Footnotes


1)W. B. Weeden, Economic and Social History of New England, 1:51-62 (1899); P. A. Bruce, Economic History of Virginia in the Seventeenth Century, 1:316-318 (1896). About 70 percent of Illinois was prairie, including swampland.-E. M. Poggi, The Prairie Province of Illinois, 70 (Urbana, Ill., 1934).

2) U. S. Department of Agriculture, Report, 1871, p. 497-504.

3) The Plough, the Loom, and the Anvil, 2:177-179 (September 1849); Horace Capron, "Wire Fences," Illinois State Agricultural Society, Transactions (1856-57), 2:425-432.

4)Washburn and Moen Manufacturing Company vs. Jacob Haisb, "Complainants Record," 1-6, 66a (Chicago, 1880. DeF 225). All manuscript or archival references so cited are in the American Steel & Wire Company Museum at Worcester, Mass. All other similar references, unless otherwise noted, are in the Perry Ellwood collection at De Kalb, Ill.

5)I Hunt sold his patent rights to Charles Kennedy of Hinckley, Ill., a small village about 20 miles from De Kalb.-143 United States, 154; Iron Age, 117:1769-1770, 1774 (June 24, 1926).

6) American Steel & Wire Co., Early Barbed Wire Specimens, 1-433 (Worcester, Mass., 1924-30). Of the 1,229 fence patents listed in the United States Patent Office by 1890, over one-half, or 696 were from Western States.-Washburn and Moen, A Manual of the Fence, No. 30 (Worcester, 1881).

7) True Republican (Sycamore, 111.), July 31, Aug. 4, Sept. 27, 1875, May 27, 1876.

8) United States Patent Office, Sale and Assignment, Jan. 27, 1875 (No. 157124).

9) In 1876, there were 2 concerns at Joliet, 1 at Aurora, 1 at Chicago, and I at Bridgeport, Conn. 159 United States, 423.

10) In 1877, the equipment of the St. Louis Barb Fence Company was valued at $1,500"Bill of Sale," Aug. 11, 1877 (DeD 780). Of the five companies at St. Louis in 1886, the largest capital investment was $7,000 and the lowest was $2, 000. -Arnerican Steel & Wire Co., Industrial Museum Photos, 3:186 (Worcester, c. 1932).

11) True Republican, Dec. 5, 1874, July 24, Sept. 25, 1875, Jan. 19, 1876, Mar. 23, 1878, Jan. 29, 1879, Nov. 29, 1882, Oct. 6, 1883, May 1, 24, 1884; Iron, Hardware and Implement Trade, Apr. 19, 1877; Iron Age, 27(2):20 (Jan. 13, 1881), 34(12):24 (Mar. 27, 1884), 36(22)-24 (Nov. 26, 1885), 37 (7):22, (8):22, ff ., 38 (13):20 (Feb. 18, 25, Sept. 23, 1886); Industrial World and Iron Worker, Feb. 12, Oct. 14, 1880, Feb. 10, 1881, Oct. 5, 1882; Age of Steel, 56(24):10 (Dec. 13, 1884). 1. L. Ellwood stated in 1883 that "There are now some forty manufacturers licensed under our patents. "-Glidden Barb Fence Journal, 4:5(1883). Washburn and Moen purchased Glidden's half interest in 1876 and began production at Worcester, Mass. They took the southern and southwestern States as their territory and Ellwood retained the western States. -"Digest of Agreements," 23-24 (DeA 107). The consolidation of the industry under a few basic patents was largely effected by these two concerns and J. W. Gates of St. Louis.

12) The principal barbing machines were patented by S. M. Stevens of De Kalb, D. C. Stover of Freeport, Ill., and H. W. Putman of Bennington, Vt.-St. Louis Journal of Commerce, Dec. 27, 1879; Industrial World and Iron Worker, Sept. 28, 1882; H. W. Putman to C. F. Washburn, Bennington, Vt., Aug. 28,1875 (DcC 527).

13) Industrial World and Iron Worker, Feb. 12, 1880; Iron Age, 31(15):Il (Apr. 12, 1883), 34(23):10 (Dec. 4, 1884), 57:272 (Jan. 23, 1896); True Republican, Oct. 17, 1883; C. G. Washburn, Industrial Worcester, 157 (Worcester, 1917). According to the Haish Papers and Account Books in the possession of W. J. Budrow of De Kalb, Jacob Haish's tonnage increased from approximately 1,540 tons in 1879 to 6,234 in 1884. The Glidden barb increased from 60 tons in 1876 to 44,000 in 1886.-See Washburn and Moen vs. Beat 'Em All Wire Co., "Complainants Record," 542-546 (Chicago, 1887. DeF 227).

14) Jacob Haish Papers and Account Books; Iron Age, 30(9):24 (Feb. 26, 1885).

15) American Steel & Wire Co., Early Barbed Wire Specimens, books 1-111 (Worcester, 1924-1930).

16) True Republican, Dec. 5, 1874; P. H. Pooler to Charles N. Pritchard, Serena, Ill., Sept. 24, 1914.

17) De Kalb Chronicle (111.) Apr. 1, 8,1879; A. Morrison and J. H. C. Irwin, The Industries of Saint Louis . . ., 69 (St. Louis, 1885); Industrial World and Iron Worker, Aug. 3, 1882. According to the Haish Papers and Account Books, Haish's best States ranked: Iowa, Illinois, Texas, Wisconsin, and Nebraska. Washburn and Moen sold nearly two-thirds of their output in the Southwest through their Chicago warehouse. "Sales Record," (DeC 847); Washburn and Moen vs. Jacob Haish, "Complainants Record" (1879), 66b (DeF225). Wire fences in Kansas increased from $3,579,997 to $6,448,236 during 1881, Kansas State Board of Agriculture, Biennial Report (1881-82), 3:567.

18) J. F. Glidden to H. B. Sanborn, De Kalb, Nov. 24,1874 (DcC 759).

19) Burke's Texas Almanac and Immigrants Handbook, 160 (Houston, 1885). See Holt, "Barbed Wire," Texas Monthly, 4:174-185 (September 1929).

20) Texas Siftings (Austin), Jan. 27, 1883, p. 3; Huntsville Item (Tex.), June 29, 1882. During the year 1882-83, $1,330,000 worth of barbed wire was sold from the Houston warehouse.- Galveston Daily News, Sept. 1, 1883, [p. 81.

21) L L. Ellwood to C. F. Washburn, De Kalb, July 21, 1881; National Live-Stock Journal, 10:192 (April 1879); Western Rural, 23:88 (Feb. 7, 1885).

22) A western farmer reported that he had "three or four applicants swarming around him" representing the drive well and barbed wire patents. -National Live-Stock Journal, 3:435 (July 12, 1887); Iowa State Register (Des Moines), Mar. 19, 26, 1879.

23) Iowa State Register, Jan. 12, 13, Mar. 9, 1881; Daily Gate City (Keokuk, Ia.), Mar. 15, 1881.

24) Barb Fence Company to Sanborn, De Kalb, Oct. 22,1875. The lumber interests were vigorously opposed. The Northwestern Lumberman denounced barbed wire as a most undesirable fence and encouraged farmers to build wood and hedge enclosures. Industrial World and Iron Worker, Apr. 7, Aug. 4, 1881.

25) Burke's Texas Almanac, 143; Democratic Leader (Cheyenne, Wyo.), Mar. 6, 27, 1884; E. S. Osgood, "The Cattleman in the Agricultural History of the Northwest," Agricultural History, 3:122 (July 1929). Kansas had seven times more hedge than wire fence in 1878.Kansas State Board of Agriculture, Biennial Report (1877-78), 1:526-527.

26) Colorado Live-Stock Record, quoted in Breeder's Gazette, 6:157, 456 (July 31, Sept. 25, 1884); Prose and Poetry of the Live-Stock Industry of the United States, 1:684--685 (Kansas City, 1904-05).

27) National Live-Stock Journal, 12:425 (October 1881); Iowa State Register, Apr. 6, 1881; Industrial World and Iron Worker, 25(2):5 (July 23, 1885). Illinois "legalized the use of Barbed Wire fences in 1887."-Iron Age, 39(18):32 (May 5, 1887). Vermont, Connecticut, and New Hampshire attempted to enact anti-barbed wire laws.-Vermont Watchman and State Journal (Montpelier), Nov. 25, 1880; Hartford Daily Courant, Feb. 27, 1880, [p. 2]; Washburn and Moen, "A Statement to the Legislature of New Hampshire on Barb Wire Fencing," (Manchester, 1881, DcC 805).

28) H. P. N. Gammel, comp., "General Laws. . . Passed at the Regular Session of the Sixteenth Legislature (1879)," The Laws of Texas, 8:67 (Austin, 1898); Daily Gate City, Dec. 12, 1884.

29) 48 Congress, 2 Session, House Executive Document 267, p. 78 (serial 2304); Rocky Mountain Husbandman, Apr. 29, 1880.

30) Texas Live Stock Journal, 8(l):14 (Aug. 6, 1887); Iron Age, 40(24):30 (Dec. 15, 1887); R. H. Tyler, A Treatise on the Law of Boundaries and Fences, 448-486 (Albany, 1876); Washburn and Moen Mfg. Co., Fence Laws, 3-4 (Worcester, 1880). Texas aided the sales of barbed wire by requiring each farmer to fence the land leased "in order to appropriate it to his own exclusive use."-Texas General Land Office, Reports (1886-88), 6.

31) "A square 10-acre field requires 16 rods of fence per acre, while a square field of onlyl acre requires approximately 50 rods."-H. N. Humphrey, "Cost of Fencing Farms in the North Central States," U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 821, p. 12-13 (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1916).

32) W. W. Thornton, The Law of Railroad Fences and Private Crossings, 194-200 (Indianapolis, 1892); Washburn and Moen, The Laws of Railway Fencing, 1-16 (Worcester, 1881). Texas and Pacific Railway Company, Annual Report, (1889), p. 13-14. Damages ran high with some of the western companies. In 1889 the Texas and Pacific expended $123,423.46 for damages to livestock.-Ibid. (1890), p. 29-33. Cf. Democratic Leader, Feb. 21, 26 1884; Daily Optic (Las Vegas, N. Mex.), Dec. 27, 1880; Bad Lands Cow Boy (Dak. Terr.): Nov. 25, 1886.

33) The Illinois Central built fences with five wires.-Cultivator and Country Gentleman, 46:3(June 2 1881).

34) Glidden Barb Fence Journal, 6:13(1885). Both the Ellwood and the Washburn and Moen concerns had agreements with the Western Railway Association to furnish all their wire.-"Digest of Agreements," Mar. 22, 1881 (DcC 824).

35) True Republican, May 5, 1883; Age of Steel, 50:37 (July 9, 1881); Chicago Journal of Commerce, June 2, 1880.

36) 1. L. Ellwood & Co., "Price Lists," spring, 1875 (DcC 765); Continental Wire Co., "Price Lists," June 1893 (DcC 805). Testimony of J. W. Gates before the Committee on Investigation of the United States Steel Corporation, May 27, 1911, in United States Steel Corporation, Hearings, 1:25 (Washington, 1911). For a complete list of prices for 18821912, see H. E. Horton, "Barbed Wire Prices" (MS., John Crerar Library, Chicago, 1913).

37)Charles Anderson to Grover Cleveland, Arlington Springs, Colo., Nov. 14, 1887 (No. 10,752). Letters with these numbers are in the General Land Office, Washington, D. C. Cf. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Report, 1871, p. 497-504; Fred. Sommerschue, "What Shall We do for Fences?" Iowa State Agricultural Society, Annual Report (1860), 7:110119; Kansas State Board of Agriculture, Biennial Report (1877-8), 1:110, 114, 130, 199.

38) W. T. Carpenter to I. L. Ellwood, Clarendon, Texas, Nov. 15, 1889; Glidden Barb Fence Journal, 6:11 (1885). The New Mexico Stock-Grower reported costs between $100 and $140 "to put up good substantial wire fence. "-Breeder's Gazette, 6:572 (Oct. 16, 1884). The St. Paul Farmer (Minn.) in 1884 showed that the "Actual saving to the farmers of the country by the barbed wire invention ... was $55,192,240; and that if all the fences in the country were made of it, the saving would have been $809,597,714. "-National Live-Stock Journal, 3:404 (June 28, 1887).

39)Industrial World and Iron Worker, June 10, 1880; Glidden Barb Fence Journal, 6:11 (1885); W. P. Webb, The Great Plains, 283 (Boston, 1931).

40) During the 1870's, the number of farms in the eleven western States increased nearly 74 percent. U. S. Census, 1880, Productions of Agriculture, ix,

41) Galveston Daily News, May 11, 1882 [p. 3], Democratic Leader, Nov. 29, 1888; River Press (Fort Benton, Mont. Terr.), Dec. 18, 1884; Texas Panhandle (Mobeetie), Feb. 25, 1882; Montana Stock Growers Journal, 5:22 (Mar. 2, 1889).

42) Galveston Daily News, Sept. 1, 1883; Prose and Poetry of the Livestock Industry, 1:684685; Gringo and Greaser (Manzano, N. Mex.), Feb. 15, 1884.

43) Breeder's Gazette, 6:904-905 (Dec. 18, 1884); Nebraska State Board of Agriculture Transactions, 1879-80, p. 77.

44) Breeder's Gazette, 10:455 (Sept. 23, 1886). In 1883 the border between the stockmen and grain raisers was Barber County, Kans.-Reginald Aldridge, Life on a Ranch, 28-29 (New York, 1884).

45) Congress, I Session, House Executive Document 1, pt. 5, p. 941 (serial 2541); Rocky Mountain Husbandman, Jan. 29, 1885.

46) I. H. Miller to H. M. Teller, La Junta, Colo., Nov. 16, 1883 (No. 108,683). See also P. W. Hey to H. M. Teller, Farnsworth, Kans., Nov. 26,1883 (No. 11,469); and 48 Congress, 1 Session, Senate Executive Document 127, p. 1-45 (serial 2167). Some pastures required as much as 200 miles of wire.-Huntsville Item, June 29, 1882, Breeder's Gazette, 4:73 (July 19, 1883).

47) Iowa State Register, May 22, 1881.

48)"Breeder's Gazette, 2:295 (Aug. 31, 1882); Industrial World and Iron Worker, June 10, 1880; Glidden Barb Fence Journal, 4:9 (1883).

49) Montana Stock Growers Journal (Feb. 23, 1889); Mills Investors Guide (N. Mex.), Jan. 1 1888.

50) Texas Live Stock Journal, 8(49):5 (July 7, 1888).

51) Bad Lands Cow Boy, Nov. 27, Dec. 18, 1884. A report of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry gives the increase as about 30 percent for the States west of the Mississippi during 1880-84. For Iowa the number nearly trebled.-John A. Hopkins, Jr., Economic History of the Production of Beef Cattle in Iowa, 77 (Iowa City, 1928).

52) Breeder's Gazette, 5:551 (Apr. 10, 1884). Pierre Wibaux developed a "bull ranch" on the Little Missouri for the stockmen of that vicinity. The bulls were kept under fence and fed f or $2 per month.-Bad Lands Cow Boy, Nov. 27, 1884.

53) United States Bureau of Animal Industry, Annual Report (1886), 3:193.

54) 48 Congress, 2 Session, House Executive Document 267, p. 11 (serial 2304). Enclosures also aided greatly in reducing the losses of animals from locoweed. Those "kept in inclosures, where the plant grows in I imited quantities" were unable "to get enough at any one time to bring on the more severe symptoms. "-Bureau of Animal Industry, Annual Report (1886), 3:273.

55) The editor of the Rocky Mountain Husbandman, in the Bad Lands Cow Boy, Nov. 27, 1884. Cf. Nebraska State Board of Agriculture, Transactions, 1879-80, p. 77, 82.

56) Democratic Leader, July 3, 1884; Galveston Daily News, Sept. 1, 6, 1883, [p. 31; T. J. Cauley, "Early Business Methods in the Texas Cattle Industry," Journal of Economic and Business History, 4:480 (May 1932).

57) 48 Congress, 1 Session, Senate Executive Document 127, p. 7 (serial 2167); Louis Pelzer, "The Shifting Cow Towns of Kansas," Illinois State Historical Society, Transactions, 33:49 (Danville, Ill., 1926). The Idaho Statesman reported during the drive, cattle "Crowd the ferries and crossings, get mixed with the cattle on the range, requiring much labor and care on the part of resident stockmen to prevent their cattle from being driven off."Chicago Journal of Commerce, June 11, 1879.

58) W. T. Carpenter to 1. L. Ellwood, Spade Ranch, Texas, Oct. 1, 1889.

59) Galveston Daily News, Sept. 1, 1883, [p. 3 1; Breeder's Gazette, 11:4 (Jan. 6, 1887).

60) Breeder's Gazette, 11:618 (Apr. 21, 1887). Cf. Junction City Union (Kans.), Sept. 25, 1 0 fr). 11.

61) In 1885 the Wyoming Stock Growers Association Bold $26,074.15 worth of mavericks.Democratic Leader, Apr. 9, 1885.

62) Rocky Mountain Husbandman, May 17, 1883. See also Weekly Miner (Mont. Terr.), Nov. 8, 1881; J. F. Dobie, "Detectives of the Cattle Range," Country Gentleman, 92 (2):30-31 (Februaryl927). The cost for detectives in Wyoming was $15,202.91 for one year. -Democratic Leader, Apr. 7, 1887. Stockmen's associations generally gave $250 reward for the arrest and conviction of any person f ound guilty of thef t of stock. -Galves ton Daily News, Apr. 28, 1882, [p. 4 1; Texas Panhandle, Feb. 25, 1882.

63)Galveston Daily News, Feb. 21, 1882, [p. 3 1, Sept. 1, 1883, [p. 3 1; Democratic Leader, Apr. 3, 1884.

64) Democratic Leader, Nov. 27, 1884.

65) Breeder's Gazette, 6:572 (Oct. 16, 1884); Junction City Union (Karis.), June 12, 1880 1p. 41.

66)Breeder's Gazette, 10:310 (Sept. 2, 1886); National Live-Stock Journal (weekly ed.), 2:72 (Feb. 2, 1886); Bad Lands Cow Boy, Dec. 18, 1884,

67) U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry, Annual Report (1886), 3:190-191.

68)"Bad Lands Cow Boy, Dec. 18, 1884, Nov. 25,1886; Breeder's Gazette, 6:608 (Oct. 23,1884). It was estimated that branding caused a loss of $2,000,000 in Chicago alone.-Western Rural, 23:732 (Nov. 14, 1885).

69) 48 Congress, 2 Session, House Executive Document 267, p. 50 (serial 2304); H. T. Burton, "A History of the J A Ranch," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, 31:355 (April 1928); C. M. Love, "11istory of the Cattle Industry in the Southwest," ibid., 19:388 (April 1916); Democratic Leader, Nov. 3, 1885.

70) National Live-Stock Journal, 11:203 (May 1880).

71) Ibid. (weekly ed.), 2:102 (Feb. 16, 1886); Democratic Leader, Feb. 28, 1884.

72) U. S. Bureau of Animal Industry, Annual Report (1886), 3:185.

73) 48 Congress, 1 Session, Senate Executive Document 127, p. 25 (serial 2167); Love, "History of the Cattle Industry in the Southwest," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, 20:9 (July 1916).

74) Mitchell County, Texas, alone shipped 108 carloads of bones in 1882.-Galveston Daily News, Jan. 7, 1882, [p. 4 1.

75) 48 Congress, 1 Session, Senate Executive Document 54, P. 128 (serial 2165); F. L. Paxson, "The Cow Country," American Historical Review, 22:65-82 (October 1916).

76) Kansas State Board of Agriculture, Biennial Report (1877-8), 1:105, 110, 114, 199; Washburn and Moen, Fence Laws, 3-4.

77) National Live-Stock Journal, 2:676 (Oct. 26, 1886).

78) Cerrillos Comet (N. Mex.), Feb. 24, 1882.

79) Texas Panhandle, Feb. 25, 1882.

80) Ibid. Cowboys were generally cruel to animals. Horses were often beaten "unmercifully and not infrequently crippled and ruined for life."-Rocky Mountain Husbandman, June 8, 1882.

81) Bad Lands Cow Boy, Jan. 29, 1885.

82) Democratic Leader, Jan. 10, 1884; Galveston Daily News, Apr. 28, 1882, [p. 2 1. See J. N. Hunter, ed., The Trail Drivers of Texas, 498 (Nashville, 1925).

83) 48 Congress, 1 Session, Senate Executive Document 127, p. 4 (serial 2167).

84) Bad Lands Cow Boy, Jan. 29, 1885; Galveston Daily News, Oct. 4, 1885, [p. 7 1.

85) Democratic Leader, Jan. 8, 29, April 2, 1885; Rocky Mountain Husbandman, Aug. 11, 1887; National Live-Stock Journal (weekly ed.), 2:102-103 (Feb. 16, 1886).

86) Galveston Daily News, Jan. 31, 1882, [p. 41. Ellwood estimated that barbed wire had increased the value of land in parts of the West as much as "five dollars per acre. "--Glidden Barb Fence Journal, 4:1-16 (1883).

87) James Jenkins to H. M. Teller, Pratt County, Kans., May 26, 1883 (No. 50,211), and in 48 Congress, 1 Session, Senate Executive Document 127, p. 12-13 (serial 2167).

88) W. 0. Graham to H. M. Teller, Washington, D. C., Apr. 23, 1883 (No. 38,210).

89) L. S. Perry to H. M. Teller, Hatton, Colo., Mar. 31, 1883 (No. 34,091); Burke's Texas Almanac,150. Intimidation signs were common on the fences. One homesteader reported that if the signs were ignored in his community a cowboy "just points his Henry rifle in the direction where it will do the most good."-48 Congress, I Session, Senate Executive Document 127, p. 3, 22 (serial 2167).

90) 48 Congress, 2 Session, House Executive Document 267, p. 28 (serial 2304).

91) Democratic Leader, Dec. 10, 1885.

92) Texas General Land Office, Report (1878-80), 28; Galveston Daily News, Feb. 5, 1882; F. L. Paxson, "The Cow Country," 65-82.

93) Texas General Land Office, Report (1884-86), 7.

94) Rocky Mountain Husbandman, Nov. 6, 1890; Breeder's Gazette, 4:890 (Dec. 27, 1883); Galveston Daily News, Sept. 1, 1886, p. 2; W. C. Holden, The Spur Ranch, 64-68 (Boston, 1934).

95)Is Iron Age, 35 (4):31 (Jan. 22, 1885).

96) Galveston Daily News, Nov. 28, 1883, [p. 3 ]. See W. P. Webb, The Great Plains, 238239 (Boston, 1931); Louis Pelzer, The Cattlemen's Frontier, 173-191 (Glendale, Calif., 1936).

97) Galveston Daily News, Nov. 28 [p. 3 ], Dec. 3 [p. 2 ], 7 [p. 21, 23 [p. 31, 1883. See R. D. Holt, "The Introduction of Barbed Wire into Texas and the Fence Cutting War," West Texas Historical Association, Year Book, 6:70-79 (June 1930).

98) Galveston Daily News, Nov. 28, [p. 2 1, Dec. 7, 1883 [p. 2 ].

99) Ibid., Dec. 3, 23, 1883, [p. 2, 3 1.

100) Ibid. , Dec. 7, 1883, [p. 2 1; Breeder's Gazette, 4:169 (Aug. 9, 1883).

101) Galveston Daily News, Dec. 13, 1885.

102) Denver Tribune, Jan. 1, 1880; 48 Congress, 2 Session, House Executive Document 067, p. 102 (serial 2304); Democratic Leader, Feb. 21, 1884; Rocky Mountain Husbandman, Jan. 15, 25, 1885.

103)48 Congress, 1 Session, Senate Executive Document 127, p. 14 (serial 2167).

104) Democratic Leader, Jan. 31, 1884; Webb, Great Plains, 316 n.

105)Democratic Leader, Mar. 6, 1884, Ibid., Jan. 31, 1884.

107)Breeder's Gazette, 13:102 (Feb. 1, 1888).

108)A. Ames to B. F. Butler, New York, Apr. 2,1883 (Butler Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress); Thomas Carney to B. F. Butler, Kansas City, Mar. 4, 1887; Democratic Leader, Sept. 1, 1885. The cattlemen attempted to engage Butler as their legal representative to fight President Cleveland's illegal fencing proclamation.-Ibid., Sept. 3, 13, 1885; Galveston Daily News, Sept. 1, 1885, p. 1.

109) Louis Pgoetz to H. M. Teller, San Francisco, May 11, 1887 (No. 52,711); Democratic Leader, Feb. 5, 1885; River Press, Dec. 17, 1884.

110) W. A. Hall to J. B. Belford, Kaseyville, Mo., Jan. 6, 1884 (No. 5,354).

111) J. W. Gates to J. W. Noble, Pittsburgh, Feb. 5, 1884 (DeA 37); True Republican, Oct. 25, 1884, Oct. 21, 1888; De Kalb Chronicle, Oct. 20, Nov. 20, 1888.

112) Iron Age, 59:21 (Feb. 11, 1897).

113) "Organization and Proceedings of the Board of Directors of the Baker Wire Company," 10 (Des Moines, 1883-84, DcA 34); Johnson Brigham, "The Governor of Iowa; A Sketch of Albert Baird Cummins," American Monthly Review of Reviews, 34:291-295 (September 1906).

114) Industrial World and Iron Worker, Feb. 14, Mar. 20, 1884; Iowa State Register, Feb. 23,1881, Jan. 5,1887.

115) Iowa State Register, Mar. 11, 1882, Apr. 2, 1884. J. B. Weaver of Iowa was chairman of the Patent Conunittee in 1886.-50 Congress, 1 Session, House Reports 1959, 6:1-2 (serial 2603).

116) Industrial World and Iron Worker, Feb. 14, Apr. 24, 1884; Iowa State Register, July 30, 1884.

117) Thomas A. Edison to B. F. Butler, Menlo Park, N. J., Feb. 17,1879. Thisletterwas provoked by pleas from other inventors. After narrating his own grievances, he said: "I have spoken of myself and my inventions only in order to protest in the interest of all other inventors against any legislation calculated to make our traditional struggle against the capitalists any more difficult."

118) Industrial World and Iron Worker, July 17, 1884. Barbed wire occasioned so much interest and discussion that the U. S. Patent Office displayed the Glidden patent in its "hall of fame. "-Iron Age, 117:1774 (June 24, 1926).

119)Cauley, "Early Business Methods in the Texas Cattle Industry," 480, 486.

120)50 Congress, 1 Session, House Executive Document 1, p. 1059 (serial 2541); Iowa State Register, May 20, 1887.

121) Texas Live Stock Journal, 8(5):8 (Sept. 3,1887); Breeder's Gazette, 4:526 (Oct. 18,1883). 122 Texas Live Stock Journal, 8(48):12 (June 30, 1888). 121 Breeder's Gazette, 16:580 (Dec. 18, 1889); E. E. Dale, "The Romance of the Range," West Texas Historical Association, Year Book, 5:3-22 (June 1929).

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