Lynchburg

Railroad Stations- Southern Station,. Kemper St. off Park Ave., for Southern Ry.; Union Station, foot of 9th St., for Chesapeake and Ohio Ry. and Norfolk & Western Ry.

Bus Stations: 5th and Church Sts. for Atlantic Greyhound Bus Line; 2 12 8th St. for Virginia Stage Line.

Taxis: Fare 25 cents within city limits, 10 cents each additional passenger. Streetcars and Local Busses: Fare 7 cents, 4 tokens for 25 cents.

Traffic Regulations: No U-turns in business district, one-hour parking limit 7 a.m.7 p.m., no parking 2-7 a.m.

Accommodations: 6 hotels, including 2 for Negroes; tourist places.

Information Service: Chamber of Commerce, 203-10 Lynch Bldg., 9th and Main Sts.; A.A.A., Virginia Hotel, 8th and Church Sts.

Theater and Motion Picture Houses: Little Theater, 420 Rivermont Ave.; 5 motion Picture houses, including i for Negroes.

Golf: Oakwood Country Club, Rivermont Ave.-Boonsboro Rd. at Peakland PI., 18 holes, greens fee 75 cents, Sat., Sun., and holidays, $1; Boonsboro Country Club, 4.2 m. NW. on US 501, 18 holes, greens fee $ 1.

Swimming: Miller Park and Riverside Park, daily fee 10 cents; Guggenheimer Playground, 1900 block of Grace St., fee 10 cents; Oakwood Country Club, Rivermont Ave.-BoonsborG Rd. at Peakland Pl., fee 55 cents.

Tennis: Oakwood Country Club, Rivermont Ave.-Boonsboro Rd. at Peakland Pl., fee 550; Guggenheimer Playground, 1900 block of Grace St.; Miner Park, Park Ave. between Memorial and Fort Aves.

Annual Events: Tri-County Fair, Sept.

LYNCHBURG (800 alt., 40,661 pop.), the largest market for dark tobacco in the South and one of the largest in the country, winds its hilly way along the banks of the James River and extends into the foothills of the Blue Ridge on the northwest.

Through its steep streets pass the tracks of the Southern Railway and the Norfolk and Western Railway. The Chesapeake and Ohio Railway, however, clings to the edge of the river, where vestiges of the Kanawha Canal still form part of the city's boundaries. Above the bluffs along the river a wide residential section follows meandering streets and roads. Separated from it by an unpopulated hilly region, another series of neat, small houses rambles southwestward beyond 'downtown's' industrial belt. Slum sections turn up unexpectedly around the comer from treelined avenues. Bridges for trains and automobiles cross into the countryside to the northeast, and in the river are two slender islands. The principal Negro district follows Blackwater Creek up from the river.

Lynchburg industry employs about 8,ooo workers, who are paid annually more than $8,000,000. Tobacco gave the city birth, brought it up, and still contributes to its support. Nearly 8,000,000 pounds of tobacco are marketed here annually. Lynchburg shoe factories, fourth in National importance, have an annual pay roll of $3,000,000. Other industries include the world's largest tannin extract plant, foundries, an overall factory, and lumber, paper, flour, cotton, silk, and hosiery mills. Seventeen-year-old John Lynch established a ferry here in 1757, SUPplanting a difficult ford, and dwellings were built on the navigable river linear his ferry house. John Lynch was the son of Charles Lynch, an Irishman who served his indentureship in Louisa County, where in 1733 he married Sarah Clark, ardent Quakeress and daughter of his master. Somewhat later he patented land near the present Lynchburg and lived at a house named Chestnut Hill.

Tobacco was early the economic stimulus of this largely Quaker community. Before 1786, when the general assembly authorized a town on his land, John Lynch had built the first tobacco warehouse north of the river on the bluff above his ferry. Tobacco in hogsheads was 'rolled' in from the surrounding fields and let down by ropes from the warehouse to bateaux on the river below, and this point became a trade center for dark tobacco -a coarse-leaf variety used as chewing and pipe tobacco and for the making of cigars. The first warehouse on the south bank was built in 1791, and four more warehouses were added between 1800 and 1805. The village was incorporated as a town in the latter year.

Strict attention to quality at that time made the town the world center for dark leaf tobacco. Stemming was begun here in 1804 by Charles Johnson, and tobacco inspectorship was established in 18o6. The partners Hare and Labby (L'Abbe) were the first to use licorice in the treatment of tobacco.

Before the days of canal and railroads, fleets of bateaux bore tobacco down to Richmond. Three husky slaves manned each bateaux. From planked gunwales the two strongest propelled it with long iron-shod poles, and the third used a large oar as rudder. They were furnished with 60 pounds of meat and two bushels of meal for the trip and helped themselves to potatoes, corn, and tobacco from the down cargoes and to salt sugar, molasses, and whisky from return cargoes. Poling demanded a high degree of strength, courage, and skill, and the Negroes took great pride in their job.

In 1829, when the population of the town was 4,630, a visitor recorded that 500 bateaux left the wharves of Lynchburg and described the place as a bustling business center with an incredible number of stores and 15 tobacco factories.

A curious figure of this period was Colonel Augustine Leftwich, born in Bedford, England, in 1794, who came here at 18 and made a fortune in tobacco. In summer he would stroll to his factory like an Indian nabob, dressed in spotless white linen with a slave behind him holding aloft a great green umbrella.

The James River and Kanawha Canal reached Lynchburg from Richmond in 1840. In 1852, when the population was more than 8,000, Lynchburg received its city charter, and that year the first train steamed in. During the War between the States the city was an important Confederate supply base, with hospitals and an arsenal.

By 1870, when the community began to rise out of postwar depression, railroads were almost the exclusive carriers of industrial products. Former industries were continued; new ones were founded, including the manufacture of shoes, started in 1870. John W. Carroll the same year started the manufacture of 'Lone Jack' and 'Brown Dick,' widely known smoking and chewing tobaccos. A great gambler down on his luck, Carroll drew a 'lone jack,' which, with the three others he held, won a pot of more than $5,000 and the chance to recoup his fortunes. In 1882 James A. Bonsack revolutionized the tobacco industry by inventing a cigarette making machine. In 1886 more than 30,000,000 pounds of tobacco were marketed from Lynchburg. Soon thereafter other industries were established. At the close of the century the city had survived a depression that followed the boom and had increased its population to 19,709.

In 1883 Theodore Presser founded The Etude, a publication for music teachers and pianists; Randolph-Macon Woman's College was opened in 1893; the Art Club was organized in 1896 and revived in 1925, and the Civic Art League was established in 1932 by Bernard Gutmann; in 1912 Mrs. John H. Lewis organized the Equal Suffrage League; and the Little Theater came into being in 1920.

Lynchburg is the home of Carter Glass, United States senator, former Secretary of the Treasury, and author of the Federal Reserve Act.

POINTS OF INTEREST

I. The CITY COURTHOUSE Wen 9-5 Mon.-Fri., 9-1 Sat.), 9th and Court Sts., is a white stuccoed brick building of Greek Revival architecture. The dome that rises from the center of the gabled roof suggests the Roman tradition, but the four-columned portico is Greek. Completed in 1855, the courthouse was designed by W.S. Ellison, Philadelphia architect, and succeeds a frame building erected in 1812. The site was donated to the city by John Lynch, Sr., with the stipulation that it revert to his heirs if used for any other purpose.

2. MONUMENT TERRACE, continuation of 9th St. between Church and Court Sts., designed by Aubrey Chesterman of Lynchburg and dedicated in 1928, is a granite and limestone stairway with 13 landings, ascending a steep, 7o-foot hill between terraced lawns. At the top is a bronze STATUE OF A CONFEDERATE INFANTRYMAN with bayonet fixed, designed by James 0. Scott of Lynchburg and erected in 1898. The flight of steps, with Italianate balustrades, gives access to small buildings that cling to the hillside. At the bottom is a bronze STATUE OF A DOUGHBOY, designed by Charles W. Keck of New York and erected in memory of the 47 Lynchburg soldiers killed in the World War.

3. LYNCHBURG BOULDER, E. end of 9th St., a rounded, smokegrimed, quartz boulder about five feet high, on a small grass plot among intersecting railroad tracks, marks the spot where John Lynch built his ferry house in 1757.

4. TOBACCO WAREHOUSES (open by arrangement), Commerce St. between 10th and 13th Sts., are cavernous brick and frame buildings where tobacco has been marketed since 1791. In a new building at Commerce and 10th Streets are incorporated part of the walls of Springhill, the first warehouse in present Lynchburg. The three largest warehouses in Lynchburg are now MARTINS, SE. corner 10th and W. Commerce Sts., built in 1806; FARMERS, SE. corner 13th and W. Commerce Sts.; and BOOKERS, SW. corner 13th and W. Commerce Sts. During the season about 2,500,000 pounds of tobacco are handled in each of these, but the biggest year was 1886, when 37,208,100 pounds were sold.

5. The OLDEST HOUSE IN LYNCHBURG (private), SW. corner Madison and 10th Sts., a red brick cottage, is said to have been built soon after John Lynch established his ferry (1757). Before it became a dwelling, it was used as a school.

6. The TERRELL-LANGHORNE HOUSE (private), SW. comer Jackson and 5th Sts., is a small red brick building erected about 1800 and now in disrepair. It was occupied first apparently by Dr.Edward Terrell, who returned to his farm at Rock Castle in 1803. His son, Dr.Christopher Terrell; grandson, Dr.John Terrell; and great-grandson, Dr.Alexander Terrell, practiced medicine in Lynchburg. 'Staunton' John Lynch, nephew of the city's founder, lived in this house. Mrs. John H. Lewis, a veteran fighter for social reform, aunt of Lady Astor and Mrs. Charles Dana Gibson, started housekeeping here.

7. The bronze STATUE OF JOHN WARWICK DANIEL, in the triangle bounded by 9th and Floyd Sts. and Park Ave., designed by Sir Moses Ezekiel and erected in 1913, represents Major Daniel (1842-1910) seated and holding a crutch. Affectionately dubbed 'the Lame Lion of Lynchburg,' he served in the Confederate army, and a wound at the Battle of the Wilderness made him a cripple. He was one of Virginia's foremost orators and was elected to the United States Senate for four consecutive terms.

8. The SITE OF OLD LYNCHBURG COLLEGE, Wise St. between 10th and 11th Sts., is occupied by two of the original Victorian Gothic gray stuccoed buildings, now residences, in which the first Methodist Protestant College in the South and the first college in Lynchburg once functioned. Founded by the faculty of Madison College, Uniontown, Pennsylvania, in 1855, it was moved to this site the next year. In February 1861 the college ceased to exist. The buildings were used as a Confederate hospital, and after the war as Federal barracks.

9. The VIRGINIA THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY AND COLLEGE (Negro), N.W. corner Garfield Ave. and Dewitt St., a Baptist institution occupying several gaunt brick buildings, was incorporated in 1888 'to prepare Christian preachers, teachers, and workers for work among the Negroes.' The college is coeducational and confers bachelor degrees in arts and sciences; the seminary confers the degree of bachelor of divinity. Of the 500 graduates, 150 are preachers and 25 are foreign missionaries. Enrollment in 193 7-38 was 120.

10. SPRING HILL CEMETERY (open daily), Fort Ave. between Lancaster St. and Wythe Rd., is a 45-acre landscaped tract shaded by trees and surrounded by a high brick wall. The land was bought in 1853 by Bishop John Early and other citizens. When neighbors objected to the proximity of a graveyard, John Crouse, who sold the land, pleaded that he had not known the difference between a cemetery and a seminary. An injunction suit having failed, the first grave was dug in 1855; pall bearers and other mourners carried firearms. Here are buried three Confederate generals-James Dearing , (1840- 1865) Jubal A. Early (1816-95), and Thomas Taylor Munford (1831-1918)Bishop Early (1786-1871), Senator John W. Daniel, and a child of General E.B.Stuart.

11. FORT EARLY (open), NE. corner Fort and Vermont Aves., entered through a semicircular stone archway, is a restored square earthwork built during the Lynchburg campaign. Confederate forces, commanded by General Jubal A. Early, repulsed General Hunter's attack here in June 1864. A CLUBHOUSE (open by arrangement), erected in 1922, is sheltered by the grass-covered breastworks. The EARLY MONUMENT, opposite the fort on a grassy triangle, is a tall granite obelisk erected in 1920. General Early lived in Lynchburg from 1869 until his death.

12. LYNCHBURG COLLEGE, NW. end of Vernon St., a coeducational institution controlled by the Christian Church, occupies a group of three modem brick buildings - and the renovated WESTOVER BUILDING. The latter, a large, many-turreted frame structure, was the Westover Hotel when purchased in 1903. Virginia Christian College was chartered and classes began in the remodeled hotel in the same year. In 1919 it was rechartered as Lynchburg College. In 1937-38 it had a faculty 0f 30 and a student body of 250.

13. LYNCHBURG FEMALE ORPHAN ASYLUM (open by arrangement), 2400 block of Memorial Ave., known as Miller Orphans' Home, a four-story turreted building designed by General John Elliott in Victorian Gothic style and set in a 100-acre park, was opened in 1875. The institution cares for 65 white orphans under 18 years old and operates a day nursery for 20 children between the ages of two and eight. The grave of Samuel Miller, philanthropist who endowed the orphanage, is marked by a granite shaft. 14. POINT OF HONOR (Open 9-4 daily), 112 Cabell St., is a-plastercovered brick mansion built in 1806 by Dr.George Cabell. The early Federal atmosphere of the interior is preserved in the lofty ceilings, the fine carved woodwork, the gracious sweeping stairway, and an elaborate chandelier. This mansion, named according to local tradition by young William Lewis Cabell after the satisfactory culmination of a duel, was the birthplace of Mary Virginia Ellett Cabell (1839-1930), an organizer of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Lent to the city, Point of Honor is now a playground and manual training and recreational center for children.

15. LITTLE THEATER (open by arrangement), 420-22 Rivermont Ave., is the first theater erected and owned by a little theater league in Virginia. Built of gray concrete and brick, its auditorium seats 300. Two interior murals by the Lynchburg artist, Scaisbrook Abbott, depict tragedy from an early American melodrama and comedy from a scene in Twelfth Night. The Little Theater League was organized in 1921, and the present building was opened in 1930 with a production of Arnold Bennett's Milestones.

16. JONES MEMORIAL LIBRARY (open 9-9 weekdays), SE. corner Rivermont Ave. and Library St., above a series of lawn and stone terraces, is a cream-colored brick structure with classic gray stone trim and an entrance loggia adorned with six Ionic columns between ants, walls. It was presented to the city by Mrs. George M. Jones and opened in 1908. The library contains nearly 55,000 volumes and has three branches, including one for Negroes.

17. The CLAYTOR-MILLER HOUSE (not open), in Riverside Park at Ash St. entrance, built about 1792-93 by John Miller, is a two-story white frame building with a steep gabled roof. About 18ig it was the home of Owen and Jane Hughes Owens, originators of the first circulating library in Lynchburg, who used part of their house as a school. Thomas Jefferson, while stopping here, is said to have demonstrated to one of the Owens children that the tomato was not a poisonous ornament but a luscious food. Sam Claytor owned the house about 1825. When it was about to be razed to make way for a new building, the Lynchburg Historical Society moved it from 8th and Church Streets to its present site.

18. The HULL OF THE PACKET BOAT MARSHALL, Riverside Park at Look Out Point, is all that remains of the canal boat on which the body of 'Stonewall' Jackson was carried to Lexington for burial. 19. RANDOLPH-MACON WOMAN'S COLLEGE, Rivermont Ave. between Norfolk Ave. and N. Princeton Circle, the first accredited college for women in Virginia, is housed in 16 red brick buildings, several in NeoGothic, the rest in Georgian Colonial styles. Surrounded by nearly 80 acres of lawns and groves, the buildings overlook the James River and command a distant view of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Scattered throughout the buildings are excellent examples of modern art, including paintings by George Bellows, William Chase, Gari Melchers, Childe Hassam, Jules Guerin, and John Carroll. Randolph-Macon Woman's College was opened in 1893, with Dr. William Waugh Smith as first president. A chapter of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, the first in an independent college for women in the South, was established here in 1917. The college confers the degree of bachelor of arts. In 1937-38 it had a faculty Of 72 and an enrollment of 630. The LIBRARY (open daily), erected in 1929, contains about 45,000 volumes and a room in which a few valuable old books and manuscripts are displayed. Among outstanding alumnae of the college is Pearl Buck (Mrs.Richard J. Walsh), who as Pearl Sydenstricker was graduated in 1914.

20. The LYNCHBURG FEDERAL ART GALLERY (open 10-5 Mon. -Fri-, 3-5 Sun.), 1331 Oak Lane, Peakland sponsored by the Lynchburg Art Alliance, was established in 1936. Classes in painting, modeling, and crafts are held for adults and children, besides extension classes for Negroes and whites.

21. The VIRGINIA EPISCOPAL SCHOOL, Williams Rd. and Virginia Episcopal School Rd., opened in 1916, is a boys' preparatory school housed in four large red brick buildings on 140 acres of grounds. The LANGHORNE MEMORIAL CHAPEL (open), a red brick building, was given by Chiswell Dabney Langhorne and his daughter, Lady Astor. In 1937-38 the school had a faculty of 11 and a student body of 117.

POINTS OF INTEREST IN ENVIRONS

Sandusky, 4.1 m.; Quaker Memorial Presbyterian Church, 4.2 m.; Sweetbriar College, 12.1 m. (see Tour 4c). Poplar Forest, 8 tn. (see Tour 11a). Appomattox Courthouse, 23.6 m. (see Tours 11b and 3d).

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