The flag of the 42nd Infantry Regiment follows the Confederate Battle Flag design. The familiar "Southern Cross" consists of the blue Saint Andrew's cross on a red square and contains thirteen stars representing the eleven states in the Confederacy plus Kentucky and Missouri. The flag bears the regiments identity (42 VA) in the center and its battle honors in the triangles made by the cross.
The 42nd Infantry Regiment, organized in Staunton, Virginia in July, 1861, recruited its members in Henry, Floyd, Bedford, Campbell, Roanoke, Patrick, and Franklin counties. After fighting at First Kernstown and in Jackson's Valley Campaign, the unit was assigned to J. R. Jone's and W. Terry's Brigade, Army of Northern Virginia. It was active in many conflicts from the Seven Days' Battles to Cold Harbor, then moved with Early to the Shenandoah Valley and was involved in the Appomattox operations. This regiment reported 70 casualties at First Kernstown and totaled 750 effectives in May, 1862. It sustained no losses during the Seven Days' Battles but had many at Cedar Mountain. There were 62 disabled at Second Manassas, 26 at Fredricksburg, and 135 at Chancellorville. Of the 265 engaged at Gettysburg, twenty-one percent were killed, wounded, or missing. Only 1 officer and 44 men surrendered. The field officers were Colonels Jesse S. Burks, Andrew J. Deyerle, John E. Penn, and R. W. Withers; Lieutenant Colonels Daniel A. Langhorne, William Martin, and Samuel H. Saunders; and Majors P. B. Adams, Henry Lane, and Jesse M. Richardson.