High Rockies," Harper's New Monthly Magazine, vol. XXXIX, September 1869, 11.
  4. Rick Dingus, The Photographic Artifacts of Timothy O'Sullivan (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1982) 63.
  5. ibid, 91.
  6. Marth A. Sandweiss, "Undecisive Moments," Photography in the Nineteenth-Century America, ed. Martha A. Sandweiss (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc., Publishers, 1991) 99.
  7. ibid, 103.
  8. Alan Trachtenberg, "Naming the View," Reading American Photographs, ed. Alan Trachtenberg (Hill and Wang, 1989) 162-163.
  9. Robert Adams, Why People Photograph (Aperture, 1994) 153.


  1. Joseph Conrad, The Nigger of the Narcissus (Garden City: Doubleday, Page and Co., 1916) vii.
  2. Robert Adams, Why People Photograph (Aperture, 1994) 89.
  3. Weston Naef in collaboration with James N. Wood, Era of Exploration: The Rise of Landscape Photography in the American West, 1860-1885 (Boston: New York Graphic Society, 1975) 129.
  4. Estelle Jussim and Elizabeth Lindquist-Cook, Landscape as Photograph (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985) 47.
  5. Rick Dingus, The Photographic Artifacts of Timothy O'Sullivan (Albuquerque: The University of New Mexico Press, 1982) 60.
  6. Robert Adams, Why People Photograph (Aperture, 1994) 143.