Notes

Henry Fielding (1707-1754), novelist and playwright, considered one of the founders of the English novel.

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Jane Austen (1775-1817) English writer who first gave the novel its distinctly modern character through her treatment of ordinary people in everyday life. Pride and Prejudice (1813) is one of her most well known novels.

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William Makepeace Thackeray (1811-1863), English novelist. His novel, The History of Pendennis (1848-50) is a partly fictionalized autobiography.

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H(erbert) G(eorge) Wells (1866-1946), English novelist, journalist, sociologist, and historian.

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(Enoch) Arnold Bennett (1867-1931), British novelist, playwright, critic, and essayist whose major works form an important link between the English novel and the mainstream of European realism.

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John Galsworthy (1867-1933), English novelist and playwright, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1932.

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Thomas Hardy (1840-1928), English poet and his nation's foremost regional novelist. Jude the Obscure (1895) was his last novel.

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Joseph Conrad (1857-1924), Polish-born English novelist and short-story writer. His collection of short stories, Youth, includes the story he is most known for--"Heart of Darkness."

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W(illiam) H(enry) Hudson (1841- 1922), British author, naturalist, and ornithologist, best known for his exotic romances, especially Green Mansions (1904). His novel, Far Away and Long Ago (1918), lovingly recalls his childhood.

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Creations of Arnold Bennett--the novel The Old Wives' Tale(1908), and the characters George Cannon and Edwin Clayhanger.

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Bennett is best known for his highly detailed novels of the "Five Towns"--a region in his native Staffordshire, England.

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James Joyce (1882-1941), major Irish novelist, known for his experimental use of language in such novels as Ulysses (1922) and Finnegan's Wake(1939). A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man gives us insights into both Joyce's biography and artistic endeavors.

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Laurence Sterne (1713-1768), Irish-born English novelist and humorist who wrote Tristram Shandy (1759-67).

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Anton (Pavlovich) Chekhov (1860-1904), major Russian playwright and master of the modern short story.

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George Meredith (1828-1909), English Victorian poet and novelist.

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John Milton (1608-1674), major English poet. He is best known for his long epic poem Paradise Lost.

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John Keats (1795-1821), English Romantic lyric poet. His fragmentary poetic epic, Hyperion, exists in two versions, both written during the years 1818-19.

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Robert Elsmere (1888) is the best known work by the English novelist Mrs. Humphry Ward (1851-1920); it created a sensation in its day by its advocation of a Christianity based on social concern rather than theology.

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Stephen Phillips (1864-1915), English actor and poet who was briefly successful as a playwright; compared to Shakespeare for a time but reputation soon declined and he died in poverty.

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John Dryden (1631-1700), English poet, dramatist, and literary critic who so dominated the literary scene of his day that it came to be known as the Age of Dryden.

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Samuel Johnson (1709-1784), English critic, biographer, essayist, poet, and lexicographer.

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Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834), English lyrical poet, critic, and philosopher. "Kubla Khan," one of his most famous poems, was written in 1797 and published 1816.

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Matthew Arnold (1822-1888), English Victorian poet and literary and social critic.

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Gustave Flaubert (1821-1880), French novelist, best known for his masterpiece, Madame Bovary (1857), a realistic portrayal of bourgeois life.

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Don Juan (1819-24), long satiric poem by George Gordon Byron (1788-1824), English Romantic poet and satirist.

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William Hazlitt (1778-1830), English writer known mostly for his essays.

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Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792- 1822), English Romantic poet. Prometheus Unbound (1820) considered the keystone of Shelley's poetic work.

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William Butler Yeats (1865-1939), Irish poet, dramatist, and prose writer, one of the greatest English-language poets of the 20th century. He received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1923.

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Walter (John) de la Mare (1873-1956), British poet and novelist with an unusual power to evoke the ghostly, evanescent moments in life.

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D.H. Lawrence (1885-1930), English author of novels, short stories, poems, plays, essays, travel books, and letters. His novels Sons and Lovers (1913), The Rainbow (1915), and Women in Love (1920) made him one of the most influential English writers of the 20th century.

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Sir Max Beerbohm (1872-1956), English caricaturist, writer, dandy, and wit whose sophisticated drawings and parodies were unique in capturing, usually without malice, whatever was pretentious, affected, or absurd in his famous and fashionable contemporaries.

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(Giles) Lytton Strachey (1880-1932), English biographer and critic, best known for his satiric Eminent Victorians--short sketches of the Victorian idols. He was a leader in the artistic, intellectual, and literary Bloomsbury group.

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T.S. Eliot (1888-1965), American-English poet, playwright, literary critic, and editor, a leader of the modernist movement in poetry in such works as The Waste Land (1922) and Four Quartets (1943).

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William Wordsworth (1770-1850), major English Romantic poet and poet laureate of England (1843-50). The Excursion (1814) consisted of nine long philosophical monologues spoken by pastoral characters.

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Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), Scottish novelist, poet, historian, and biographer who is often considered both the inventor and the greatest practitioner of the historical novel. Waverley (1814), an historical novel representing the Jacobite rebellion of 1745, was one of the rare and happy cases in literary history when something original and powerful was immediately recognized and enjoyed by a large public.

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The Watsons--an unfinished work begun and quickly abandoned by Jane Austen in 1804.

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Geoffrey Chaucer (c.1342-1400), the outstanding English writer before Shakespeare, is among England's greatest poets. Known for The Canterbury Tales, (c.1387-1400), his crowning glory.

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Lady Hestor Stanhope, eldest daughter of late 18th century earl; she was a traveler and an eccentric who became the de facto ruler of a mountain community in western Syria (modern Lebanon).

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E(dward) M(organ) Forster (1879-1970), British novelist, essayist, and social and literary critic. His fame rests largely on his novels Howards End (1910) and A Passage to India (1924) and on a large body of criticism. The novel The Longest Journey was published in 1907.

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(Sir Edward Montague) Compton Mackenzie (1883-1972), British novelist who suffered critical acclaim and neglect with equal indifference, leaving a prodigious output of more than 100 novels, plays, and biographies.

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Out of Mr. George's "representative" group of "promising" contemporaries, it seems that only Forster and Lawrence achieved a place in the canon. Woolf was right to be wary of judging the modern works.

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Dorothy M(iller) Richardson (1873-1957), English novelist, an often neglected pioneer in stream-of-consciousness fiction.

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George (Augustus) Moore (1852-1933), Irish novelist and man of letters. Considered an innovator in fiction in his day, he no longer seems as important as he once did. Esther Waters (1894), considered his best novel, was an immediate success.

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Charles Dickens (1812-1870) wrote The Pickwick Papers (1836-37), said to be one of the funniest novels in English literature; it was extremely successful--within a year and a half sales of the monthly installments exceeded 40,000 copies.

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Jane Eyre (1847) is the novel for which Charlotte Brontė (1816-1855), English novelist, is most known.

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Mrs. Henry Wood (1814-1887), English novelist, very popular during her time.

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That name is modernism!

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Interesting to note here is that this quality, this shift in emphasis, shows itself in Woolf's novel, To the Lighthouse. In this novel, the "minor" "tragedies" of life, such as the cancellation of a trip to the lighthouse, are emphasized, while the "major" tragedies, such as the death of a family member, are literally put in parentheses.

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John Donne (1572-1631), leading English poet of the Metaphysical school.

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Source for author dates and biographical information: Britannica Online.