* Department of the History of Science, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019.
I thank participants in the Interdisciplinary Faculty Workshop at the University of Oklahoma, the Pembroke Center Roundtable "Inscribing Science: Image/Technology/Text" held at Brown University, and the "Visual Representation in Science" Workshop held at Princeton University for comments on an earlier draft of this paper. Discussions with Lisa Cartwright, Fatimah Tobing Rony, and Lynn Nyhart and comments from three anonymous referees have been especially helpful. Thanks also to the graduate students in my Science and Popular Culture seminar, who provided a wonderful forum for working through the literature on the history of popularization in science. The American Museum of Natural History, Marineland, the Penn State University Archives, and the Rockefeller Archives Center have all generously given permission to cite material from their collections. Lester Aronson, Tom McKenna, Chuck Myers, Ethel Tobach, and Joanne Whaley have been particularly helpful in their assistance with archival materials. Research for this project was funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation.
1. Martin J. S. Rudwick, "The Emergence of a Visual Language for Geological Science, 17601840, History of Science,1976, 14:149195, on p. 150. For work by historians of medicine see, e.g., Daniel M. Fox and Christopher Lawrence, Photographing Medicine: Images and Power in Britain and America since 1840 (New York: Greenwood, 1988); and Ludmilla Jordanova, Sexual Visions: Images of Gender in Science and Medicine between the Eighteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Madison: Univ. Wisconsin Press, 1989). For two recent collections of essays that provide a good sampling of the sociologists' approach see Michael Lynch and Steve Woolgar, eds., Representation in Scientific Practice (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1988); and Michael Ruse and Peter Taylor, eds., "Special Issue on Pictorial Representation in Biology," Biology and Philosophy,1991, 6:125294. One example of an analysis of pictorial images as mediators is Greg Myers, "Every Picture Tells a Story: Illustrations in E. O. Wilson's Sociobiology",in Representation in Scientific Practice,ed. Lynch and Woolgar, pp. 231266.
2. For some representative critiques of the diffusionist model see Steven Shapin, "Science and the Public, in Companion to the History of Modern Science,ed. R. C. Olby, G. N. Cantor, J. R. R. Christie, and M. J. S. Hodge (New York: Routledge, 1990), pp. 9901007; and Terry Shinn and Richard Whitley, eds., Expository Science: Forms and Functions of Popularization (Dordrecht: Reidel, 1985). The problem of treating public culture as a passive, homogeneous audience has been most systematically addressed by those working in the areas of film and cultural studies. For an anthology in the field of cultural studies that includes essays that destabilize the image of the passive viewer see Lawrence Grossberg, Cary Nelson, and Paula Treichler, eds., Cultural Studies (New York: Routledge, 1992).
3. James A. Secord, Newton in the Nursery: Tom Telescope and the Philosophy of Tops and Balls," Hist. Sci., 1985, 23:127151; Simon Schaffer, Natural Philosophy and Public Spectacle in the Eighteenth Century, ibid., 1983, 21:143; Sally Gregory Kohlstedt, "Parlors, Primers, and Public Schooling: Education for Science in Nineteenth Century America, Isis, 1990, 81:425445; Adrian Desmond, The Politics of Evolution: Morphology, Medicine, and Reform in Radical London (Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1989); Robert Lambourne, Michael Shallis, and Michael Shortland, Close Encounters? Science and Science Fiction (New York: Hilger, 1990); and Fred Glass, "The 'New Bad Future': Robocop and 1980s' SciFi Films," Science as Culture,1989, 5:749. This list in no way does justice to the recent scholarship on science and popular culture that meets consideration.
4. The majority of studies by historians of science that include film have focused primarily on Hollywood films and the images of science and scientists portrayed in them. See, e.g., Nathan Reingold, "Metro Goldwyn Mayer Meets the Atom Bomb, in Expository Science, ed. Shinn and Whitley (cit. n. 2), pp. 229245; and Michael Shortland, "Screen Memories: Toward a History of Psychiatry and Psychoanalysis in the Movies,British Journal for the History of Science,1987, 20:421452. Medical films are beginning to be explored as valuable source materials. See, e.g., Annette Kuhn, Cinema, Censorship, and Sexuality,19091925 (London: Routledge, 1988); and Martin S. Pernick, "Thomas Edison's Tuberculosis Films: Mass Media and Health Propaganda, Hastings Center Report,June 1978, 8:2127. Scientific film, previously ignored by those working in film studies, has recently become a subject of fruitful scholarly research. See, e.g., Fatimah Tobing Rony, "Those Who Squat and Those Who Sit: The Iconography of Race in the 1895 Films of Felix-Louis Regnault, Camera Obscura,1993, 28:263289; and Lisa Cartwright, Physiological Modernity: Scientific Cinema and the Technologies of "Life" (Minneapolis: Univ. Minnesota Press, forthcoming). For a history of ethnographic film see Emilie de Brigard, "The History of Ethnographic Film, in Principles of Visual Anthropology,ed. Paul Hockings (Pans: Mouton, 1975), pp. 1344.
5. On Carpenter's importance in developing a tradition of primate behavior films see Donna Haraway, Primate Visions: Gender, Race, and Nature in the World of Modern Science (New York: Routledge, 1989), p. 163. Carpenter's earliest films included Characteristics of Gibbon Behavior (1942), Behavioral Characteristics of the Rhesus Monkey (1947), and Social Behavior of Rhesus Monkeys (1947), all of which are available through the Penn State Cinema Register. For the Balinese study see Gregory Bateson and Margaret Mead, Balinese Culture, a Photographic Analysis (New York: New York Academy of Sciences, 1942). For a valuable guide to scientific research films produced prior to 1955 see Anthony R. Michaelis, Research Films in Biology, Anthropology, Psychology, and Medicine (New York: Academic Press, 1955).
6. Regnault, quoted in Rony, "Those Who squat and Those Who sit (cit. n. 4), pp. 274275; and Lisa Cartwright, " 'Experiments of Destruction' Cinematic Inscriptions of Physiology," Representations,1992, 40:134, 150. For a historical analysis of the emergence of the ideal of Mechanical ohjectivity within modern science, in relation to imaging technologies of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twentieth centuries, see Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison, "The Image of Objectivity, ibid., pp. 81128.
7. Both Haraway, Primate Visions (cit. n. 5), and especially Susan Leigh Starr, ``Craft vs. Commodity, Mess vs.. Transcendence: How the Right Tool Became the wrong One in the Case of Taxidermy and Natural History, in The Right Tools for the Job: At Work in Twentieth Century Life Sciences,ed. Adele E. Clarke and Joan H. Fujimura (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1992), pp. 257286, have argued that realist representation as captured in the museum diorama was integral to education and popularization of natural history subjects in the first part of the twentieth century hut did not harmonize with the representational strategies of the formalized, experimental life sciences. The value of film in the life sciences, I argue, is its ability to move between the realism of older natural history traditions such as taxonomy and the more manipulative, technologically mediated strategies of experimental biology. Thus film as a research tool in natural history may he read as a direct attempt to incorporate new research methods into fields previously seen as devoid of an experimental ethos Consequently, this paper bears directly on the debate over the relationship between natural history and experimental biology in the early twentieth century, although admittedly Prom a rather oblique approach For an entry point into this debate see the special issue of Journal of the History of Biology,1981, 14:83191.
8. Neil Postman, Amusing Ourselves to Death: Public Discourse in the Age of Show Business (New York: Viking, 1984). On the blurring of art and science in the filming of behavior see Walter Benjamin, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction," in Illuminations,ed. Hannah Arendt (New York: Schocken, 1969), pp. 217252.
9. For biographical information on Noble see Clifford H. Pope, "Gladwyn Kingsley Noble," National Cyclopaedia of American Biography,Vol. 31, p. 396; William K. Gregory, Copeia,1940, pp. 274275; and "Gladwyn Kingsley Noble," Noble, G. K.: Biography II folder, Gladwyn Kingsley Noble Papers, Department of Herpetology, American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), New York City. On Gregory see Ronald Rainger, An Agenda for Antiquity: Henry Fairfield Osborn and Vertebrate Paleontology at the American Museum of Natural History, 1890-1935 (Tuscaloosa: Univ. Alabama Press, 1991). For the series of negotiations that led to the laboratory's establishment see Henry Fairfield Osborn to Gladwyn Kingsley Noble, 17 Mar. 1928, and Noble to Osborn, 20 Mar. 1928, AMNH Presidency: Henry F. Osborn I folder; George H. Sherwood to Noble, 18 May 1928, Department History folder; Noble to Sherwood, 22 May 1928, Noble, G. K.: Biography I folder; and Sherwood to Noble, I June 1928, Department: Budgets folder, Noble Papers.
10. For a brief description of the laboratory see Noble to William Douglas Burden, 15 Oct. 1934, AMNH Departments: Experimental Biology folder, Noble Papers. On the consequences of the Depression see Sherwood to Noble, 13 Jan. 1933; draft of budget for 1934, 13 Nov. 1933, Department: Budgets folder; and Wayne M. Faunce to Noble, 9 Apr. 1935, AMNH Departments: Experimental Biology folder, Noble Papers. An account of WPA help in the department and the duties that Noble assigned to these individuals can be found in Department: Personnel (WPA) folder, Noble Papers. For a history of the laboratory of experimental biology and Noble's behavior research see Gregg Mitman and Richard W. Burkhardt, Jr., "Struggling for Identity: The Study of Animal Behavior in America, 19201945," in The Expansion of American Biology,ed. Keith R. Benson, Ronald Rainger, and Jane Maienschein (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers Univ. Press, 1991), pp. 165194.
11. Burden to Noble, n.d., W. Douglas Burden folder, Noble Papers; and G. K. Noble, "Recent Advances in Our Knowledge of Sex," New York World Telegram,June 1931. For fiscal budget statements documenting these funds see Foundations & Institutes: National Research Council folder; Foundations & Institutes: Josiah Macy, Jr., folder; and AMNH Departments: Experimental Biology folder, Noble Papers. For biographical information on Burden see National Cyclopaedia of American Biography,Vol. 24, pp. 224225; and Autobiographical Statement," box 1, folder 1, William Douglas Burden Papers, American Museum of Natural History.
12. Ella Shohat, "Imaging Terra Incognita: The Disciplinary Gaze of Empire," Public Culture,1991, 3:4170. Simba's revenue figures appear in Kevin Brownlow, The War, the West, and the Wilderness (New York: Knopf, 1979).
13. Burden's account of the expedition was published in a number of versions throughout his life: see W. D. Burden, "The Quest for the Dragon of Komodo," Natural History,1927, 27:318; Burden, The Dragon Lizards of Komodo (New York: Putnam, 1927); and Burden, Look to the Wilderness (Boston: Little, Brown, 1956).
14 . Burden, Look to the Wilderness,p. 193; Burden to Emmet Reid Dunn, 29 Mar. 1927, box 2, folder 4, Burden Papers; and Burden, "Quest for the Dragon of Komodo," p. 16.
15. Dunn to Burden, 21 Mar. 1927, and Burden to Dunn, 29 Mar. 1927, box 2, folder 4, Burden Papers. My approach in this section draws on recent studies focusing on the literary construction of scientific discourse; see, e.g., Greg Myers, Writing Biology: Texts in the Social Construction of Scientific Knowledge (Madison: Univ. Wisconsin Press, 1990).
16. William Guynn, A Cinema of Nonfiction (Rutherford, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson Univ. Press, 1990), p. 22. The role of the expressive was a central theme that emerged at a workshop on the history of visual representation of science as art at Princeton University on 3 Apr. 1993. l thank the participants in this conference, and particularly Lynn Nyhart and Norton Wise, for helping me clarify this point.
17. Burden East Indian Expedition,American Museum of Natural History Film Archives, New York. For a path breaking analysis of race and gender in the safari expedition see Donna Haraway, "Teddy Bear Patriarchy: Taxidermy in the Garden of Eden, New York City, 19081936," Social Text,19841985, 11:2064.
18. Burden, "Quest for the Dragon of Komodo" (cit. n. 13), p. 10; and Burden, Observations on the Habits and Distribution of Varanus Komodoensis Owens," American Museum Novitates,18 May 1928, 316:5, 8. On the addition of the scene showing Burden and Katherine in the blind see J. R. Bray to Burden, 15 May 1928, box 2, folder 9, Burden Papers. On transformational practices see Michael Lynch, "The Externalized Retina: Selection and Mathematization in the Visual Documentation of Objects in the Life Sciences," in Representation in Scientific Practice,ed. Lynch and Woolgar (cit. n. 1), pp. 153186
19. The fee for a night of motion pictures and a scientific lecture presented to the National Geographic Society, e.g., was $400. See Burden to Franklin L. Fisher, I Mar. 1927, and Fisher to Burden, 12 Mar. 1927, box 2, folder 10, Burden Papers. For documentation on the showing of the Komodo dragon film to other audiences see Alden Root to Burden, 2 Feb. 1927, box 2, folder 10; George Putnam to Burden, 14 Nov. 1927, box 2, folder 8; and Alfred M. Collins to Burden, 6 Jan. 1928, box 2, folder 10, Burden Papers. For a history of the early years of the Boone and Crockett Club and the social networks of the American sportsman naturalist in the latter part of the nineteenth century see John F. Reiger, American Sportsmen and the Origins of Conservation (New York: Winchester, 1975).
20. W. D. Burden, Proposed Plan for a Visual Educational Program at Marine Studios," box 2 General Correspondence, 19381973, General Education Publications, Marineland, Florida.
21. G. K. Noble, Reptiles and Amphibians," American Museum of Natural History: Annual Report of the President,1927, 59:6061.
22. G. K. Noble, Hunting with a Camera," Noble Papers. Ralph H. Lutts, The Nature Fakers: Wildlife, Science, and Sentiment (Golden, Colo.: Fulcrum, 1990), suggests in passing that the abandonment of the gun for the camera by early twentieth century naturalists was important in the development of ethology, but he offers no serious investigation of this claim.
23. Noble to Burden, 15 Oct. 1934, Departments: Experimental Biology folder, Noble Papers. The overall scope of Noble's research is evident from foundation progress reports in the Noble Papers. For representative publications see G. K. Noble and Brian Curtis, "The Social Behavior of the Jewel Fish, Hemichromis Bimaculatus Gill," Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History,1939, 76:146; Noble, M. Wurm, and A. Schmidt, "Social Behavior of the BlackCrowned Night Heron," Auk, 1938, 55:740; and Noble, "The Experimental Animal from the Naturalist's Point of View," American Naturalist,1939, 73:113126.
24. See Osborn to John Marshall, 24 July 1939, and Osborn to Marshall, 9 Apr. 1940, box 263, folder 3136, RGI.I 200R, Rockefeller Foundation Archives, Rockefeller Archives Center, Tarrytown, New York. Noble died before production of any of the films began, but Osborn did complete the film on bird migration, Birds on a Wing,which was produced with the assistance of the acclaimed documentary filmmaker John Grierson and released for theatrical distribution by Columbia Pictures.
25. The influence of the biological sciences in the naturalization of gender roles has received extensive treatment by feminist scholars. See, e.g., Ruth Bleier, Science and Gender: A Critique of Biology and Its Theories on Women (New York: Pergamon, 1984); Linda Birke, Women, Feminism, and Biology: The Feminist Challenge (Brighton: Harvester, 1986); Anne FaustoSterling, Myths of Gender: Biological Theories about Women and Men (New York: Basic Books, 1985); and Haraway, Primate Visions (cit. n. 5).
26. I thank Lester Aronson and Ethel Tobach for helping me locate The Social Behavior of the Laughing Gull in an old walk-in refrigerator at the American Museum of Natural History. Noble's study was published posthumously; the interpretation of results in the published account was that of the junior author, Moses Wurm, who was a WPA assistant in Noble's lab: G. K. Noble and M. Wurm, "The Social Behavior of the Laughing Gull," Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences,1943, 45:179220.
27. Bruno Latour, "Drawing Things Together," in Representation in Scientific Practice,ed. Lynch and Woolgar (cit. n. 1), p. 26. Noble had an active correspondence with other researchers involved in the production of scientific film, including Adelbert Ford; see Photography I folder and Photography 11 folder, Noble Papers.
28. Osbom to Marshall, 9 Apr. 1940, box 263, folder 3136, RGI.I 200R, Rockefeller Foundation Archives; C. R. Carpenter, "Use of Motion Picture Films to Simulate Field Observations of Primates," Jan. 1973, box 4, Speeches, Reports, Manuscripts & Discussions; and C. R. Carpenter to Leonard Carmichael, 18 June 1964, box 8, Primatology Correspondence, National Geographic Society, Clarence Ray Carpenter Papers, Penn State University, University Park, Pennsylvania. For a detailed and provocative historical analysis of Carpenter's professional research and career see Donna Haraway, "Signs of Dominance: From a Physiology to a Cybernetics of Primate Society, C. R. Carpenter, 1930 1970," Studies in the History of Biology, 1983, 6:129219.
29. For a list of European films on animal behavior imported by Noble see Noble to Wemer Ruppell, 9 Dec. 1938; Noble to Ruppell, 14 Sept. 1938; Ruppell to Noble, 7 Oct. 1938; Wemeke to Noble, 10 Oct. 1938; Werneke to Noble, 17 Jan. 1939; Noble to Wemeke, 2 Feb. 1939, Photography I folder; Noble to Wemeke, 12 Apr. 1939; Wemeke to Noble, 3 Sept. 1939, Photography 11 folder, Noble Papers. The best collection of films produced by von Frisch, which includes all of those seen and purchased by Noble, is available through the Institut Wissenschaften Film, Gottingen, Germany.
30. For a historical perspective on the development of ethology see Richard W. Burkhardt, Jr., "On the Emergence of Ethology as a Scientific Discipline," Conspectus of History,1981, 1:6281; Burkhardt, "The Development of an Evolutionary Ethology," in Evolution from Molecules to Men,ed. D. S. Bendall (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1983), pp. 429444; and John Durant, "Innate Characters in Animals and Man: A Perspective on the Origins of Ethology," in Biology, Medicine, and Society,18401940, ed. Charles Webster (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1981)' pp. 157192
31. Anna Verona Dorris, Visual Instruction in the Public Schools (Boston: Ginn, 1928), p. 188; and Herman F. Brandt, "The Psychology of Seeing Motion Pictures," in Film and Education,ed. Godfrey M. Elliott (New York: Philosophical Library, 1948), p. 51. For a historical account of the progressive education movement see William F. Connell, A History of Education in the Twentieth Century World (New York: Teachers College Press, 1980). For a sample of writings on the role of film in education prior to World War II see Dorris, Visual Instruction;A. P. Hollis, "Visual Education Departments in Educational Institutions," Bulletin of the Bureau of Education,1924, 8:136; Elizabeth Laine, Motion Pictures and Radio: Modern Techniques for Education (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1938); and Phillip J. Rulon, The Sound Motion Picture in Science Teaching (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Univ. Press, 1933).
32. The filming of The Silent Enemy is discussed in Brownlow, The War, the West, and the Wilderness (cit. n. 12), pp. 545560; and Peter Morris, Embattled Shadows: A History of Canadian Cinema,18951939 (Montreal: McGill Queen's Univ. Press, 1978), pp. 200204. Information on film libraries and projectors comes from Gloria Waldon, The Information Film (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1949); and Ford L. Lemler, "The University or College Film Library," in Film and Education,ed. Elliott, pp. 501521. On the impact of World War If on the development of educational film see Charles F. Hoban, Jr., Movies that Teach (New York: Dryden, 1946). On Walt Disney see Bob Thomas, Walt Disney: An American Original (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1976), p. 206. See also Richard Schickel, The Disney Version. The Life, Times, Art, and Commerce of Walt Disney (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1968); and Leonard Maltin, The Disney Films (New York: Crown. 1973).
33. "Museum Wants," Time,21 May 1937, p. 28. J. von Uexkull and G. Kriszat's Streifzuge durch die Umwelten con Tieren und Menschen (Berlin: Julius Sponger, 1934) was used to help construct the visual worlds displayed in these exhibits. See Frank Beach to Robert Carr, 13 Apr. 1942, box 2, folder 8, Department of Animal Behavior Papers, American Museum of Natural History.
34. "Hall of Biology," n.d., Exhibits: Hall of Animal Behavior folder, Noble Papers.
35. W. D. Burden, A New Vision of Learning," Museum News,15 Dec. 1943, pp. 912. Burden was himself fascinated by the General Motors Futurama Exhibit at the 19391940 New York World's Fair, where passengers were seated on chairs that moved along a conveyor belt through an exhibit with synchronized light, motion, and sound. He believed that such exhibition techniques were essential to the future success of museum presentation, and he found himself in a heated controversy with the American Museum's director, Albert Parr, over exhibition policy in the 1940s. See box 1, folders 13 and 14, Burden Papers, for correspondence pertaining to this dispute.
36. Burden discussed the idea behind Marine Studios in a number of published popular articles. See, e.g., J. Bryan 111, "Ocean under Glass," Saturday Evening Post,1939, 211:1819, 5963; Morris Fradin, "The World's First Artificial Ocean," Travel,1938, 72:2754; and Arthur McBride, "The Undersea World thru 200 Portholes," Biology Briefs, 1938, 1:3336. The opening of Marine Studios even made its way into the listing of scientific events in Science, 1938, 88:50. Marine Studios later changed its name to Marineland.
37. W. E. Burden, Education Possibilities of Marine Studios," box 2 General Correspondence, 19381973, General Education Publications, Marineland; and Burden, untitled manuscript, p. 8, box 2 General Correspondence, 19381973, General Education Publications PreWar, Marineland.
38. Burden to Pete Smith, 28 Nov. 1938, box 9, folder 3, Burden Papers.
39. See particularly the correspondence and notes in boxes 3 and 4 of the research lab archives at Marineland for insight into the immensity of the problems faced by McBride and his staff in the early years. I am grateful to Joanne Whaley of Marineland for allowing me access to these papers.
40. A. F. McBride and D. O. Hebb, "Behavior of the Captive Bottle-Nose Dolphin, Tursiops Truneatus," Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology,1948, 41:1 11123. On Noble's involvement in Marine Studios see Laboratories & Field Stations: Marine Studios, Marineland I and 11 folders, Noble Papers.
41. Arthur F. McBride, "Meet Mr. Porpoise," Natur. Hist., Jan. 1940, pp. 1629, and Edward Weyer to Frank Essapian, 10 July 1953, Old MEL Files, Cetacea Correspondence, Marineland. The published article, without the references to homosexual behavior, appeared as Frank S. Essapian, The Birth and Growth of a Porpoise," Natur. Hist., Nov. 1953, pp. 392399. On the importance of domesticity in 1950s American culture see, e.g., Elaine Tyler May, Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era (New York: Basic, 1988).
42. Samuel P. Hays, Environmental Politics in the United States, 1955-1985 (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1987). See also Thomas R. Dunlap, Saving America's Wildlife: Ecology and the American Mind, 1850-1990 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton Univ. Press, 1988), pp. 98 110. The creation of the white, middle class American family audience for television is discussed in Lynn Spigel,Make Room for TV: Television and the Family Ideal in Postwar America (Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press, 1992). On the importance of the natural universal family in the ideology of American culture see Haraway, Primate Visions (cit. n. 5).
43. Adele E. Clarke, "Social Worlds/Arenas Theory as Organizational Theory," in Social Organization and Social Process: Essays in Honor of Anselm Strauss,ad. David R. Maines (New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1991), pp. 119 158.
44. For an insightful analysis of the conflicting relationships between the ethics of television and of conservation see Thomas Veltre, "The Slums of the Global Village," BBC Wildlife,May 1990, pp. 328 329. I thank Tom for the information on the koala exhibit at the Bronx zoo.