1. "God's Controversy with New England," Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, XII ( 1871-1873 ), 83, 84.

2. Calendar of State Papers. Colonial Series. America and West Indies. March, 1720, to December 1721, ed. Cecil Headlam (London, 1933), pp. 443-444.

3. Quoted by Thomas P. Abernethy, Western Lands and the American

Revolution ( New York, 1937 ), pp. 20-21.

4. Clarence Alvord, The Mississippi Valley in British Politics, 2 vols. (Cleveland, 1917), I, 52.

5. "Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind,

Peopling of Countries, Etc.," The Writings of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Albert H. Smyth, 10 vols. (New York, 1905- 1907), III, G3, 71. The pamphlet was written in 1751 and published in 1755.

6. Ibid., IV, 55 ( 1760 ).

7. Ibid., III, 71.

8. Ibid., IV, 4.

9. "Verses on the Prospect of Planting Arts and Learning in

America," The Works of George Berkeley, D. D., ed. Alexander C. Fraser, 4 vols. (Oxford, 1901), IV, 364.

10. Quoted by Fred J. Hinkhouse, The Preliminaries of the

American Revolution as Seen ln the English Press, 1763-1775 (New York, 1926), pp. 106-107.

11. The Poems of Philip Freneau, Poet of the American

Revolution, ed. Fred L. Pattee, 3 vols. (Princeton, 1902.), I, 73n. When Freneau revised the text for republication in 1809 he changed "Britain's sons" to "we" and added that American ships would "people half the convex of the main" (ibid., I,75 ).

12. Thomas Hutchins, An Historical Narrative and Topographical Description of Louisiana, and West-Florida ( Philadelphia, 1784), pp. 93-94.

13. Timothy Dwight, Greenfield Hill: A Poem (New York,1794), pp.


14. "Observations on the Article Etats-Unis Prepared for the Encyclopedie," June 22, 1786, The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Paul L. Ford, 10 vols. (New York, 1892-1899), IV, 180-181.

15. The Freeman's Journal or, The North American Intelligencer

(Philadelphia), January 9, 1782, p. [ 1 ] .


1. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed.H.A. Washington, 9 vols. (Philadelphia, 1868-1871),IV, 509 (letter to Du Pont de Nemours, Washington, November 1, 1803).

2. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. Andrew A.

Lipscomb, 20 vols. (Washington, D.C., 1904-1905), XI, 9.0 (letter to William Dunbar, March 13, 1804).


3. Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, ed. Reuben G.Thwaites, 8 vols. (New York, 1904-1905), VII, 195-197, 202-205. 4. Jefferson's "Secret Message to Congress," January 18, 1803, ibid.,

VII, 206-209.

5. ., VII, 208.

6. Ibid. VII, 334.

7. Harrison C. Dale, The Ashley-Smith Explorations and the Discovery

of a Central Route to the Pacific 1822-1829 (Cleveland, 1918), pp. 36-40,


8. James C. Bell, Opening a Highway to the Pacific, 1838-1846 (New

York, 1921), pp. 183-190.


1. Clarence W. Alvord and Lee Bidgood, The First Explorations of the Trans-Allegheny Region by the Virginians 1650-1674 (Cleveland, 1912),

p. 61.

2. The Poems of Philip Freneau, ed. Pattee, I, 76n., 77n.

3. An Historical Narrative and Topographical Description of Louisiana,

and West-Florida p. 94.

4. Original Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, ed. Thwaites, VII, 204.

5. Kentucky Gazette (Lexington), February 28, 1795, p. 2.

6. Original Journals, ed. Thwaites, VII, 248.

7. Ibid., VII, 335. In a letter to Lewis dated July 15, 1803, Jefferson lead quoted without comment a communication from "Mr. La Cepede at Paris" containing the following statement: "If your nation can establish an easy communication by rivers, canals, & short portages between N. York

for example & . . . the mouth of the Columbia, what a route for the commerce of Europe, Asia, & America" (Writings, ed. Ford, VIII, 200n.).

8. Original Journals, VII, 334.

9. Philip A. Rollins, ed., The Discovery of the Oregon Trail. Robert Stuart's Narratives of his Overland Trip Eastward from Astoris in 1812-13 ( New York, 1935 ), pp. lxv-lxxi.

10. "Remarks Made on a Tour to Prairie du Chien; Thence to Washington City, in 1829," in The Writings of Caleb Atwater (Columbus, Ohio, 1833 ), p. 202.

11. Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, XIX, S30 (November, 1848).

12. John Charles Frémont, Memoirs of My Life .... Together with a

Sketch of the Life of Senator Benton, in Connection with Western Expansion, Volume I (all published) (Chicago and New York, 1887), p 10; Thomas Hart Berlton, Thirty Years' View; or, A History of the Working of the Ameri can Government tor Thirty Years, from 1820 to 1850, 2 vols. (New York, 1854 ), I, 43. 13 Thirty Years' View, I, 14.

14. Frémont, Memoirs, p, 12.

15. Ibid.,pp.[l]-2.

16. Ibid., p. 8.

17. Ibid., p. 17.


18. Selections of Editorial Articles from the St. Louis Enquirer, on the Subject of Oregon and Texas, as Originally Published in That Paper in the

Years 1818-19; and Written by the Hon. Thomas H. Benton (St. Louis, 1844 ), p. [5].

19. Ibid., p. 7.

20. Ibid., p. 17.

21. Ibid., p. 23.

22. 18 Cong., 2 Sess., Register of Debates in Congress,

Senate, I, cols.712-713 ( March 1, 1825) . 23. Ibid., cols. 71 1-712.

24. 30 Cong., 2 Sess., Congressional Globe, Senate, p. 473

(February 7, 1849).

25. Idem.

26. Idem.

27. 29 Cong., 1 Sess., Congressional Globe, Senate, p. 916 (May 28, 1846).

28. Idem.

29. Letter from Col. Benton to the People of Missouri.

Central National Highway from the Mississippi River to the Pacific (1854), n. p.,n. d.

30. 30 Cong., 1 Sess., Congressional Globe, Senate, p. 1011 (July 29,

31. Discourse of Mr. Benton, of Missouri, before the Boston Mercantile Library Association, on the Physical Geography of the Country between the States of Missouri and California . . . Delivered in the Tremont Temple, at Boston . . . December 20, 1854 ( Washington, 1854 ), p. 4. 32. Ibid., p. 17.

33. Ibid., p. 21.

34. Address of Mr. A. Whitney, before the Legislature of

Pennsylvania on his Project for a Railroad from Lake Michigan to the Pacific (Harrisburg,1848), pp. 16-17. 35. Atlantic and Pacific Railroad. A Letter, from the Hon. S. A. Douglass [sic], to A. Whitney, Esq., N. Y. (dated Quincy, Illinois, October 15, 1845),n. p., n. d., pp.5-6.

36. Asa Whitney, A Project for a Railroad to the Pacific (New

York 1849), p.12.

37. Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, XXI, 75 (July, 1849).

38. Address of Mr. A. Whitney before the Legislature of

Pennsylvania, p.14.


1. Hubert H. Bancroft, History of the Life of William Gilpin. A Character Study ( San Francisco, 1889 ), pp. 6-9, 14-23, 28-32. Mr.Bernard DeVoto has called attention to Gilpin in an article in Harper's Magazine (CLXXXVIII, 313-323, March, 1944) entitled "Geopolitics with the Dew On It." Gilpin's activities in Oregon are discussed by Maurice O. Georges"A Suggested Revision of the Role of a Pioneer Political Scientist," Reed College Bulletin XXV, 67-84 ( April, 1947 ).

2. Bancroft, Life, p. 43.


3. The Central Gold Region. The Grain, Pastoral and Gold Regions of North America (Philadelphia and St. Louis, 1860), pp 132-133.

4. Mission of the North American people, Geographical, Social, an

Political (Philadelphia, 1874), p. 130 (quoting a letter of 1846).

5. "Settlement of Oregon-Emigrants of 1843," 29 Cong., 1 Sess.,

Senate Document No.306. Report of theCommittee on the Post Office and Post Roads (April 20, 1846), pp. 3940.

6. Central Gold Region, pp. 178-170

7. Ibid., p. 55.

8. Ibid., p. 133.

9. Ibid., p. 103.

10. Ibid., pp.20-21.

11. An Essay on Criticism ( London, 1711 ), p. 7.

12. Leonard C. Jones, Arnold Guyot et Princeton ( Neuchâtel, 1929)

13. Arnold H. Guyot, The Earth ad Man: Lectures on Comparative

Physical Geagraphy, in its Relation to the History of Man, trans. Cornelius C. Felton ( New York, 1887 ), p. 33.

14. Ibid., pp. 176-177.

15. Ibid., pp. 236-237.

16. Ibid., pp. 183-185.


1. The substance of this chapter, urder the same title, appeared in the Huntington Library Quarterly, X, 373-389 (August, 1947). I wish to thank the editor of that journal for permission to reprint portions of the text.

2. "Poem of the Sayers of the Words of the Earth," Leaves of Grass (New York, 1856); (hereafter "Leaves of Grass [ 1856]"), p. 329. 3. Ibid, p. iv.

4. In "Calamus," Section 30 (later revised and given the title, "A Promise to California"), Leaves of Grass (Boston, 1860 ) ¡ (hereafter "Leaves of Grass [1860]"), p. 371.

5. In "Chants Democratic," Section 14, Ibid., p. 187.

6. Leaves of Grass by Walt Whitman. Reproduced from the First Edition (1855), ed. Clifton J. Furness ( New York, 1939 ); (hereafter "Leaves of Grass [1855]"), p. iii; Leaves of Grass (1860), p. 368 ("Calamus," Section 25).

7. Leaves of Grass ( 1860 ), p. 183.

8. Ibid., p. 312.

9. Drum-Taps (New York, 1865), (hereafter "Drum-Taps [1865]" ),

pp. 2930. The central idea. and many details of "Pioneers!" closely parallel Gilpin's account of his Western experiences and discussions of the westward movement. I am strongly disposed to believe that Whitman was borrowing directly from Gilpin, although the exact circumstances are not easy to make out. The most relevant documents are a letter describing the emigration of 1843 to Oregon (29 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Report No. 306. Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads . . . Submitted April 20, 1846, pp. 19-47); an address on the Doniphan Expedition delivered by Gilpin in 1847 (reprinted in Gilpin's The Mission of the North American People [Philadelphia, 1874],


pp. 131-140); and Gilpin's speech on the Pacific Railway delivered in 1849 (reprinted in The Central Gold Region, pp. 145-180).

lO. 29 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Report No. 306, p. 46.

11. Drum-Taps (1865), pp. 53-54.

12. Ibid., pp. 64-65.

13. Two Rivulets ( Camden, New Jersey, 1876), p. 5n.

14. Passage to India (Washington, D. C., 1871 ), pp. 8-9.

15. Ibid.,pp.6-7.

16. Ibid., pp.9-10.



1. The Journals of Francis Parkman, ed. Mason Wade, 2 vols. (paged continuously ); ( New York, 1947 ), p. 53.

2. Ibid., p. 77.

3. The Oregon Trail, rev. ed. (New fork, 1872), pp. 12-13.

4. Journals, p. 3.

5. The Oregon Trail, pp. [vii]-viii.

6. The work is described in Ballou's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion, IX ( 1855), 284. 7. The painting is in the possession of Washington University, St. Louis. It was reproduced in The Magazine of Art, XXXII, 330 (June, 1939)

8. John E. Bakeless, Daniel Boone, Master of the Wilderness (New York, 1939), pp. 85, 89, 144-145. The Port Folio mentioned Boone in 1814 as an example of American "enterprize" (Third [Fourthl Series, IV 337). 9. The Discovery, Settlement and Present State of Kentucke (Wilmington, Delaware, 1784), pp. 81-82.

10. Daniel Bryan, The Mountain Muse: Comprising The Adventures of Daniel Boone; and The Power of Virtuous and Refined Beauty (Harrisonburg, Virginia, 181t3 ), pp. 42-43.

l1. Ibid.,p.54.

12. Ibid., p. 59.

13. Ibid., pp. 184-185.

14. Niles' Register, X, 361 (June 15, 1816).

15. Niles' Register XXIV, l66 (May 17, 1823 ); American Monthlky Magazine and Critical Review, III, 152 (New York, June, 1818). Niles' Register picked up a similar remark from the St. Louis Enquirer, XV, 328 (December 26, 1818). 16. Edwin James, ed., Account of an Expeditíon from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, Performed in the Years 1819 and '20...under the Command of Major Stephen H. Long, 2 vols. and atlas (Philadelphia, 1823), I, 105. 17. Ibid.,I,106. 18. They were reprinted, for example, in Life and Adventures of Colonel Daniel Boone, the First White Settler of the State of Kentucky. . .Written by Himself . . . Annexed Is a Eulogy on Col. Boone and Choice of Life, by Lord Byron (Brooklyn, 1823), reprinted in The Magazine of History, Extra no. 180 (Tarrytown, New York, 1932), pp. 226-227.

19. Ibid., pp. 217-221.


20. The Life and Adventures of Daniel Boone, the First Settler of Kentucky, Interspersed with Ineidents in the Early Annals of the Country (first published 1833); (Cincinnati, 1868), pp. 226-227. According to the Dictionary of American Biography, this work went through fourteen editions. 21. Ibid., pp. 229-230.

22. Ibid., p. 246.

23. Ibid., p. 41.

24. Lives of Daniel Boone and Benjamin Lincoln, The Library of American Biography, ed. Jared Sparks, Second Series, XIII (Boston, 1847), pp.186-189. Peck's characterization of Boone exhibits a number of parallels with the character of Leatherstocking. He was one of Nature's noblemen--benevolent, rigidly honest, reluctant to shed blood. Although he never joined any church, he had received religious instruction in his youth, and "was a believer in Christianity as a revelation from God in the sacred scriptures." The character of Boone in James Hall's "The Backwoodsman" also strongly suggests Leatherstocking, although Hall develops the functions of the hunter in rescuing a heroine rather than his ethical nobility (Legends of the West, "second edition," Philadelphia, 1833, pp. [1]-40 ) .

25. North American Review, LXIIX 97, 86-87 (January, 1846).

26. Notes of a Military Reconnoissance from Fort Leavenworth . . . to San Diego (1848), 30 Cong., 1 Sess. House Executive Document No. 41, in Vol. IV, p. 25.

27. Wild Western Scenes: A Narrative of Adventures in the Western

Wilderness, the Nearest and Best California. Wherein the Exploits of Daniel Boone, the Great American Pioneer, Are Particularly Described, by Luke Shortfield (pseud.); (Philadelphia, 1849), p. 22. Since Boone plays but a negligible part in the story, the exploitation of his name in the title suggests

the currency of the Boone legend.


1. Bakeless, Daniel Boone, p. 139. The reviewer of The Pioneers in the Port Folio (Fourth [Fifth] Series, XV, 232, March, 1823) remarked that Leatherstocking had been "modelled from the effigies of old Daniel Boone." 2. The Last of the Mohicans: A Narrative of 1757, 2 vols. ( Philadelphia, 1826), I, 146.

3. Bakeless, Daníel Boone, pp. 133-139; Mohicans, I, 166-174.

4. The Prairie: A Tale, 2 vols. ( Philadelphia, 1827 ), I, l4-15. 5. The Prairie, Red Rover ed. (New York, n. d.), p. 3n. Cooper has adopted Jefferson's estimate of the point at which density of population makes Americans "uneasy" ( above, p. 10 ) .

6. The Prairie, I, x.

7. Niles' Register, XXIX, 217 (December 3, 182S). The roving pro-

pensities of Leatherstocking had impressed an anonymous writer for Niles' Register within a few months after the publication of The Pioneers: "A settlement at the mouth of the Columbia has been seriously advocated in Congress, and will soon be made under the sanction of government; and, in a few years, we may expect that some persons there, feeling themselves too much crowded, like 'Leather Stocking' in the 'Pioneers,' will seek a country more west-


Japan, perhaps, if good hunting could be expected therein!"

(XXIV, 71, 71,April 5, 1823 ).

8. Prose Sketches and Poems, Written in the Western Country ( Boston, 1834 ), p. 60

Bushfield was a Kentucky hunter in James K. Paulding's novel Westward Ho! (1832).

9. Although critics often objected to the Indians of the Leatherstocking tales, they were enthusiastic about the old hunter from his first appearance. A reviewer in the generally unsympathetic North American Review called Leatherstocking "a bold and original conception .... upon the whole, the best piece of invention our author has ever produced; one, we

may say, which deserves to be ranked in the first class of the creations of genius" (XXIII, 1'72,172, July, 1826). A later reviewer in this periodical, on the other hand, was cool toward the character (XXXII, 517, April, 1831). The United States Review and Literary Gazette said in 1827 that Cooper must mainly depend on Leatherstocking for his future fame ( II, 307, July). Four years after Cooper had described the death of the hunter in The Prairie, the American Monthly Magazine of Boston declared, "in the whole range of fictitious writing, you will not find anything finer than Long Tom and Natty Bumpo [sic]" (II, 696, January, 1831). The suggestion that the Leatherstocking series should be read in terms of "a tension between civilization and noncivilization" is interestingly set forth in Roy Harvey Pearce's article, "The Leatherstocking Tales Re-examined" ( South Atlantic Quarterly, XLVI, 524-536, October, 1947). I have profited greatly in my discussion of Cooper from Mr. Pearce's observations.

10. The Pioneers, or The Sources of the Susquehanna; A Descriptive Tale, 2 vols. (New York, 1823), I, viii. 11. Ibid.,I,21,27. 12. Ibid., I, 8-20; II, 206-215.

13. Ibid., I, 269.

14. Ibid., II, 228.

15. Ibid., Im 254-255

16. Susan Fenimore Cooper, Pages and Pictures, from the Writings of James Fenimore Cooper, with Notes ( New York, 1861), p. 151.

17. The Pathfinder; or, The Inland Sea, 2 vols. (Philadelphia, 1840), I, 14.

18. Ibid.,I, 114.

19. Ibid., I, 135-136.

20. Ibid., II, 34-40.

21. Ibid., II, 214-225.

22. The Prairie, Red Rover ed., p. 3n.

23. The Oak Openings; or, The Bee-Hunter, 2 vols. (New York, 1848) I, 14, 18, 30-31.

24. Ibid., II, 227.



1. The Prairie ( 1827 ), II, 92.

2. Thomas J. Farnham, Travels in the Great Western Prairies, the Anahuac and Rocky Mountains, and in the Oregon Territory (Poughkeepsie,N.Y., 1841),p.72.


3. Ibid. pp.72-73.

4. Old Hicks, the Guide; or, Adventures in the Camanche Country in Search of a Gold Mine, first published 1848, 2 vols. (paged continuously); (New York, 1855), p.46. 5. Ibid., pp. 311.313.

6. Ibid., pp.304-305.

7. Ibid., p.311.

8. Idem.

9. Ibid., p. 121.

10. Idem.

11. Evart A. Duyckinck and George L. Duyckinck, Cyclopaedia of American Literature, 2 vols. (New York, 1855) , II , 665- 669.

12. Graham's Magazine, XXXIV, 386 (June,1849).

13. Ibid., XXXII, 356 ( June,1848).

14. United States Magazine and Democratic Review, New Series, XXII, 332 [properly 432], 328 [Properly 428] (May, 1848).

15. "Experience" Complete Works, ed. Edward Waldo Emerson, 12 vols ( Boston, 1893-1894), III, 63-64. 16. Walden, Chapter I, Writings, Riverside edition, 11 vols ( Boston, 1893-1894 ), II, 21-23, 25-28. 17. Ibid., IX, 266-267.

18. Ibid., IX, 272-273.

l9. Ibid., IX, 275-276.

20. Ibid., II, [327].

21. Ibid., IX, 276.

22. Mardi, and a Voyage Thither (London, 1922), II, 264- 267, [225]-231, 238-245. 23. Moby Dick, or the Whale, ed. Willard Thorp (New York, 1947), pp. 178-79. The widely current legend of the White Steed of the Prakies is discussed in Mustangs and Cow Horses, edd. J. Frank Dobie, Mody C. Boatright, and Harry F. Ransom (Austin, Texas, 1940), pp. 171-183. Melville's use of this legend is noted at p. 245. 24. Ibid., p.183.


1. The Shosonee Valley; A Romance, 2 vols. (Cincinnati, 1830), I, 21.--The substance of Chapters VIII, IX, and X appeared in the Southwest Review (XXVII, 164-189, Winter 1943; XXXIII, 276-0284, 378-384, Summer, Autumn, 1948; XXXIV, 182-188, Spring, 1949). I wish to thank the editor of that magazine for permission to reprint the material here. 2. Ibid., I, 20.

3. Ibid., I, 21-22.

4. Charles Sealsfield (pseud.of Karl Anton Postl), Life in the New World; or, Sketches of American Society, first published in1835-1837, in German, Eng trans..Gustavus C. Hebbe and James Mackay (New York, 1844), p.42.

5. Ibid., p.43.

6. David H. Coyner, The Lost Trappers; A Collection of Interesting Scenes and Events in the Rocky Mountains (New York, 1847), pp.xii-xiii.


7. The Prairie Flower; or, Adventures in the Far West (Cincinnati, 1849), p. 31. Harold A. Blaine has noted extensive plagiarism from George F. Ruxton's Adentures in Mexico and Life in the Far West in The Prairie Flower ("The Frontiersman in American Prose Fiction: 1800-1860," unpublished doctor's thesis, Western Reserve University, 1936, pp. 239- 40).

8. Ibid., p.29; Leni-Leoti; or. Adventures in the Far West (Cincinnati, 1849), p. 38.

9. The Prairie Flower, p. 29.

10. Idem.

11. Lewis H. Garrard, Wah-To-Yah, and the Taos Trail; or, Prairie Travle and Scalp Dances, with a Look at Los Rancheros from Muleback and the Rocky Mountain Campfire (Cincinnati, 1850), pp. 270-271. 12. The Publicizing of Carson through Fremont's reports is pointed out by James Madison Cutts, the Conquest of California and New Mexico (Philadelphia, 1847), pp. 166-167 and by Charles J. Averill, Kit Carson, the Prince of the Gold Hunters; or, the Adentures of the Sacramento (Bostonm, 1849), p.58. 13. Cutts, Conquest of California, pp. 165-167. This anonymous account of Carson was also reprinted in The Rough and Ready Annual; or Military Souvenir (New York, 1848), pp. 153- 168.

14. Edwin L. Sabin, Kit Carson Days: 1809-1868 (Chicago, 1914), p.506.

15. DeWitt C. Peters, The Life and Adventures of Kit Carson, the Nestor of the Rocky Mountains, from Facts Narrated by Himself (New York, 1858), p. 50.

16. Charles Burdett, Life of Kit Carson: The Great Western Hunter and Guide (Philadelphia, 1862), pp.83-4, 367, 369.

17. John S.C. Abbott, Christopher Carson, Familiarly Known as Kit Carson (New York, 1873), p. 70.

18,. Ibid, pp. 183-84.

19. The Prairie Flower, pp. 58-60.

20. Kit Carson's Autobiography, ed. Milo M. Quaife (Chicago, 1935), p. 135. Later Wild Western heroes sometimes took it for granted that they would be described in the newspapers and books down in the clearings (Oregon Sol in Edward S. Ellis, Nathan Todd; or, the Fate of the Sioux' Captive, Beadle's Dime Novels, No. 18, 1860, p. 64). 21. Frederic Hudson, Journalism in the United States, from 1690 to 1872 (New York, 1873), pp. 587-589.

22. Ralph Admari, "Ballou, the Father of the Dime Novel, " American Book Collector, IV, 121-122 (September-October, 1933).

23. Ralph Admari, "Bonner and the 'The Ledger,'" ibid., VI, 176-181 (May-June, 1935).

24. Ibid., IV, 123; Hudson, Journalism in the United States, p. 647.

25. Admari, "Ballou," American Book Collector, IV, 124.

26. Bennett's early novels were published by various firms in Cincinnati (including J.A. & U.P. James) and subsequently by T.B. Peterson of Philadelphia: these publishing centers were feeling the same impulses that were motivating Ballou and Bleason in Boston, and Bonner in New York. In 1856 Bonner hired Bennett to write fro the New York Ledger, and in 1867 Bennett became a contributor to Street & Smith's New York Weekly


(with "Sol Slocum; or, The Maid of the Juniata. A Tale of the Frontier," beginning on December 26 in Vol. XXIII, No. 6, p. 4). 27. Kit Carson, The Prince of the Gold Hunters, pp. 57-58.

28. Carson appears occasionally in the Beadle stories, as for example in James F. C. Adams's The Fighting Trapper; or Kit Carson to the Rescue. Beadle's New York Dime Library, No. 1045 (1901, reprint of original ed. 1879). The story contains an old trapper, Vic Vannoven, "rough but generous," toward whom the heroine feels as she would toward her father, so that we recognize him as a legitimate descendant of Leatherstocking. Kit Carson, young and agile, "the most renowned Indian fighter the world ever produced," appears briefly toward the end of the story to rescue the heroine and her party. He preserves the elusive, almost elfish quality he had had in Emerson Bennett's The Prairie Flower. Adams, incidentally, was not so violent a prohibitionist as the genteel biographers were. After the fight Kit offers brandy to the party, and he consumes "quiet draughts" during his turn on guard during the night (p. 26).



1. Ralph Admari, "The House That Beadle Built 1859 to 1869,"

American Book Collector, IV, 223-225 (November, 1933).

2. Ibid., IV, 288 (December, 1933).

3. The Beadle Collection of Dime Novels Given to the New York Public Library by Dr. Frank P. O Brien ( New York, 1922), p. 8; Edmund Pearson, Dime Novels; or, Following an Old Trail in Popular Literature (Boston, 1929), pp. 46, 83.

4. Admari, "The House That Beadle Built," American Book Collector IV, 225.

5. Obituary note in "Chronicle and Comment," Bookman, XX, 92 October, 1904).

6. Pearson, Dime Novels, pp. 106-107; George C. Jenks, "Dime Novel Makers," Bookman, XX, 112 (October, 1904).

7. Pearson, Dime Novels, p. 99.

8. In Edward L. Wheeler, Corduroy Charlie, the Boy Bravo, or, Deadwood Dick's Last Act. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 77 (1879) .

9. Pearson, Dime Novels, p. 99. The editors of the New York Weekly felt they were making a strong claim when they said that Dr. John H. Robinson's Nick Whiffles was "the greatest story since the days of Fennimore [sic] Cooper, and . . . not inferior to that great author's best work" (XXII, No. 41, August 29, 1867, p. 4). 10. Seth Jones was published in 1860 as Beadle's Dime Novels, No. 8. Victor's comment is quoted by Henry Morton Robinson, "Mr. Beadle's Books," Bookman, LXIX, 22 ( March, 1929). We are told that Seward once entered a cabinet meeting "waving a copy of Seth Jones in unconcealed delight" ( LXIX, 20) . 11. Boy's Library of Sport, Story and Adventure, No. 144.

12. Ibid., pp. 6, 26.

13. Ibid., p. 31.

14. Reprinted in 1875 as Beadle's New Dime Novels, New Series, No. 45.


15. Ibid., p. 16.

16. Beadle's Dime Novels, No. 18 (1861), p. 44.

17. Beadle's New Dime Novels, New Series, No. 133 (1879), p. 52 (first published in 1871).

18. Mustang Sam; or, The Mad Rider of the Plains. A Romance of Apache Land. Beadle's Pocket Novels, No. 184 (1881), p. 19 (first published in 1877) . 19. Albert Bigelow Paine, Mark Twain, A Biography, 3 vols. (paged continuously); (New York, 1912), I, 203.

20. Old Avalanche, the Great Annihilator; or, Wild Edna, the Girl Brigand. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 45 (1878), p. 4 (first published in 1877) . 21. He is, for example, in Wheeler's Corduroy Charlie, the Boy Bravo, and also in his Blonde Bill, or, Deadwood Dick's Home Base. A Romance of the "Silent Tongues." Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 138 (1880).

22. Apollo Bill, the Trail Tornado; or, Rowdy Kate from Right Bower. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 236 (1882), p. 6.

23. Beadle's Dime Novels, No. 18 (1861) .

24. Ibid ., pp. 119,122.

25. Ibid., pp. 75, 87, 118.

26. Beadle's Dime Novels, No. 36 (1862), p. 50.

27. Beadle's Dime Novels, No. 41 (1862), p. 10.

28. Ibid., p. 35.

29. Ibid., p. 65.

30. Beadle's New Dime Novels, New Series, No. 462 (1880), p. 14 ( first published in 1867) .

31. Ibid., pp. 18, 36.

32. Beadle's New Dime Novels, New Series, No. 133 (1879), p. 12 (first published in 1871).

33. Beadle's Pocket Novels, No. 140 (1879; first published in 1872).

34. Beadle's Dime Novels, No. 257 (1872), p. 28. "W. J. Hamilton" was the pseudonym of Charles Dunning Clark, a member of the staff of the Oswego (New York) Times and a local historian of the Cooper country.

35. Ibid., p. 45.

36. Ibid., p. 100.

37. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 30 (1878), pp. 4, 10, 12.

38. "Dime Novels and the American Tradition," Yale Review, XVI, 765 (Summer, 1937).

39. W. H. Bishop, "Story-Paper Literature," Atlantic, XIV, 387 (September, 1879). 40. Edward L. Wheeler, Deadwood Dick's Dream; or, The Rivals of the Road. A Mining Tale of "Tombstone." Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 195 (1881), p. 8.

41. Deadwood Dick's Protégée; or, Baby Bless, the Girl Gold Miner. A Tale of Pistol Pocket. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 515 (1887), pp. 6, 14. 42. Edward L. Wheeler, Deadwood Dick, Jr., in Chicago; or, The Anarchist's Daughter. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 572 (1888), p. 2.

43. The change of tone in this period is noted by W. H. Bishop in

Atlantic, XIV, ~84~86 (September, 1879). Ralph Admari remarks that writers of dime novels began to shape their stories consciously for a juvenile audience during the 1870's (American Book Collector, V, 24, January, 1934).



1. Richard J. Walsh in collaboration with Milton S. Salsbury, The

Making of Buffalo Bill. A Study in Heroics (Indianapolis, 1928), p. 368.

The New Buffalo Bill Weekly, in which every story dealt with Buffalo Bill, was still running in 1918 (John A. Hayes, A Catalog of Dime Novel Material, Including a Section on Buffalo Bill [Red Bank, New Jersey, 1936], p. 21).

2. Pearson, Dime Novels, pp. 202-203.

3. The New York Weekly, for example, printed a dispatch from the

North Platte (Nebraska) Democrat dated May 2, 1872, quoting William F. Cody on the subject of his recent participation in an Indian fight with B Troop of the Third Cavalry. "Ned Buntline takes his characters from life," exclaimed the editors of the Weekly, and they promised that Buntline would soon add to his Buffalo Bill stories a tale about Buffalo Bill's companion, Texas Jack (XXVII, No. 31 [June 10, 1872], p. 8).

4. Walter Blair, "Sir Davy Crocketts," Southwest Review, XXV, [443]-462 ( July, 1940).

5. Frederick E. Pond, Life and Adventures of "Ned Buntline" with

Ned Buntline's Anecdote of "Frank Forester" and Chapter of Angling Sketches (New York, 1919), pp. 23, 48-51, 138.

6. New York Weekly, XXV, No. 2 (November 25, 1869), p. 4; Pond,

Life and Adventures, p. 93.

7. New York Weekly, XXV, No. 2 (November 25, 1869), p. 4. Bunt-

line's biographer states that he made a tour in California and along the Pacific Coast in 1867 and 1868 delivering temperance lectures. He probably took advantage of this tour to collect Western materials (Pond, Life and Adventures, p. 86).

8. Walsh, Making of Buffalo Bill, pp. 155, 156.

9. New York Weekly, XXV, No. 2 (November 25, 1869), p. 4. The

serial began in the issue of December 23, 1869 (XXV, No. 6) and ran until March 10, 1870 ( XXV, No. 17) . Buffalo Bill's first appearance in fiction, however, had been in a short anecdote Buntline contributed to the Weekly on December 2, 1869 (XXV, No. 3, p. 8) as a part of the advance publicity for the serial. In this sketch Buntline refers to a letter he had received from Cody in November. An illustration for the first installment of Buffalo Bill, the King of Border Men depicts the hero in an authentic Leatherstocking costume with Indian leggings and moccasins. He carries a long flintlock rifle and is on foot. He wears a full beard (in contrast with the neat imperial and moustache of his later career). Buffalo Bill's Best Shot; or, The Heart of

Spotted Tail. A Sequel to "Buffalo Bill" began in the Weekly March 25, 1872 (XXVII, No. 20). The illustration for the first installment shows the hero wearing a moustache but no beard. The standard goatee and moustache appear with the second installment (XXVII, No. 21 [April 1, 1872], p. [1] ). 10. Walsh, Making of Buffalo Bill, p. 367.

11. Ned Buntline, Buffalo Bill ( New York: International Publishers, n, d.), pp. 3, 11, 16, 142, 145, 202.

12. Ibid., p. 183.

13. George D. C. Odell, Annals of the New York Stage, 14 vols. ( New York, 1927-1945), IX, 168 (February 19, 1872).


14. Walsh, Making of Buffalo Bill, pp. 168-172. Maeder's play began something like a craze for border drama ( Odell, Annals, IX, 218, 501). Within a month it was being burlesqued in Bill Buffalo, with His Great Buffalo Bull at Hooley's Opera House in Brooklyn ( Ibid., IX, 226). The original play held the boards, however, for several years, with various actors in the title role ( Ibid., IX, 278, 290, 328, 349, 431, 570, 633).

15. Walsh, Making of Buffalo Bill, pp. 178-180. The Scouts of the Plains reached New York March 31, 1873 (Odell, Annals, IX, 276) and became a competitor of Maeder's Buffalo Bill (Ibid., IX, 353, 414, 568). 16. Walsh, Making of Buffalo Bill, p. 182.

17. XXV, No. 2 ( November 25, 1869), p. 4.

18. Walsh, Making of Buffalo Bill, p. 18.

19. Buffalo Bill, from Boyhood to Manhood. Deeds of Daring, Scenes of Thrilling Peril, and Romantic Incidents in the Early Life of W. F. Cody, the Monarch of Bordermen. Beadle's Boy's Library of Sport, Story and Adventure, No. 2 (1884), p. 2 ( first published in 1881) .

20. The Life of Hon. William F. Cody, Known as Buffalo Bill, the

Famous Hunter, Scout and Guide. An Autobiography ( Hartford, Conn., 1879), p. 365.

21. Walsh, Making of Buffalo Bill, p. 368; William C. Miller, Dime Novel Authors 1860-1900 ( Grafton, Mass., 1933), p. 7.

22. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 204 (1881), p. 3.

23. Life of Hon. William F. Cody, p. 282.

24. Walsh, Making of Buffalo Bill, p. 191.

25. First published in 1875.

26. Ibid., pp. 60, 66.

27. Beadle's Dime New York Library, No. 83 (1879), pp. 2-3.

28. Ibid, pp 22-23.

29. Bison Bill, the Prince of the Plains, or, Buffalo Bill's Pluck. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 216 ( "Twelfth Edition," 1881), p. 14, Buffalo Bill's Secret Service Trail; or, The Mysterious Foe. A Romance of Red-Skins, Renegades and Army Rencounters. Beadle's Dime New York Library,

No. 682 (1891, first published in 1887).

30. Edward King, "Glimpses of Texas," Scribner's, VII, 303 (January, 1874) .

31. "Eight Hundred Miles in an Ambulance," Lippincott's, XV, 695

( June, 1875) .

32. "Picturesque Features of Kansas Farming," Scribner's, XIX, 139-140 (November, 1879).

33. "Over Sunday in New Sharon," Ibid., XIX, 771 ( March, 1880).

34. James D. Richardson, ed., A Compilation of the Messages and Papers of the Presidents, 1789-1897, 11 vols. (Washington, 1909), VIII, 53-54. 35. Walsh, Making of Buffalo Bill, pp. 217-225.

36. Buck Taylor, King of the Cowboys; or, The Raiders and the

Rangers. A Story of the Wild and Thrilling Life of William L. Taylor. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 497 (1887), pp. 2 3, 5, 12-13.

37. Buck Taylor, The Saddle King; or, The Lasso Rangers' League. A Romance of the Border Heroes of To-Day. Beadle's New York Dime Library No. 649 (1891), p. 2. 38. Beadle's New York Dime Library, No. 658 (1891), p. 7. On p. 24 of this story Valerie Tracey, the Tigress of Texas, plays the guitar and sings


a song of which four lines are reported. They may well be of folk origin. If so, this is the first appearance of a cowboy ballad in print with which I am familiar.

39. Buck Taylor, The Saddle King, p. 21.

40. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 556 (1888).


1. A Fable for Critics ( New York, 1848), p. 47.

2. Ralph Admari, "Ballou, the Father of the Dime Novel," American Book Collector, IV, 128 ( September-October, 1933~.

3. Life in California or, The Treasure Seekers' Expedition. A Sequel to Kit Carson, the Prince of the Gold Hunters ( Boston, 1850), pp. 12, 26.

4. Beadle's Pocket Novels, No. 222 (1882), p. 81. The copyright date of this story reads "1862," but it refers to events of the Civil War and to the collapse of the Confederacy; the date must be an error.

5. Ibid., p. 48.

6. Ibid., p. 61.

7. Beadle's Pocket Novels, No. 127 (1879), p. 23 (first published in 1870) .

8. Ibid., pp. 78-79, 92.

9. Ibid., p. 97.

10. Joseph E. Badger, The Forest Princess; or, The Kickapoo Captives.A Romance of the Illinois. Beadle's New Dime Novels, New Series, No. 133 (1879), p. 102 ( first published in 1871) .

11. Mountain Kate; or, Love in the Trapping Grounds. A Tale of the Powder River Country. Beadle's Pocket Novels, No. 143 (1879), pp. 94, 102 ( first published in 1872) .

12. Beadle's New Dime Novels, No. 389 (1877; first published in 1872) .

13. Ibid., pp. 51, 92, 102.

14. Beadle's Dime Library, No. 1 (1878), p. 2.

15. Ibid., p. 14.

16. Ibid.,p. 4.

17. Ibid., p. 16.

18. Bob Woolf, the Border Ruffian; or, The Girl Dead-Shot. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 32 (1878), p. 3 ( first published in 1877) .

19. Ibid., p. 8.

20. Ibid., p. 11.

21. Ibid., pp. 6, 16.

22 Old Avalanche, the Great Annihilator, or, Wild Edna, the Girl Brigand. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 45 (1878), p. 17 (first published in 1877). 23. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 138 (1880), pp. 2, 6.

24. Ibid., p. 12.

25. Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 156 (1880), pp. 13, 15.

26. Deadwood Dick's Dream; or, The Rivals of the Road. A Mining Tale of "Tombstone." Beadle's Half Dime Library, No. 195 (1881), pp. 5, 6, 10. 27. Ibid., pp. 4-5.

28. Ibid., pp. 6, 8.

29. Beadle's Pocket Library, No. 57 (1885), p. 2 (first published in 1878) .


30. Ibid., p. 16.

31. Ibid.,p.4.

32. Ibid., p. 13.

33. Ibid., p. 31.

34. The Pathfinder; or, The Inland Sea, 2 vols. (Philadelphia, 1840), I, 139.

35. Literary depiction of the cowboy in the twentieth century is traced in Douglas Branch, The Cowboy and His Interpreters (New York, 1928) pp. 185-191, 210-235.


1. Alexia de Tocqueville, Democracy in America. The Henry Reeve text as revised by Francis Bowen, ed. Phillips Bradley, 2 vols. (New York, 1945), II, 74.

2. The Uncollected Poetry and Prose of Walt Whitman, ed. Emory Holloway, 2 vols. ( Garden City, New York, 1921), II, 35.

3. Lewis Evans, Geographical, Historical, Political, Philosophical Essays. The First, Containing An Analysis of a General Map of the Middle British Colonies in America, 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, 1775), p. 31.

4. Jonathan Carver, Travels through the Interior Parts of North-America, in the Years 1766, 1767, and 1768 (London, 1778), p. viii. 5. Nathaniel Ames, An Astronomical Diary. or an Almanack for the Year of Our Lord Christ 1758 (Boston, n. d.), p. [[16].

6. Philip Freneau and Hugh Henry Brackenridge, "The Rising Glory of America," The Poems of Philip Freneau, ed. Fred L. Pattee, I, 76n., 77n.-78n.

7. The Writings of Benjamin Franklin, ed. Albert H. Smith, IX, 245-248 (from a letter to Benjamin Vaughan, Passy, July 2~, 17845.

8. "The Internal State of America; Being a True Description of the Interest and Policy of That Vast Continent," Ibid., X, 117-118.

9. Ibid., X, 121.

10. "The Freehold Concept in Eighteenth-Century American Letters," William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, IV, 42-59 ( January, 1947); "The Influence of Natural Rights and Physiocratic Doctrines on American Agrarian Thought during the Revolutionary Period," Agricultural History XXI, 12-23 (January, 1947).

11. These doctrines are set forth, for example, in George Logan's Letters Addressed to the Yeomanry of the United States: Shewing the Necessity of Confining the Public Revenue to a Fixed Proportion of the Net Produce of the Land; and the Bad Policy and Injustice of Every Species of Indirect Taxation and Commercial Regulations, "by a Farmer" (Philadelphia, 1791) .As the title suggests, Logan is a dogmatic Physiocrat, and to this extent not entirely representative of the vaguer and more eclectic ideas that were generally current. But his praise of an independent yeomanry," virtuously aloof from the dissipations, effeminacy, indolence, and vice of cities, is thoroughly typical ( pp. 34-35).

12. Howard C. Rice, Le cultivateur amértcatn, étude sur roeuvre de Saint John de Crèvecoeur (Paris, 1933), pp. [7]-18.


13. Bernard Fay, The Revolutionary Spirit in France and America (London, 1928), pp. 233, 235, 532; Rice, Le cultivateur, pp. 73-75. Julia P. Mitchell (St. Jean de Crèvecoeur, New York, 1916, pp. 340 350) lists more than fifty reprintings of passages from CrŠvecoeur's works in American periodicals between 1782 and 1805. CrŠvecoeur's description of the Ohio country, added to the 1787 French translation of the Letters ( Rice, Le cultivateur, p. 95) and translated into English for use in promotional litera-

ture of the Ohio Company ( Mitchell, Crèvecoeur, pp. 347-348), was a favorite item with American editors, being reprinted eight times between July and December, 1787.

14. Letters from an American Farmer (London, 1782), p. 48.

15. Fay, Revolutionary Spirit, p. 23; Anatole Feugère, Un précurseur de la révolution. L'Abb‚ Raynal (1713-1796). Documents in‚dits (AngoulŠme, 1922), p. iii.

16. Letters, p. x.

17. Guillaume-Thomas-François Raynal, A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies, trans. J. Justamond, 4 vols. (Edinburgh, 1776), IV, 310. 18. Letters, pp. 46-48.

19. Writings, ed. Paul L. Ford, VII, 36 (to the Rev. James Madison, October 28, 1785). An often-quoted passage to similar effect from the Notes on Virginia is at III. 268.

20. Ibid., IV, 479-480.

21. Ibid., II, 25. Jefferson's views are ably summarized in A. Whitney Griswold, "The Agrarian Democracy of Thomas Jefferson," American Political Science Review, XL, 657-681 ( August, 1946), and "The Jeffersonian Ideal," in Farming and Democracy (New York, 1948), pp. 18-46.

22. The long agrarian tradition in Europe is discussed in two extremely suggestive articles by Paul H. Johnstone, "In Praise of Husbandry," Agricultural History, XI, 8695 (April, 1937); "Turnips and Romanticism," Ibid.,

XII, 224-255 (July, 1938). English imitators of Virgil's Georgics are dealt with in detail in Dwight L. Durling, Georgic Tradition in English Poetry Columbia University Studies in English and Comparative Literature, No. 121 (New York, 1935), especially pp. 43-107. Jefferson's relations with the Physiocrats are discussed by Professor Griswold in the article edited in note 21

above; by Gilbert Chinard, Thomas Jefferson, The Apostle of Americanism (Boston, 1929), pp. 493-495; and by Chester E. Eisinger in Agricultural History, XXI, 20-22.

23. Translation by an unknown hand of a passage first published in the French version of the Letters of an American Farmer (Lettres d'un cultivateur américain, Paris, 1787), included in [Manasseh Cutler], An Explanation of the Map Which Delineates That Part of the Federal Lands, Comprehended between Pennsylvania West Line, the Rivers Ohio and Sioto [sic], and Lake Erie (Salem, Massachusetts, 1787), p. 23. This pamphlet was intended as advertising for the Ohio Company, a notorious scheme of land speculation.

24. John Filson, The Discovery, Settlement, and Present State of

Kentucke, pp. 107-109.

25. Ralph L. Rusk, "The Adventures of Gilbert Imlay," Indiana University Studies, X, No. 57 (March, 1923).

26. A Topographical Description of the Western Territory of North

America (London, 1792), pp. [1]-2.


27. Ibid., pp. 39-40.

28. Ibid., pp. 138-139.

29. American Museum, IV, 212 (September, 1788).

30. Ibid., III, 280 (March, 1788).

31. (August 19, 1797), p. [4].

32. Kentucky Gazette (April 1, 1797), p. S.

33. Josiah Morrow, ed., "Tours into Kentucky and the Northwest Territory. Three Journals by the Rev. James Smith of Powhatan County, Va. 1783-1795-1797," Ohio Archeological and Historical Quarterly, XVI (1907), 396. CHAPTER XII. THE YEOMAN AND THE FEE-SIMPLE EMPIRE

1. The Speech of Charles Jas. Faulkner, (of Berkeley) in the House of Delegates of Virginia, on the Policy of the State with Respect to Her Slave Population. Delivered January 20,1832 (Richmond, 1832), p. 9.

2. The triumph of the plantation ideal in Southern thought was so complete that the large and important yeoman class of the Old South almost dropped from sight and has had to be rediscovered by historical research.

"Little was written of them [the yeomen of the Plantation South], and when generalizations were made, this group was often ignored" ( Blanche H. Clark The Tennessee Yeomen 1840-1860 [Nashville, Tennessee, 1942], p. 3). The fact that contemporary observers so completely ignored the Southern yeoman is striking testimony to the way in which preconceptions like the pastoral

ideal of the plantation can become actual categories of perception.

3. Edmund Dana, Geographical Sketches on the Western Country: De-

signed for Emigrants and Settlers (Cincinnati, 1819), p. 26.

4. Thomas Cooper wrote in 1794: "Nor is the term 'farmer' synonymous [sic] with the same word in England. With you it means a tenant, holding of some lord, paying much in rent, and much in tythes, and much in taxes: an inferior rank in life, occupied by persons of inferior manners and education. In America a farmer is a land-owner, paying no rent, no tythes, and

few taxes, equal in rank to any other rank in the state, having a voice in the appointment of his legislators, and a fair chance, if he deserve it, of becoming one himself" ( Some Information Respecting America, Dublin, pp. 72-73) .

This passage and other early comments on the status of the farmer in America are quoted and discussed by Chester E. Eisinger, "Land and Loyalty: Literary Expressions of Agrarian Nationalism in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," American Literature, XXI, [160]-178 (May, 1949).

5. The important adjective "independent" had also changed its meaning. In England it was applied to a tenant who owed no feudal obligations to his landlord (Adam Smith, Wealth of Nations, London, 1899, I, 420).

In this country it had come to imply fee-simple ownership of land.

6. The Backwoodsman. A Poem (Philadelphia, 1818), p. 11.

7. Ibid., pp. 80-81.

8. Ibid., pp. 149-150.

9. Ibid., p. 155. At p. 162 they are "our brave yeomen."

10. Ibid., p. [7].

11. Ibid., pp. 173-174. Cooper, more than twenty years later, was to


follow the same procedure with his worthy Ben Boden, the bee hunter (above, p. 69).

12. Recollections of the Last Ten Years, Passed in Occasional Residences and Journeyings in the Valley of the Mississippi (Boston, 1826), p. 290.

13. Western Monthly Review, I, 169-170 (July, 1827).

14. From Flint's Oration before the Washington Benevolent Society of Lancaster and Sterling and of Leominster and Fitchburg. Delivered at Leominster [Massachusetts], July 4, 1815, quoted in John E. Kirkpatrick, Timothy Flint Pioneer, Missionary, Author, Editor, 1780-1840 (Cleveland, 1911), p. 52.

15. Timothy Flint, The History and Geography of the Mississippi Valley, 3rd ed., 2 vols. (Cincinnati, 1833), I, 396.

16. Ibid., II, 15-16.

17. George Mason, the Young Backwoodsman; or 'Don't Give Up the

Ship.' A Story of the Mississippi (Boston, 1829), pp. 4, 5.

18. Ibid., pp. 7 18.

19. Ibid., p. 154.

20. Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, III, 38-39 (July, 1840).

21. Ibid., V, 219-220 (September, 1841). An anonymous article published in the same periodical a few months later developed similar themes in discussing Michigan (VI, 348, April, 1842). But the most striking fictional

account of life in Michigan at this period, Mrs. Caroline Kirkland s A New Home-Who'll Follow? ( New York, 1839), while written with more humor and a much sharper eye for character than Flint could command, shows an upper-class condescension toward the backwoods settlers fully equal to Flint's and bears no trace of the cult of the yeoman. 22. "Greeley on Reforms," Southern Literary Messenger, XVII, 271-272 ( May, 1851) .

23. "L. C. B.," "The Country in 1950, or the Conservatism of Slavery," Ibid., XXII, 432 (June, 1856).

24. (Richmond, 1857), p. 335.



1. 29 Cong., 1 Sess. Senate Report No. 306. Committee on the Post

Office and Post Roads (April 20, 1846), pp. 28 29.

2. Leaves of Grass, inclusive edition, ed. Emory Holloway ( Garden City, New York, 1931), pp. 248-249. 3. The Writings of James Monroe, ed. Stanislaus M. Hamilton, 7 vols. (New York, 1898-1903), I, 150. 4. Max Farrand, ed. The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787, 4 vols (New Haven, 1911-1937), I, 533.

5. Ibid., II, 2.

6. Speech of Mr. Benton, of Missouri, in Reply to Mr. Webster: The Resolution Offered by Mr. Foot, Relative to the Public Lands, Being Under Consideration. Delivered in the Senate, Session 1829-1830 (Washington, 1830) pp. 53-54. 7. Ibid., p. 65.


8. James Gadsden, urging Calhoun to accept the invitation, wrote: "Now is the time to meet our Western friends at Memphis-to set the ball in motion which must bring the Valley to the South: and make them feel as allies of the Great Commercial and Agricultural interests-instead of the Tax gathering and Monopolizing interests of the North" ( J. Franklin Jameson,

ed., Correspondence of John C. Calhoun [Washington, 1900], p. 1062). Calhoun's attitude is discussed in Herbert Wender, Southern Commercial Conventions 1837-1859, Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science, Series XLVIII, No. 4 (Baltimore, 1930), p. 54.

9. Reports and Public Papers of John C. Calhoun, being Volume VI of Works, ed. Richard K. Crallé (New York, 1856), pp. 273-274. 10. Ibid., p. 280. Benton had called the Mississippi and its tributaries "mare nostrum" in his speech during the Webster-Hayne debate fifteen years before (Speech of Mr. Benton . . . in Reply to Mr. Webster, p. 66). An anonymous contributor to the Southern Quarterly Review of Charleston more orthodox than the Pope, greeted Calhoun's "inland sea" doctrine with the cry, "Et tu, quoque, Brute?" (IX, 267, January, 1846).

11. Works, VI, 284.

12. Buckner H. Payne, "New Orleans-Her Commerce and Her Duties,"

DeBow's Review, III, 39-48 (January, 1847).

13. Thomas B. Hewson, "Thoughts on a Rail-Road System for New

Orleans," Ibid., X, 175-188 (February, 1851).

14. "Progress of the Great West in Population, Agriculture, Arts and Commerce," Ibid., IV, 31 85 (September, 1847).

15. "Hemp-Growing Region of the United States," Ibid., XXIV, 56-58 (January, 1858); "The Great Basin of the Mississippi," Ibid., XXIV, 159-165 ( February, 1858) .

16. "The North American Plain," Ibid., XXVI, 564 (May, 1859). Scott also contributed "Westward the Star of Empire," Ibid., XXVII, [125]-136 (August, 1859).

17. "The Cause of the South," Ibid., X, 107 ( January, 1851)

18. 36 Cong., 1 Sess., Congressional Globe. Senate (March 22, 1860), pp. 1303-1304.

19. Francis P. Gaines, The Southern Plantation. A Study in the Development and Accuracy of a Tradition (New York, 1925).

20. Lewis C. Gray, A History of Agriculture in the Southern United States to 1860, 2 vols. (Washington, 1933), II, 906-907.

21. Letter of Mr. Walker, of Mississippi, Relative to the Annexation of Texas: In Reply to the Call of the People of Carroll County, Kentucky, to Communicate his Views on That Subject (Washington, 1844), p. 5.

22. Ibid., pp. 8-9. The prevalence of this argument is indicated by Albert K. Weinberg, Manifest Destiny. A Study of Nationalist Expansionism in American History (Baltimore, 1935), pp. 52-56. It should be pointed out that many proslavery Southerners were opposed to the annexation of Texas (Chauncey S. Boucher, "In Re That Aggressive Slaveocracy," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, VIII, 27, June-September, 1921) .

23. Letter of Mr. Walker, p. 9.

24. Ibid., p. 11.

25. Ibid., p. 14.

26. Ibid., p. 15.


27. Mathew F. Maury, "Gulf of Mexico," in James D. B. DeBow, ed., The Industrial Resources, Etc., of the Southern and Western States, 3 vols., (New Orleans, 1852), I, 365 373.

28. Reprinted in DeBow's Review, XVII, 280-281 (September, 1854). The Democratic platform in 1856 demanded that the United States maintain its ascendancy in the Gulf of Mexico to protect the mouth of the Mississippi, and that American "preponderance" in the Interoceanic Isthmus be guaranteed also.

29. "J. C.," "The Destinies of the South," Southern Quarterly Review, N. S. XXIII, 201 (January, 1853).

30. John Brown's Body (Garden City, New York, 1928), p. 374.

31. Albert Bigelow Paine, ed., Mark Twain's Letters, 2 vols. ( New York, 1911), I, 34-35. Mark Twain mentions the report by Lieutenants William L. Herndon and Lardner Gibbon (Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon, Made under Direction of the Navy Department, 2 vols. and volume of maps, [Washington, 1853-1854], 32 Cong., 2 Sess. Senate Executive Document No. 36). Herndon was a Virginian and the brother-in-law of Maury, whose views about the development of the Amazon valley as a slave empire he shared ( I, 193, 281) . The expedition was ordered by John Pendleton Kennedy, Secretary of the Navy, and bore an obvious relation to Southern policy. Coca, in which Mark Twain was interested, is mentioned at I, 88-89, 249; II, 46-47. CHAPTER XIV. THE NEW CALCULUS OF WESTERN ENERGIES

1. "Present Population and Future Prospects of the Western Country," Western Monthly Review, I 331 (October, 1827).

2. Sketches, Historical and Descriptive, of Louisiana (Philadelphia, 1812), p. 387.

3. Natural and Statistical View, or Picture of Cincinnati and the Miami Country ( Cincinnati, 1815), p. 227. 4. Western Monthly Review, I, 332 (October, 1827).

5. Filson, The Discovery . . . of Kentucke (1784), pp. 44-45; Imlay, Topographical Description ( 1792), pp. 99-100.

6. Western Souvenir (Cincinnati, n. d.), pp. 107-108.

7. "Progress of the West," Western Monthly Review, I, 25-26 (May, 1827) .

8. 2nd ed. (Philadelphia, 1834), p. 60. This anonymous work is sometimes ascribed to Robert Baird. 9. "Remarks Made on a Tour to Prairie du Chien; Thence to Washington City, in 1829," in The Writings of Caleb Atwater (Columbus, Ohio, 1833), pp. 203-204.

10. Statistics of the West, at the Close of the Year 1836 (Cincinnati, 1836), p. 217. 11. "The Progress of Navigation and Commerce on the Waters of the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes. A. D. 1700 to 1846," Publications of the Mississippi Historical Society, VII (1903), 493-494.


12. Quoted in Henry C. Hubbart, The Older Middle West, 1840-1880 ( New York, 1936), p. 20.

13. For example, Alice Freeman Palmer, "Some Lasting Results of the World's Fair," Forum, XVI, [517]-523 (December, 1893), Henry Van Brunt, "The Columbian Exposition and American Civilization," Atlantic, LXXI, [577]-588 (May, 1893).

14. The Education of Henry Adams (Washington, 1907), pp. 296-297.

15. "Internal Trade of the United States," Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, YIII, 325 (April, 1843).

16. "The Progress of the West; Considered with Reference to Great Commercial Cities in the United States," Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, XIV 164 (February, 1846).

17. Ibid., VIII, 329.

18. "Internal Trade in the United States," Ibid., IX, 31 (July, 1843).

19. Ibid., IX, 42.

20. "The Great West," DeBow's Review, XV, 52 (July, 1853).

21. "Westward Movement of the Center of Population, and of Industrial Power in North America," Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, XXXVI, 198-199 ( February, 1857) .

22. "Westward the Star of Empire," DeBow's Review, XXVII, 125 ( August, 1859) .

23. "Railroads in the Great Valley," Hunt's Merchants Magazine, XXVII 50-51 (July, 1852).

24. DeBow's Review, XV, 51.

25. "The North American Plain-Valley of the Mississippi, Etc.," Ibid., XXVI, 561 ( May, 1859) .

26. Allen Johnson, Stephen A. Douglas: A Study in American Politics (New York, 1908), p. 481.

27. Ibid., pp. 483-484. Douglas's position is discussed in Carl R. Fish, "The Decision of the Ohio Valley," American Historical Association Report (1910), p. 161. 28. The Writings of Abraham Lincoln, ed. Arthur B. Lapsley, 8 vols., (New York, 1905-1906), VI, 194 (Annual Message to Congress, December 1, 1862).

29. Ibid., VI, 196-197.

30. Ibid., VI, 197.

31. Ibid.. VI. 198.


1. William E. Dodd, "The Fight for the Northwest" American His-torical Review, XVI, 785 (July, 1911); Roy M. Robbins, 'Horace Greeley: Land Reform and Unemployment, 1837-1802," Agricultural History, VII 40 (January, 1933); Henry C. Hubbart, The Older Middle West, p. 20.This chapter, in slightly revised and condensed form, appeared in the Pacific Spectator under the title "Soil of Freedom" (II, 151-158, Spring, 1948).

2. Reinhard H. Luthin, The First Lincoln Campaign ( Cambridge Massachusetts, 1944), p. 150.


3. Ibid., p. 151.

4. The Nebraska Question Comprising Speeches ln the United States Senate by Mr. Douglas, Mr. Chase, Mr. Smith, Mr. Everett, Mr. Wade, Mr. Badger, Mr. Seward, and Mr. Sumner (New York, 1854), p. 21 (March 11, 1850). 5. Ibid., p. 70 (February 8, 1854).

6. Ibid., p. 105 (February 17, 1854).

7. Ibid., p. 99 (February 17, 1854).

8. Ibid., pp. 65, 66 (February 6, 1854).

9. Ibid., p. 66.

10. "Horace Greeley and the Working Class Origins of the Republican Party," Political Science Quarterly, XXIV, 488 (September, 1909).

11. Fred A. Shannon, "The Homestead Act and the Labor Surplus," American Historical Review, XLI, 643 (July, 1936).

12. Joseph G. Rayback, "Land for the Landless. The Contemporary View," Unpublished Master's Thesis, Western Reserve University, 1956, pp. 58-59Table III and Map III in Appendix, pp. 97-98.

13. Helene S. Zahler, Eastern Workingmen and National Land Policy, 1829-1862 (New York, 1941), p. 53, quoted from Working Man's Advocate (March 3, 1854) .

14. Ibid. pp. 53-35, 45-46. Grow's speech in 1852 favoring a homestead system was 'merely an oratorical transcript" of articles in Evans's Working Man's Advocate (John R. Commons in Political Science Quarterly, XXIV, 484 September, 1909).

15. A. Whitney Griswold, "The Agrarian Democracy of Thomas Jefferson," American Political Science Review, XL, 672-680 (August, 1946).

16. James T. DuBois and Gertrude S. Mathews, Galusha A. Grow, Father of the Homestead Law (Boston, 1917), p. 84. 17. Zahler, Eastern Workingmen, pp. 29, 34, 194. John Locke's labor theory of property implied that no man had a right to more land than he himself could cultivate (Griswold, American Political Science Review, XL 675-676) .

18. Zahler, Eastern Workingmen, pp. 194-197; Paul W. Gates, "The Homestead Law in an Incongruous Land System," American Historical Review, XLI, 652-681 (July, 1936). 19. DuBois and Mathews, Galusha A. Grow, pp. 99-101.

20. 31 Cong., 2 Sess. Congressional Globe, Appendix, p. 137 (January 29, 1851). The description of agriculture as the nursing father of the State is from Vattel (Emerich de Vattel, The Law of Nations; or, Principles of the Law of Nature, anonymous trans. [London, 1793], p. 31). Chapter VII of Vattel's treatise, "Of the Cultivation of the Earth" (pp. 31-33), from which Julian's phrase was quoted, is a tissue of the stereotypes of eighteenth-century agrarian theory. Andrew Johnson quoted the same dictum from Vattel, adding his warning against allowing large tracts of land to lie uncultivated and against holding the husbandman in contempt (35 Cong., 1 Sess. Congressional Globe, Senate, p. 2265, May 20, 1858). 21. 32 Cong., 1 Sess. Congressional Globe, Appendix, p. 410 (April 6, 1852) .

22. Ibid.

23. Quoted in Horace Greeley, The American Conflict: A History of the THE AGRARIAN UTOPIA 285

Great Rebellion in the United States of America, 1860-'65, 2 vols. (Hartford, Conn., 1866), I, 200n. 24. 31 Cong., 2 Sess. Congressional Globe, Appendix, p. 156 (January 29, 1851).

25. 36 Cong., 1 Sess. Congressional Globe, Senate, p. 1650 (April 11, 1860).

26. 36 Cong., 1 Sess. Congressional Globe, Senate, p. 1635 (April 10, 1860).

27. 31 Cong., 2 Sess. Congressional Globe, Appendix, p. 156 (January 29, 1851). During the fifty years that had elapsed since the end of the eighteenth century, the word 'freeman" had acquired an additional overtone of meaning. It now meant not only "a man possessing the franchise" and "a freeholder," but also, more emphatically. "a man not a slave."


1. The subject of this chapter is dealt with at greater length in my article, "Rain Follows the Plow: The Notion of Increased Rainfall for the Great Plains, 1844-1880," Huntington Library Quarterly, X, 168-193 ( February, 1947).

2. John W. Gregory, "What of the Desert?" Century, XLI, 796 (April, 1891). The pioneer discussion of the problem of settlement on the Plains is Waker P. Webb's The Great Plains (Boston, 1931), especially pp. 319-382.

3. Fred A. Shannon, The Farmer's Last Frontier. Agriculture, 1860~ 1897 ( The Economic History of the United States, edd. Henry David, Harold U. Faulkner, Louis M. Hacker, Curtis P. Nettels, and Fred A. Shannon, vol. V, New York, 1945), pp. 218-220.

4. Carter Goodrich and others, Migration and Economic Opportunity (Philadelphia, 1936), pp. 517-518; The Great Plains Committee, The Future of the Great Plains (Washington, 1836), pp. 2-3.

5. Ralph C. Morris, "The Notion of a Great American Desert East of the Rockies,' Mississippi Valley Historical Review, XIII, 190-200 (September, 1926); Webb, Great Plains, pp. 152-160.

6. The Expeditions of Zebulon Montgomery Pike, ed. Elliott Coues, 5 vols. (New York, 1895), II, 525.

7. Thomas Pownall remarked in 1776: "This Globe, the Earth which we inhabit, is, in its natural State, . . . universally, wherever the Waters do not prevail, covered with Woods .... Except where the Land is worn to the Bone, and nothing remains on the Surface but bare Rocks, every Soil even the poorest, hath its peculiar Clothing of Trees or Shrubs" (A Topographical Description of Such Parts of North America as Are Contained in the (Annexed) Map of the Middle British Colonies [London, 1776], p. 5).

8. Henry M. Brackenridge, Views of Louisiana: Containing Geographical, Statistical and Historical Notices of That Vast and Important Portion of America (Baltimore, 1817), p. 72.

9. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains Performed ln the Years 1819, 1820 ( 1823 ), reprinted in Reuben G. Thwaites.


ed., Early Western Travels, 1748-1846, 32 vols. (Cleveland, 1904-1907), XVII, 191, 147-148.

10. Travels in the Great Western Prairies, the Anahuac and Rocky Mountains, and in Oregon Territory ( 1843), in Early Western Travels, XXVIII, 108-109.

11. The California and Oregon Trail: Being Sketches of Prairie and Rocky Mountain Life (New York, 1849), pp. 81-82.

12. What I Saw in California: Being the Journal of a Tour by the Emigrant Route and South Pass of the Rocky Mountains, across the Continent of North America ( 1848), 3d ed. ( New York, 1849), p. 98. 13. For example, Benton called the southern plains Indians "Arabs of the New World" ( Thirty Years' View; or, A History of the Working of the American Government for Thirty Years, from 1820 to 1850, 2 vols., New York, 1854-1856, I, 41). A writer in the Port Folio in 1817 (Fourth [Fifth] Series, III, 422) referred to the northern plains Indians as "the American Tartars." Timothy Flint spoke of the Southwestern Indians who attacked James O. Pattie as "ruthless red Tartars of the desert" (Pattie's Personal Narrative [1831], edited by Flint, in Early Western Travels, XVIII, 330). These associations gave Melville an epithet. In the chapter on dreams in Mardi, the Arkansas brings down his Tartar rivers from the plain (Works, 16 vols., London, 1922-1924, IV, 54).

14. The Works of the Right Honorable Edmund Burke, 12 vols. ( Boston, 1866-1867), II, 131-132. 15. Astoria, or Anecdotes of an Enterprise beyond the Rocky Mountains, 2 vols. (Philadelphia, 1836), I, 232.

16. Idem. Irving was so deeply impressed with the idea of outlaw bands in the American desert that he used it again as a conclusion for his version of Captain B. L. E. Bonneville's journal, The Rocky Mountains: or, Scenes, Incidents, and Adventures in the Far West, 2 vols. (Philadelphia, 1857), II,


17. DeBow's Review, I, 67 (January, 1846).

18. Hunt's Merchants' Magazine, XXV, 167 (August, ]851).

19. Southern Quarterly Review, XVI, 84 (October, 1849).

20. 35 Cong., 2 Sess. House Executive Document No. 2, in Vol. II Part 2, pp. 641, 644.

21. Summary of the results of the surveys by Secretary of War Jefferson Davis in "Report of the Secretary of War Communicating the Several Pacific Railroad Explorations," 33 Cong., 1 Sess. House Executive Document No. 129, in Vol. XVIII, Part I, p. 7.

22. Representative Thomas M. Edwards of New Hampshire (37 Cong. 2 Sess. Congressional Globe, Part 2, p. 1704 April 17, 1862] ), Representative Frederick A. Pike of Maine (Ibid., Part 2, p. 1707 [April 17, 1862]); Representative Aaron A. Sargent of California (Ibid., Part 2, p. 1908 [May 1, 1862] ); Senator James A. McDougall of California ( Ibid ., Part 3, p. 2804 [June 18, 1862] ). 23. Commerce of the Prairies: or the Journal of a Santa Fé Trader 2 vols. (New York, 1844), II, 202-203.

24. Bayard Taylor in the Tribune, June, 1866 (dispatch reprinted in Colorado: A Summer Trip [New York, 1867] pp. 41, 42, 45): Alexander K. GARDEN AND DESERT 287 McClure in the Tribune, May, 1867 (dispatch reprinted in Three Thousand Miles through the Rocky Mountains [Philadelphia, 1869], pp. 112-113). 25. Report of the Commissioner of the General Land Ofice for the Year 1867 (Washington, 1867), pp. 135-136.

26. Preliminary Report of the United States Geological Survey of Wyoming and Portions of Contiguous Territories (1871), 42 Cong., 2 Sess. House Executive Document No. 325, in Vol. XV, pp. 6-8.

27. Samuel G. Aughey and Charles Dana Wilber, Agriculture beyond the 100th Meridian or A Review of the U. S. Public Land Commission (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1880), pp. 3-6; Aughey, Sketches of the Physical Geography and Geology of Nebraska (Omaha, Nebraska, 1880), pp. 43-44.

28. Charles Dana Wilber, The Great Valleys and Prairies of Nebraska and the Northwest (Omaha, Nebraska, 1881), p. 69.

29. Ibid., p. 70.

30. Ibid., p. 355. 31. Samuel Aughey, Sketches of the Physical Geography and Geology of Nebraska, p. 155.


1. IV, 500 (August, 1872).

2. Our Western Empire, p. 131.

3. Ibid., p. 54,

4. Ibid., pp. 206-207.

5. Joseph Nimmo, Jr., Report on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 48 Cong., 2 Sess. House Executive Document No. 7, Vol. XX, Part 2 p. 51. Nimmo points out how "exceedingly erroneous" had been earlier predictions concerning trade with Asia over the Pacific railways.

6. Richard M. Bucke, ed., Notes and Fragments Left by Walt Whitman (London, Canada, 1899), p. 48.


1. New York Semi-Weekly Tribune (May 9, 1862), quoted by Roy M. Robbins, "Horace Greeley: Land Reform and Unemployment," Agricultural History, VII, 41 (January, 1933).

2. New York Semi-Weekly Tribune (May 8, 1862), quoted by Joseph G. Rayback, "Land for the Landless. The Contemporary View," Unpublished Master's Thesis, Western Reserve University (1936), p. 89. 3. May 7, 1862, Ibid., p. 90.

4. May 7, 1862, Ibid., p. 89.

5. New York Tribune (February 5, 1867), quoted by Carter Goodrich and Sol Davison, "The Wage-Earner in the Westward Movement. I. The Statement of the Problem," Political Science Quarterly, L, 181 (June, 1935). 6. Fred A. Shannon, "The Homestead Act and the Labor Surplus," American Historical Review, XLI, 638 (July, 1936).

7. Fred A. Shannon, The Farmer's Last Frontier, pp. 125-147.

8. Paul W. Gates, "The Homestead Law in an Incongruous Land System," American Historical Review, XLI, 670 (July, 1936).


9. Shannon, Farmer's Last Frontier, Statistical Table, p. 418.

10. Representative George W. Julian, 31 Cong., 2 Sess. Congressional Globe, Appendix, p. 136 (January 29, 1851).

11. Helene S. Zahler, Eastern Workingmen and National Land Policy, pp. 34-35.

12. Henry George, Our Land and Land Policy, National and State ( San Francisco, 1871), pp. 34-35.

13. Atlantic Monthly, XLIII, 328, 330 (March, 1879).

14. Ibid., XLIII, 336.

15. Other Main Travelled Roads (1892, 1899, 1910), Sunset ed. (New York, n. d.), p. 102.

16. The Man with the Hoe and Other Poems (New York, 1899), p. 17.


1. Powell's program is described in Walter P. Webb, The Great Plains, (New York, 1931), pp. 353-356, 419-422.

2. John Wesley Powell, Report on the Lards of the Arid Region of the United States (Washington, 1878), pp. 25-45.

3. Powell's proposals for reorganization of the surveys are discussed at greater length in my article, "Clarence King, John Wesley Powell, and the Establishment of the United States Geological Survey," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, XXXIV, 37-58 (June, 1947), and in Harold H. Dunham Government Handout: A Study in the Administration of the Public Lands (New York, 1941) pp. 66-68. 4. "Geographical and Geological Surveys West of the Mississippi," 43 Cong., 1 Sess. House Report No. 612, p. 53.

5. Charles Schuchert and Clara Mae LeVene, O. C. Marsh, Pioneer in Paleontology (New Haven, 1940), p. 249.

6. 45 Cong., S Sess. House Miscellaneous Document No. 5, in Vol. I, p.2.

7. Dunham, Government Handout, pp. 69-73.

8. The important and voluminous Report of the Commission is 46. Cong., 2 Sess. House Executive Document No. 46, in Vol. XXII. The fate of the Report in Congress is discussed by Dunham, Government Handout, pp. 83-84.

9. Delegate Martin Maginnis, 45 Cong., 3 Sess. Congressional Record VIII, Part 2, p. 1202.

10. Representative Thomas M. Patterson, Ibid., VIII, Part 3, Appendix, p.219.

11. Ibid., VIII Part 3 Appendix, p. 221.

12. Ibid., VIII Part 2 p. 1211.


1. Roy M. Robbins, "Horace Greeley: Land Reform and Unemployment, 1837-1862,"Agricultural History, VII, 18 (January, 1933). A SAFETY VALVE 289

2. Ibid., VII, 25. Further documentation of Greeley's agrarianism is provided by Roland Van Zandt in "Horace Greeley, Agrarian Exponent of American Idealism," Rural Sociology, XIII, [411]-419 (December. 1948).

3. February 18, 1854. Quoted by Carter Goodrich and Sol Davison, "The Wage-Eamer in the Westward Movement. I. The Statement of the Problem," Political Science Quarterly, L, 179-180 (June, 1935).

4. The Frontier in American History (New York, 1920), p. 62.

5. Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series. America and West Indies, March, 1720, to December, 1721, p. 473.

6. Ibid., Volume for 1131, p. 90.

7. John Bartram, Observations on the Inhabitants, Climate, Soil . . . and Other Matters Worthy of Notice. Made by Mr. John Bartram, in his Travels from Pennsylvania to Onondago, Oswego and the Lake Ontario ( London, 1751), p. v.

8. Writings, ed. Albert H. Smyth, III, 65.

9. The Writings of George Washington from the Original Manuscript Sources, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick, 39 vols. (Washington, 1931-1944), XXVIII, 206.

10. Writings, ed. Andrew A. Lipscomb, 20 vols. (Washington, 1903-904), XI, 55. To "Mr. Lithson," Washington, January 4, 1805.

11. 21 Cong., 1 Sess. Register of Debates in Congress, VI, 34 (January 19, 1830). 12. Ibid., VI, 24 ( January 18, 1830) .

13. 32 Cong., 1 Sess. Congressional Globe, Appendix, p. 737 (April 22, 1852) .

14. Capital. A Critical Analysis of Capitalist Production, trans. Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (London, 1912), pp. 794-800.

15. Helene S. Zahler, Eastern Workingmen and National Land Policy, pp. 10, 23-24, 29, etc.

16. John R. Commons, "Horace Greeley and the Working Class Origins of the Republican Party," Political Science Quarterly, XXIV, 484 (September, 1909). 17. Quoted from the New York Tribune, November 7, 1859, in DeBow's Review, XXVIII, 253n. (March, 1860).

18. 36 Cong., 1 Sess. Congressional Globe, p. 1631 (April 10, 1860).

19. Representative recent articles: (1) Contra the safety-valve theory: Carter Goodrich and Sol Davison, "The Wage-Eamer in the Westward Movement. I. The Statement of the Problem," Political Science Quarterly, L, 161-185 (June, 1935); "II. The Question and the Sources," Ibid., LI, 61-116 (March, 1936); Fred A. Shannon, "The Homestead Act and the Labor Surplus," American Historical Review, XLI, 637-651 (June, 1936); Clarence H. Danhof, "Farm-Making Costs and the 'Safety Valve: 1850-60,' Journal Of Political Economy, XLIX, 317 359 (June, 1941). (2) Pro the safety-valve theory: Joseph Schafer, "Some Facts Bearing on the Safety-Valve Theory," Wisconsin Magazine of History, XX, 216 232 (December, 1936); "Concerning the Frontier as a Safety Valve," Political Science Quarterly, LII, 407-420 (September, 1937); "Was the West a Safety Valve for Labor?" Mississippi Valley Historical Review, XXIV, 299-314 (December, 1937). Fred A. Shannon seems to me to have established the falsity of the idea in


his most recent article on the subject, "A Post Mortem on the Labor-Safety-Valve Theory," Agricultural History, XIX, 31-37 (January, 1945).

20. Writings, ed. Albert H. Smyth, III, 65.

21. Joseph J. Spengler, "Population Doctrines in the United States. I. Anti-Malthusianism," Journal of Political Economy, XLI, 433-467 (August 1933) ; "II. Malthusianism," XLI, 639-672 ( October, 1933). 22. The Writings of Thomas Jefferson, ed. H. A. Washington, 9 vols. (Washington, 1853-1854), II, 332. 23. "An Address, on the Influence of the Federative Republican System of Government upon Literature and the Development of Character. Prepared to be Delivered before the Historical and Philosophical Society of Virginia," Southern Literary Messenger, II, 277 (March, 1836).

24. Cannibals All! or Slaves without Masters (Richmond, 1857), p. 61. 25. "R. E. C.," "The Problem of Free Society," Southern Literary Messenger, XXVII, 93-94 (August, 1858).

26. Quoted in Richard C. Beatty, Lord Macaulay, Victorian Liberal (Norman, Oklahoma, 1938), pp. 366-369. The letter was addressed to R. S. Randall. 27. Clarel. A Poem and Pilgrimage in the Holy Land, 2 vols. ( New York 1876), II, 524-527. The allusion to the god Terminus is apparently a reminiscence of Benton's speech on the occupation of Oregon in 1825: ". . . the ridge of the Rocky mountains may be named without offence, as presenting a convenient, natural, and everlasting boundary. Along the back of this ridge, the western limit of this republic should be drawn, and the statue of the fabled god, Terminus, should be raised upon its highest peak, never to be thrown down" (18 Cong., 2 Sess. Register of Debates in Congress, I, 712. Senate, March 1, 1825).



1. The Oak Openings; or, The Bee-Hunter, 2 vols. (New York, 1848), I, 154.

2. Ibid., I, 113.

3. Westward Ho! A Tale, 2 vols. (New York, 1832), I, 4

4. Bushfield had been a companion of Boone (Ibid., I, 70), he was a loyal retainer of Colonel Dangerfield ( I, 71); he felt crowded by the advance of settlement (I, 179 181); he wished to be able to fell a tree near his house for fuel ( I, 184) ; and finally he fled to a remote military post on the Missouri River (II, 193).

5. The New Pastoral (Philadelphia, 1855), p. vi.

6. Ibid ., p. 208.

7. Ibid., pp. 215-217, 225, 233-234, 237.

8. Little Alice; or, The Pet of the Settlement. A Story of Prairie Land (Boston, 1863), p. iii.

9. Ibid., p. 143.

10. Ibid., p. 56.

11. Ibid., p. 236.

12. Ibid., pp. 18, 67, 28.


13 Ibid. p. 45.

14. A Sermon Preached in Boston, New-England, before the Society for Encouraging Industry, and Employing the Poor, September 20,1758 (Boston, 1758), pp. 10-11, 13.

15. Travels; in New-England and New-York, 4 vols. ( New Haven, 1821-1822), II, 459.

16. Ibid ., II, 461-462.

17. North American Review, XLIII, 27-28 (July, 1836).

18. Ibid., LV, 511 (October, 1842).

19. The origins of the conception and its currency in the United States are traced in Charles A. and Mary Beard, The Rise of American Civilization, Volume IV: The American Spirit: A Study of the Idea of Civilization in the United States ( New York, 1942).

20. Philadelphia, 1796, and Baltimore, 1802.

21. This point, for example, was frequently made by missionaries working with Western Indians (Twenty-Sixth Annual Report of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, Boston, 1835, p. 99; Twenty-Seventh Annual Report, Boston, 1836, pp. 9.996). William Tooke, an English traveler in Asia edited by William Darby (View of the United States, Philadelphia, 1828, p. 321), had asserted that the transition from a migratory pastoral life to agriculture "determines the boundary between civilized and barbarous nations" ( View of the Russian Empire during the Reign of Catherine the Second, 3 vols., London, 1799, III, 230). Volney made the same point with regard to the Bedouins of Arabia (Travels through Egypt and Syria, Eng. trans., 2 vols., New York, 1798, I, 231). 22. The Emigrant's Guide to the Western and Southwestern States and Territories (New York, 1818), pp. 61-62.

23. Port Folio, Fourth [Fifth] Series, XVII, 214 (March, 1824).

24. Adam Hodgson, Letters from North America, 2 vols. ( London, 1824), I, 318-319.

25. Writings, ed. H. A. Washington, VII, 377-378 (Monticello, September 6, 1824) .

26. Francis Berrian; or, The Mexican Patriot, 2 vols. (Boston, 1826), I, 39.

27. The Prairie (Philadelphia, 1827), I, 88.

28. Ibid., I, 26 103.

29. Cooper calls the Bush group "semi-barbarous" (Ibid., I, 165), which was Jefferson's word for American settlers just within the frontier, immediately above the pastoral Indians in the scale of social stages. 30. Ibid., I, 16-17, 20. At I, 166 Ishmael is again compared-to "a well-fed and fattened ox," and is said to be a member of "a race who lived chiefly for the indulgence of the natural wants...."

31. Ibid.,I, 78. 32. Ibid., II, 237-248.

33. Ibid., I, 222. 34. Home as Found, 2 vols. (Philadelphia, 1838), I, 180-183.


II: FROM CAROLINE KIRKLAND TO HAMLIN GARLAND 1. Vernon L. Parrington, The Beginnings of Critical Realism in America (Main Currents in American Thought, Volume III, 1930), reprint ed. (New York, n. d.), p. 288. 2. Ludwig Lewisohn's comment greatly overstates the case, but suggests the importance of this development for American literature: "It took genuine courage, genuine independence of mind to give literary treatment to the rude peasantry that peopled the Mississippi Valley. And it is from the treatment of this peasantry that our modern literature takes its rise.... The germs of our period of national expression are to be found in those few writers like Edward Eggleston and E. W. Howe who, whether consenting to it or resisting it, made the collective life of the American people the substance of serious literature" ( The Story of American Literature, New York, 1932, p. 276).

3. The fullest account of Mrs. Kirkland's life and work is Langley Carleton Keyes, "Caroline M. Kirkland. A Pioneer in American Realism," Unpublished Doctor's Dissertation, Harvard University, 1935. The social position of the Stansburys is discussed on p. 96.

4. A New Home-Who'll Follow? or Glimpses of Western Life, by Mrs. Mary Clavers ( pseud. ) ( first published 1839; 4th ed., New York, 1850), p.3.

5. Ibid., pp. 7, 8.

6. Forest Life, 2 vols. (New York, 1842), I, 122.

7. Ibid., I, 209.

8. Ibid.,I, 7.

9. A New Home, p. 9.

10. Ibid., pp. 29-31.

11. Forest Life, I, 237-250, II, [3]-45.

12. Ibid., II, 46-146.

13. Western Clearings (New York, 1845), pp. 66-86.

14. Ibid., pp. 118-143.

15. Alice Wilde, p. 72.

16. Ibid. p. 20.

17. Ibid. pp. 77, 81.

18. Advertisement on p. [30] of Edward S. Ellis, The Frontier Angel, New and Old Friends, No. 7 ( New York, 1873 )

19. Beadle's Dime Novels, No. 10 (1860). 20. Ibid., pp. [9],11, 14.

21. Ibid., p. 17.

22. Ibid. p. 19.

23. Ibid. p. 23.

24. Ibid., p. 98.

25. Beadle's Dime Novels, No. 16 (1861), p. 103.

26. Ibid., pp. 103, 119-120.

27. Beadle's Dime Novels, No. 35 (1862), pp. 9, 41.

28. Ibid., pp. 58-59.

29. Ibid., pp. 84-85.

30. Beadles Dime Novels, No. 39 (1862), pp. 9, 95.

31. The Hoosier School-Master. A Novel ( New York, 1871), p. [5].


32. Clovernook or Recollections of Our Neighborhood in the West. Second Series (first published 1853; New York, 1884), pp. 109-145. 33. Ibid ., p. 143.

34. Ibid., p. 25.

35. Ibid., pp. 363-364. The Preface to the First Series of Clovernook sketches (New York, 1851, reprint, 1852), pp. v-vi, makes the same point about the failure of city dwellers to sympathize with poor and humble farm people. Although Miss Cary does not consider all Westerners socially inferior ( Cincinnati, for example, has an upper class ), she is vividly conscious of class differences between urban and rural populations. 36. Clovernook (Second Series), pp. 245-280.

37. Married, Not Mated, or, How They Lived at Woodside and Throckmorton Hall (New York, 1856), pp. 67, 97, 266, 270.

38. Miss Cary's other fictional efforts ( Hager. A Story of To-Day, [New York, 1852; "second edition," 1852]; The Bishop's Son. A Novel [New York, 1867] ) show no change in the rather confused pattern of her attitudes toward Western farmers. 39. Hoosier School-Master, pp. 122, 125.

40. The Circuit Rider: A Tale of the Heroic Age (New York, 1874), p. [173].

41. Roxy (New York 1878),p. 183.

42. Ibid., p. 343.

43. Hoosier School-Master, p. 163; The Mystery of Metropolisville (New York, 1873), p. 93.

44. Hoosier School-Master, p. 29.

45. Mystery of Metropolisville, p. 21.

46. Hoosier School-Master, p. [5].

47. The End of the World . A Love Story ( New York, 1872), P. 8. 48. Eggleston remarks of Nancy Kirtley that she had only 'something which a sanguine evolutionist might hope would develop into a conscience, by some chance, in many generations" (Roxy, p. [346] ). His interest in and eventual acceptance of Darwin's position is discussed by his biographer William P. Randel (Edward Egeleston, Author of The Hoosier School-Master [New York, 1946], pp. 11, 218). In The Faith Doctor Eggleston referred to Darwin as "the intellect that has dominated our age" (Randel, Eggleston, p. 196). He publicly accepted Darwin in 1887 (Ibid., p. 218).

49. Randel, Eggleston, p. 123.

50. The Circuit Rider, pp. 55-56.

51. Some instances: George W. Kendall, Narrative of the Texan Santa Fé Expedition, 2 vols. (New York, 1844), I, 216-217; Francis Parkman, The California and Oregon Trail: Being Sketches of Prairie and Rocky Mountain Life (New York, 1849), p. 187; Thomas B. Thorpe, Spirit of the Times, X, [361] (1840). 52. If the term "realism" has any use in the vocabulary of literary criticism-and until a Professor Lovejoy discriminates the half~dozen or more current senses of the word it will probably continue to confuse more things than it clarifies-it might well be made to designate precisely these aspects of Dutch pictorial method transferred to the sphere of psychological analysis.

53. Clovernook (Second Series), pp. 116-117, 121-122.

54. Ibid., pp. 119-120.

55. In "Mrs. Wetherbe's Quilting Par>" the play-party is a functional


part of the plot. The "plays" include the nonmusical "Hunting the Key" as well as "rude rhymes, sung as accompaniments to the playing. Three specimens of the rimes are quoted: "O Sister Phoebe," "Uncle Johnny's sick a-bed," and a four-line stanza announcing, "My love and I will go, / And my love and I will go, / And we'll settle on the banks / Of the pleasant O-h-i-ó" (Ibid., pp. 50-51).

56. The Circuit Rider, p. 22.

57. Ibid., p. 21. Volney, among others, had long before compared

American Indians to "the nations so much extolled of ancient Greece and Italy"-intending of course to belittle the Greeks and Romans (A View of the Soil and Climate of the United States of America [1803], trans. Charles Brockden Brown [Philadelphia, 1804], p. 410). The theory that the American

West exhibited all the stages of social development lent itself easily to the discovery of a "heroic" age at some point in the Mississippi Valley.

58. The Circuit Rider, p. 22.

59. Mrs. Wetherbe, in "Mrs. Wetherbe's Quilting Party," whom Miss

Cary admires, is given a marked dialect (Clovernook, Second Series, pp. 18-19, etc.), but the poverty-stricken family in "Ward Henderson" do not speak in dialect (Ibid., pp. 346-360). The strongly sentimental atmosphere of this story has perhaps exerted a refining influence on the language of the characters.

60. Randel, Eggleston, p. 79.

61. Ibid., p. 105.

62. Ibid., p. 187. It is not clear what publication Eggleston had in mind.

63. Hoosier School-Master p. 6.

64. Randel, Eggleston, p. 126.

65. The English Language in America, 2 vols. ( New York, 1925), I, 229.

66. Edward Eggleston, Folk-Speech in America, Century Magazine, XLVIII, 870 (October, 1894). 67. Roxy, pp. 426-427.

68. Eggleston remarks that if the Backwoods Philosopher in The End of the World had known Whitman's work, he would have assigned the poet to the 'lnferno" section of his library along with Swinburne, Don Juan, and "some French novels" (p. 44).

69. Eggleston wrote to his wife in 1888, after meeting Mark Twain, that he was "only a good clown after all" (Randel, Eggleston, p. 184). 70. The End of the World p. 37 and note.

71. Randel, Eggleston, p. 184.

72. Kirkland told Hamlin Garland he was trying to improve on Eggleston, although he did not specify in what respect ( Roadside Meetings [New York, 1930], p. 111).

73. Zury: The Meanest Man in Spring County. A Novel of Western Life (Boston, 1887), pp. 80-81. I have not been able to trace this allusion. 74. Ibid., pp. 348-356. Kirkland explains in a note that one of the illustrations in the speech-based on feeding a calf-is derived from a stump speech of "Representative Horr, of Michigan" ( p. 352n. ) .

75. The McVeys: An Episode ( Boston, 1888), p. 339.

76. Roadside Meetings, pp. 90-94.

77. Ibid. p. 95.

78. Ibid., pp. 94-95.

79. The Story of a Country Town (Boston, 1883), pp. 239-240.


80. Ibid., p. S.

81. Roadside Meetings, p. 94.

82. Ibid., p. 111.

83. A New Home, pp. 17S-176.

84. Clovernook ( Second Series ), pp. 346-360.

85. Lytle Biggs is an unscrupulous man who organizes chapters of the Alliance to make money for himself. He cynically tells the farmers how industrious, honest, and oppressed they are in order to win their favor ( Story of a Country Town, p. 240). The character of Biggs is not sympathetic but here he seems to be voicing Howe's own views.

86. Roadside Meetings, p. 113.

87. Ibid.

88. Jason Edwards, An Average Man (Boston, 1892), p. [v].

89. Ibid., p. [vi] .

90. Ibid., pp. 103, 111.

91. Ibid, p. 142.

92. A Spoil of Office. A Story of the Modern West ( Boston, 1892), p. 152.

93. Main-Travelled Roads. Six Mississippi Valley Stories (Boston, 1891), pp. 217-240.

94. Ibid., pp. 96-97



1. References on the Significance of the Frontier In American History, compiled by Everett E. Edwards (United States Department of Agriculture Library, Bibliographical Contributions, No. 25, 2nd ed. [April, l939]. Mim- eographed), lists 124 items bearing on the subject, ranging in date from Franklin's "Observations on the Peopling of Countries" (1751) to 1939. A passage from a radio address by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1935 which Dr. Edwards quotes in his excellent Introduction illustrates the political application of Turner's ideas: "Today we can no longer escape into virgin territory. We must master our environment.... We have been compelled by stark necessity to unlearn the too comfortable superstition that the American soil was mystically blessed with every kind of immunity to grave economic maladjustments . . . (p.3) .

2. "The Significance of the Frontier in American History," in The Early Writings of Frederick Jackson Turner, with a List of An His Works Compiled by Everett E. Edwards and an Introduction by Fulmer Mood (Madison, Wisconsin, l938), p. 186.

3. A growing body of scholarship is being devoted to this challenging question. George W. Pierson has called attention to inconsistencies in Turner's doctrines and has inquired into the extent of their currency among historians at the present time: "The Frontier and Frontiersman of Turner's Essays: A Scrutiny of the Foundations of the Middle Western Tradition," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, LXIV, 449-478 ( October, 1 940) ; "The Frontier and American Institutions: A Criticism of the Turner Theory," New England Quarterly, XV, 224-255 ( June, 1942), "American Historians and the Frontier Hypothesis in 1941," Wisconsin Magazine of

0296 NOTES

History, XXVI, 36-60, 170-185 (September, December, 1942). I am indebted to Professor Pierson for many ideas, especially the remark he quotes from a colleague to the effect that Turner's frontiersman closely resembles the stock eighteenth-century picture of the small farmer of Britain (Wiscon- sin Magazine of History, XXVI, 183-184) and the suggestion that Turner's "poetic interpretations" revived "the grandest ideas that had gone to make up the American legend" (Idem).

4. James C. Malin points out that most of Turner's ideas were "in the air." He remarks that great thinkers are normally "the beneficiaries of the folk process and are probably seldom so much true creators as channels through which the folk process finds its fullest expression in explicit language . . ." ("Space and History: Reflections on the Closed-Space Doctrines of Turner and Mackinder and the Challenge of Those Ideas by the Air Age," Agricultural History, XVIII, 67-68, April, 1944).

5. Early Writings, p. 187.

6. Fulmer Mood, 'The Development of Frederick Jackson Turner as a Historical Thinker," Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, XXXIV: Transactions 1937-1942 (Boston, 1943), pp. 322-325.

7. Turner copied into a Commonplace Book that he kept in 1886, during his first year of teaching, a quotation ascribed to Franklin: "The boundless woods of America which are sure to afford freedom and subsistence to any man who can bait a hook or pull a trigger" (Commonplace Book [II], p. [1]. Turner Papers, Henry E. Huntington Library). The idea occurs often in Franklin but I have not been able to find these words.

8. "The Poet of the Future," delivered at the Junior Exhibition, University of Wisconsin, May 25, 1883, and reported in full in the Madison University Press (May 26, 1883), p. 4 (clipping in Turner Papers, Henry E. Huntington Library). 9. Commonplace Book [I], 1883, pp. [25-27]. Turner Papers, Henry E. Huntington Library.

10. Ibid., pp. [49-53].

11. Early Writings, p. 221.

12. "The West and American Ideals," an address delivered at the University of Washington, June 17, 1914, Washington Historical Quarterly, V, 245 (October, 1914). When Turner revised this address for inclusion in the volume of collected papers The Frontier in American History in 1920, he omitted the words "stark and strong and full of life" (New York, 1920 reprint ed., 1931, p. 293). Although Turner repudiated the "germ theory' of constitutional development in his 1893 essay (Early Writings, p. 188), he had accepted it for a time after he left Herbert B. Adams' seminar at Johns Hopkins. Reviewing the first two volumes of Theodore Roosevelt's The Winning of the West in the Chicago Dial in August of 1889 (X, 72) he remarked that "the old Germanic 'tun'" reappeared in the "forted village" of early Kentucky and Tennessee, the "folkmoot" in popular meetings of the settlers, and the "witenagemot" in representative assemblies like the Transylvania legislature. "These facts," he added, "carry the mind back to the warrior-legislatures in the Germanic forests, and forward to those constitutional conventions now at work in our own newly-made states in the Far West; and they make us proud of our English heritage." In an undergraduate address he had asserted that "The spirit of individual liberty slumbered in


the depths of the German forest" from the time of the barbarian invasions of Rome until it burst forth in the American and French Revolutions ( Madison University Press [May 26, 1883], p. 4). Turner's discovery of the American frontier as a force encouraging democracy may exhibit some imaginative persistence of this association between desirable political institutions and a forest.

13. A characteristic phrase is the reference to "this rebirth of American society" that has gone on, decade after decade, in the West (from an essay in the Atlantic, 1896, reprinted in The Frontier in American History, p. 205) . In his undergraduate Commonplace Book Turner had jotted down, among notes for an oration, "See Emerson's preface to 'Nature' . . ." and had added part of a sentence: ". . . Let us believe in the eternal genesis, the freshness & value of things present, act as though, just created, we stood looking a new world in the face and investigate for ourselves and act regardless of past ideas" (Commonplace Book [I], p. [3]). This is quite Emersonian; it might well be a paraphrase of the familiar first paragraph of Emerson's essay: "Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Embosomed for a season in nature, whose floods of life stream around and through us, and invite us, by the powers they supply, to action proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the past, or put the living generation into masquerade out of its faded wardrobe?" (Complete Works, Volume I: Nature, Addresses, and Lectures [Boston, 1903], p. [3] ). Turner said in 1919 that he had been impressed with Woodrow Wilson's emphasis on Walter Bagehot's idea of growth through "breaking the cake of custom" (Frederick Jackson Turner to William E. Dodd, Cambridge, Mass., October 7, 1919, copy in Turner Papers, Henry E. Huntington Library). The phrase appears in the Atlantic essay (The Frontier in American History, p. 205).

14. Address at the dedication of a new high school building at Turner's home town of Portage, Wisconsin, January 1, 1896, reported in the Portage Weekly Democrat, January 3, 1896 (clipping in Turner Papers, Henry E. Huntington Library).

15. The Frontier in American History, pp. 255, 267.

16. Ibid., p. 250.

17. Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, XXXTV, 304- 307. Mr. Mood says that the idea of applying the theory of evolution to social phenomena was the "fundamental, unifying concept" of Turner's early writings (p. 304), but adds that the a priori idea of a sequence of social stages "can be asserted to be, as a universal rule ... fallacious .... It is one component element in Turner's [1893] essay that will not now stand the test of inspection" (p. 307n.). 18. The Frontier in American History, p. 121 (1908).

19. Early Writings, pp. 199, 285.

20. Ibid., p. 222.

21. Ibid., p. 285.

22. Frederick Jackson Turner to Merle E. Curti, San Marino, Cal., January 5, 1931. Copy in Turner Papers, Henry E. Huntington Library. Turner says he had not read George before writing the 1893 essay and that he had never accepted the single-tax idea.

23. Professor Malin has emphasized the fact that in his later career


Turner was "baffled by his contemporary world and had no satisfying answer to the closed-frontier formula in which he found himself involved' ( Essays on Historiography, Lawrence, Kansas, 1946, p. 38)

24. The Frontier in American History, p. 285 (l910).

25. "Since the Foundation," an address delivered at Clark University February 4 1924, Publications of the Clark University Library, VII, No. 3 p. 29. After the words "dangers that menace him" Turner has indicated in his personal copy in the Henry E. Huntington Library (No. 222544) the addition of the following words: "that there are automatic adjustments in progress. '

26. Charles A. Beard makes this point in what seems to me a convincing manner in "The Frontier in American History, New Republic, XCVII 359-362 (February 1, 1939). Professor Malin asserts vigorously that "among other things, the frontier hypothesis is an agricultural interpretation of American history which is being applied during an industrial urban age . . ." ("Mobility and History," Agricultural History, XVII, 177, October, 1943).

27. Benjamin F. Wright has a similar comment in his review of The Significance of Sections in American History, New England Quarterly, VI, 631 (September, 1933). Professor Malin calls the frontier hypothesis "an isolationist interpretation in an international age" ( Agricultural History XVII, 177)."It seemed to confirm the Americans," he remarks elsewhere, "in their continental isolationism. Was not their United States a unique civilization; was it not superior to that of Europe and Asia?" (Ibid., XVIII, 67, April, 1944).

28. The Frontier in American History, p. 253 (1903). 29. Ibid., p. 294 (1914). In the 1903 article Turner had emphasized the contrast between American democracy, which was "fundamentally the outcome of the experiences of the American people in dealing with the West," and the "modern efforts of Europe to create an artificial democratic order by legislation" (Ibid., p. 266). The implication is clearly that American democracy is the opposite of artificial, i.e., natural, and that this natural origin establishes its superiority.