1 Bricken Directions of growth

2 Rheingold (1991) p132

3 Munslow, Alun Discourse and Culture: The creation of America 1870-1920, p166

4 The technique of analysing narrative structures of historicical texts is associated with historiographer Hayden White, who categorised the texts of historians' works by narrative structure: romance, tragedy, comedy, etc. -White, Hayden (1972)Metahistory: The Historical Imagination in Nineteenth Century Europe.

5 The use of the term "myth" in this case borrows from, among others, Roland Barthes, who argued many cultural assumptions which are historically constructed are made to seem universal through myths. Barthes, Roland (1962) Mythologies ., Hill and Wang,New York.

6 Traditional Marxist analyses of class and ideology can tend to describe a mechanistic and deterministic substructure-superstructure relationship between power and ideology. More recent neo-marxist sociologists have

7 Rheingold, H (1991); Woolley (1992)

8 for example. Ray Bradbury's "The Veldt" (1950) and "The happiness machine". Another example that preceded Neuromancer is the film Brainstorm (1983), which centres on a virtual reality-like system which duplicates human experience perfectly. It is interesting because the themes it deals with came up regularly early in the publicity around VR: virtual sex; virtual death; education; drug experiences. The demonstrations featured tropes of speed - roller coaster, racing cars and jet fighters. Notably the Wright Brothers feature prominently as a reference in the film to the pioneering spirit of the central character.

9 p36 Pimentel & Teixeira (1993)

10 Rolling Stone Nov. 30, 1989.

11 Andrew Pollack, "What is artificial rality? Wear a computer and see", New York Times, 10 April 1989, p1.

12 p 14-16, Woolley (1992), Virtual worlds , Blackwell, Oxford, UK & Cambridge, USA.

13 Jaron Lanier speech 1991, from notes taken by Sonia Liris in sci.virtual.worlds (91.07-12-02)

14 Sherman & Judkins (1992) p106

15 United States Congress. (1992) Virtual Reality : Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space of the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation, and United States Senate. New Developments in Computer Technology. Washington, DC: US. GPO. (United States. Congress. Senate Hearing; 102-553)

16 Helsel, Sandra K and Roth, Judith Paris (eds) (1991), Virtual Reality. Theory, practice, and promise. Meckler.

17 Pimentel, Ken and Teixeira, Kevin (1993), Virtual Reality. Through the new looking glass. Windcrest/McGraw Hill, pp254-278.

18 p 39-41 Pimentel & Teixeira.

19 Furness, Thomas A (1988), "Harnessing virtual space", Society for Information Display Digest of technical papers, First edition, May 1988.

20 p6, ibid: Furness wrote, "Although developing the super cockpit is a challenging and exciting undertaking, other non-military uses of virtual interface technology are also fascinating."

21 p 7 Furness (1988)

22 For example, the first ganes on W Industries' "Virtuality" were VTOL, a Harrier jet fighter game, and Battlesphere. Battletech in Chicago simulates a battle field where several plazers drive tanks in a virtual battlefield. 3D Flight simulators are available for most personal computers.

23 Pimental & Teixeira (1993) p xiii ; Woolley (1992) p122; Barlow (1990); Rheingold (1990) p16; Benedikt (1992); Walser in Helsel & Roth p37;

24 Benedikt, Michael (1992), Cyberspace. First steps, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachussetts p 121

25 alt.cyberpunk FAQ

26 FAD Magazine, #26, Spring 1992, pp40-41

27 Lanier, Jaron interviewed "Life in the Datacloud", Mondo 2000 p44-54

28 Woolley, Benjamin (1992) Virtual Worlds pp24-37

29 McLuhan, Marshall (1964), Understanding media. The extensions of man., Ark: London and New York, particularly the final chapter on "Automation".

30 Bell, Daniel (1967) "Notes on the post-industrial society" in Public Interest, 6&7 pp24-35 and 102-108.

31 For example, this network news posting:

Newsgroups: alt.cyberpunk Subject: Re: Is CP a secret thing? Date: 13 Apr 1993 15:56:05 GMT Organization: University of New Mexico, Albuquerque Lines: 18 Message-ID: <> References: NNTP-Posting-Host: Keywords: Cyberpunk secret >I would like to hear peoples opinion of whether CyberSpace should be something >we >dont talk about to computer illiterate people, or is it something we want the >whole >world to know about? Irrelevant. Due to TIME and MTV and Lawmower Man, it is already a buzzwordand fad. It was never a real subculture to start with, just a collection of individuals using the term for very different things, then it became an artificial subculture generated by media bullshit, now it is a fad and it will die, and us real cyberpunks can get back to what we were doing useful, withouthaving to dodge ten million weenies. Typical. Same story as skating really,and punk, and a lot of other things.

32 - Dr. Robert Jacobson,"Where In The (Virtual) World Are We? Building A Virtual Worlds Industry" at "Virtual Reality '92", September 24, 1992 from sci.virtual.worlds. 33 Woolley (1992) op cit.

34 Wolff, Jeremy "Inside Virtual Reality The Myth of Transparency and the Myth of Reflection", June, 1990

35 p35 Woolley (1992) op cit.

36 Being in Nothingness

37 Aukstakalnis & Blatner p41-75

38 Belton, John (1992) Widescreen cinema,

39 ibid p195

40 from the account on page1, Belton

41 Chapter in Pimentel & Teixeira op cit

42 Barlow (1990) op cit; Also "The birth of the VR business" Chapter 7 in Rheingold.

43 Rheingold (1990), Chapter 6.

44 Aukstakalnis & Blatner (1992)Silicon Mirage. The art and science of virtual reality Peachpit Press, Berkeley, p297.

45 ibid

46 The Frontier in American History (New York, 1921)

47 Munslow, Alun (1992) "History and Myth" p68-88 Discourse and Culture. The creation of America 1870-1920. Routledge, London.

48 Turner, "Problems in American History", pp6-7 in The Frontier in American History, (1920, reprinted in 1962)

49 "Life in the Datacloud", Mondo 2000 p44-54

50 Turner "The Frontier in American History" op cit, p37.

51 Foucault, referred to in Munslow (1992) p2

52 The best articulation of this fear is Toffler, Alvin (1971), Future Shock, Pan, London.

53 Gotlieb, C.G. & Borodin, A. (1971), Social issues in computing, Academic Press, Toronto, New York.

54 Jeremy Wolff (1990) "Inside Virtual Reality (The Myth of Transparency and the Myth of Reflection)", from FTP arhive at; McLuhan is mentioned several times in Rheingold's book

55 Alan Kay quoted in Rheingold (1991)

56 "The computer industry: within the whirlwind", The Economist, 27/2 - 5/3, 1993, Special survey enclosure. pp1-18.

57 p107-108 Sherman & Judkins

58 Bricken, M (1989) "Inventing reality", HITL technical report M-89-2 59 Lanier quoted in"Life in the Datacloud", Mondo 2000 p44-54

60 ibid

61 p 21 Woolley op cit; and Bricken (1990), "Virtual Reality: Directions of Growth. Notes from the SIGGRAPH '90 Panel".

62 Benedikt , M in"Cyberspace. Some proposals" in Benedikt (1992) op cit

63 Walser, R "Elements of a cyberspace playhouse", in Helsel & Roth p 61-64 .

64 Rheingold (1991) p176-8

65 p220 Pimetel & Teixeira (1993)

66 Morningstar, C & Farmer, FR (1992) "The lessons of Lucasfilm's Habitat" in Benedikt op cit.

67 p 225-226 Pimentel & Teixeira (1993)

68 Foerstner, Abigail, "Being there. Stepping into the make-believe world of virtual reality", Chicago Tribune Magazine, April 19, 1992.

69 Hand, Chris Nov 18, 1991:I nternet netnews article: 2526 of sci.virtual-worlds.

70 Jacobsen, Bob Internet netnews article: 1991 Dec 15>.

71 Dance club magazineVox October 1991 Issue 13 featured a picture of dance club band Bomb the Bass using the W Industries Virtuality equipment.

72 "CyberZone" on British Television

73 Lanier in Mondo 2000 op cit.

74 Jacobsen, Robert , 15 Jul 1991, "Toward a Global Initiative" Presentation at Nikkei Symposium,

75 p. 188-196 Aukstakalnis & Blatner (1992) op cit

76 Bricken, Dr William "Cyberspacem 1999. The shell, the image, now the meat." pp56-59 Mondo 2000, Summer 1990.

77 quoted by Nancy Patterson, in TISEA conference notes (1992).

78 Patterson, Nancy: "Lust and Wunderlust" at TISEA, 1992, Sydney.