Richmond/Charlottesville-Waynesboro-Staunton-Monterey(Bartow, W.Va.). US 250. Richmond to West Virginia Line, 170.2 m. Asphalt-paved except for shale-surfacing west of Monterey. Chesapeake & Ohio Ry. parallels route between Charlottesville and Staunton. Hotels, tourist homes, and cabins plentiful in the towns only; summer hotels in mountains. US 25o runs across the Piedmont Plateau between the fall line and the foothills, scales the Blue Ridge, crosses the Shenandoah Valley, and rises again to the mountain wilderness of the high Alleghenies. France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain; 4,000 olive trees; lemon trees; silk worms; and 'a sufficient number of Seeds, Stones, Grafts and small plants . . . which may . . . render the living more agreeable and comfortable.' The ship returned to Italy loaded with tobacco, grain, flour, and 'some presents' for Mazzei's patron, the Grand Duke of Tuscany; these included a brace of deer and a live rattlesnake. To the small acreage Mazzei bought, Thomas Jefferson added a considerable tract of Monticello land, By the time his vineyards were planted, Mazzei was up to his ears in political intrigue, making fiery speeches and writing pamphlets, which Jefferson translated. In 1779, wherion his way to Europe as financial agent for Virginia, he was captured by a privateer and spent three months in New York as a British prisoner. Having thrown overboard his official papers, he was without credentials when he finally arrived in Europe and had no success in raising loans. He served zealously, however, sending letters of advice and information to Jefferson, Adams, Madison, and other Virginians. To refute foreign criticism of the Revolution, he wrote a history of the colonies, signing his two\_volume work merely 'A Citizen of Virginia.' Returning to America in 1783, he sought a foreign consulship but failed, and left the next year for France. When Mazzei went abroad in 1779, Colle was rented to the Baron de Riedesel, taken prisoner at Saratoga. Jefferson afterwards wrote that the baron's horses 'destroyed in one week the whole labor of three or four years.' After 1784, Colle was the home of the Comte de Rieux, who had married Mazzei's stepdaughter. Scenes in Janice Meredith, by Paul Leicester Ford, were laid here. Right on State 22 to State 231, 5.5 m.; L. here to GRACE CHURCH (R), 6.2 m., a stone building in Gothic Revival style with a little tower. It was erected between 1848 and 1855 on thesiteof the'mountain chapel'of Fredericksville Parish.
CASTLE HILL (L), 7.7 m., is surrounded by gardens and heavy shrubbery on a hill at the end of a long drive and is approached through two double rows of towering treebox. A garden is separated from the deep lawn by another box hedge that in some places is nearly 40 feet high. The mansion consists of two parts, connected by a short passage. In front is the main house, built about 184o, two stories of brick. l3ehind it is Dr.Thomas Walker's home, a diminutive story\_and a half frame structure built about 1764. Dr.Walker was one of several agents whose vast speculations in frontier land helped to settle Southwest Virginia. As a young physician from King and Queen County (see Tour 1B), Walker came into control of about 17,000 acres here in 1741 by his marriage to the widow of Nicholas Meriwether. DrMalker practiced medicine in the neighborhood and became so close a friend of Colonel Peter Jefferson that he was made guardian of Peter's young son, Thomas, after the colonel's death. In 1748 Walker accompanied Colonel James Patton (see Tour 5b) on an expedition into what is now Southwest Virginia and, with Colonel Jefferson and Thomas and David Meriwether, filed clairn to a large tract of those promising lands. DrMalker immediately gave up medical practice for a more exciting and remunerative career as explorer and speculator. Two years later, as agent of the Loyal Land Company, he headed his own expedition westward-the first that penetrated into what later became Kentucky. He was guided by a hunter called Stalnaker to the gap that he named in honor of the then Duke of Cumberland. The land company, composed of Walker and 45 others, was granted goo,ooo acres of wilderness on condition that they be settled within four years. Walker was occupied during the rest of his active life surveying and selling these lands and others to which claims were so questionable that the disputes over them had to be settled by the passage of an act by the assembly. Captain Anbury, sent to Albemarle with other British prisoners (see Tour 4), wrote, 'In this neighborhood I visited Colonel Walker . . . and found his home a hospitable house but unpleasant, because the family chiefly conversed on politics, though with moderation. His father (Dr.Walker) is a man of strong understanding, though considerably above eighty years of age. He freely declared his opinions of what America would be a hundred years hence, and said the people would reverence the resolution of their fathers, and impress the same feeling on their children, so that they would adopt the same measures to secure their freedom, which had been used by their brave ancestors.' Jack Jouett (see Tour 10), on his ride to Charlottesville to warn Governor Jefferson and the Virginia Legislature of Tarleton's approach, was given a fresh mount at Castle Hill. When Tarleton arrived by another road, he was pressed to accept a sumptuous breakfast at Castle Hill that Jouett might have more time. Through marriage to a granddaughter of Dr.Walker, William Cabell Rives became owner of Castle Hill. He was a member of the U.S. Senate and minister to France under President Andrew Jackson. Amelie Rives (Princess Troubetzkoy), his granddaughter, to whom the estate descended, has written novels, short stories, poems, essays, and successful dramas. Her first husband, whom she divorced, was the eccentric John Armstrong Chaloner, who contributed a phrase to American speech when, from an insane asylum, he telegraphed, 'Who's looney now?' to his brother on the occasion of his brother's marriage to beauteous Lina Cavalieri.
EDGEHILL (R), 65.1 m., a two story brick house above the highway, has a wide view though a grove conceals it from the road. The square, central section, in Classical Revival style, is unexpectedly simple. On the front is a one-story flat-roofed portico surmounted by a Chippendale balustrade. Four chimneys are grouped close to the short ridge of the low hipped roof. A rear wing is a later addition. Although William Randolph of Tuckahoe patented land here on ihe north side of the Rivanna in 1735, none of the family lived here until his grandson, Colonel Thomas Mann Randolph, married Martha Jefferson. Colonel Randolph, who managed Thomas Jefferson's estates during his long absences and was governor of Virginia 1819-22, died in 1828. Colonel Thomas Jefferson Randolph, his son, found the old brick house too small and had it moved back in the yard, where it stands now, covered with clapboarding. That same year he erected the front part of the present structure, according to drawings prepared long before by Jefferson. Here in 1836 Mrs.Jane Nicholas Randolph, wife of Jefferson's grandson, opened a boarding school for girls. Closed during the War between the States, it was reopened and functioned until 1896. Before the end of the nineteenth century, the interior had been burned and then restored.
At 66.1 m. is SHADWELL (L), the birthplace of Thomas Jefferson. On this site was Colonel Peter Jefferson's house, in which his son Thomas was born April 13, 1743, and lived until it burned in 1770, when he moved to Monticello (see Tour 23A). Shadwell stood upon a small farm acquired by Peter Jefferson in 1736 from William Randolph of Tuckahoe. The deed of transfer shows that the consideration for the land was: 'Henry Weatherburn's biggest bowl of Arrack punch to him delivered' (see Williamsburg).
At 69.1 m. is a junction with County 613 (see Tour 10).
Section b. CHARLOTTESVILLE to WEST VIRGINIA LINE; 99.7 m. US 250. West of Charlottesville, where Main Street coincides with the ghost of Three Notched Road, the highway closely follows the course of the road through rolling foothills and passes elaborate estates. Pastures and occasional orchards border the highway. After a steep climb to Rockfish Gap in the Blue Ridge, with a vast stretch of wooded peaks and of cultivated fields far below, US 250 drops swiftly to peach and apple country of the broad valley floor. West of Staunton the route follows in general the older Staunton-Parkersburg Turnpike. Parallel ridges and valleys, including Calf Pasture, Cow Pasture, Bull Pasture, and Jackson Rivers, are curiously uniform in contour and size. Where limestone predominates, lush bluegrass fattens beef cattle. Near the West Virginia Line the highway climbs among the lofty Alleghenies, which rise more than 4,000 feet. West of Courthouse Square in CHARLOTTESVILLE, 0 m., US 250 follows High St., then Main St. to a junction with US 29 (see Tour 4) at 2 m.
The FARMINGTON COUNTRY CLUB (R), 4.1 m., occupies a large tract with views of the mountains. Part of the property is a residential development, and another part is a golf course (see Charlottesville). The clubhouse, a large rosebrick antebellum structure, has a portico with four tall modified Doric columns. Part of the rooms of the former mansion have been united to form a single room two stories high. A wing of the structure was the pre-Revolutionary home of Francis Jerdone, an alleged Tory, whose estate was confiscated and then returned to him. About 1785 the estate passed to George Divers. With plans drawn by Thomas Jefferson, Divers began to enlarge and remodel the house in 1802-03, but displeasure on the part of Jefferson over the way his plans were being executed and then the death of Divers stopped the work. Construction was completed in the 1850's, under Bernard Peyton, and the central section was added. Opened in 1029 as a country club and hotel, the building has been enlarged and modernized. IVY, 7.4 m. (200 POP.), is a scattered village of retired, middle-income folk.
On the northern fringe of this community is the SITE OF LOCUST HILL (R), birthplace in 1774 of Meriwether Lewis, who, accompanied by William Clark, younger brother of George Rogers Clark, commanded the expedition that started westward in the summer of 1803, wintered in the vicinity of St.Louis, set out again on May 14, 1804, and reached the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon on November 15,805 - a journey of 4,000 miles through unknown wilds, including passage across the Rocky Mountains. The expedition began its return in March 18o6 and reached St.Louis on September 23, 18o6, in possession of copious notebooks bursting with information. In recognition of his services, Jefferson made Lewis governor of Louisiana Territory. Lewis died under mysterious circumstances in i8og, while stopping at a tavern in Tennessee, on a journey to Washington. Jefferson inclined to the idea that he had committed suicide but there is some evidence that he was a victim of one of the many bandits on the Natchez Trace.
CROZET, 13.4 m. (718 alt., 300 POP.), is an attenuated community, including large storage warehouses, strung out along highway and railroad. The crop grown in neighboring orchards and packed in Crozet reaches a yearly value of half a million dollars. The town was named for Colonel Benoit Claude Crozet (1789-1864), a distinguished engineer who came to America from France. Educated at the Rcole Polytechnique, he served in Napoleon's army until taken prisoner in Russia. After his ex\-change he rejoined Napoleon before Waterloo. In America, he was an instructor at West Point, then State engineer of Virginia; he supervised the early growth of the Virginia Military Institute, and finally headed Rich\-mond Academy. Besides supervising the construction of canals, highways, tunnels, railroads, and aqueducts, Crozet was a cartographer and author of textbooks on mathematics.
SEVEN OAKS (R), 17.7 m., a gleaming white frame house in Greek Revival style with large Ionic portico, stands on a hill above the road on the site of Black Tavern, kept by James Black. Part of the tavern, a small log building, is behind the present house. It was moved back when Seven Oaks was built in 1847-48 by Dr.John Bolling Garrett, long associated with edu\-cational enterprises in the county, especiallywith the University of Virginia.
EMMANUEL CHURCH (L), 18.7 m., a red brick structure with cloister and tower was erected in 1914 as a memorial to Mrs. Chiswell Dabney Langhorne, mother of Lady Nancy Astor and of Mrs.Charles Dana Gibson, who was her husband's model for the 'Gibson Girl.' At 21 m. is a clear view of ELK MOUNTAIN (R), a castellated eyrie simulating a feudal stronghold, in which a greater and a lesser capitalist have nested. Perched high on the Blue Ridge, the gray mass thrusts tower and crenellations against the sky in a pseudo-baronial style. The house was erected in 1925-26 by Thomas Fortune Ryan. AFTON, 23 m. (1,374 alt., 50 pop.), perched on the mountainside, is a station on the Chesapeake & Ohio, which passes here over the route of the Virginia Central Railroad, extended west from Charlottesville in 1854. Be\-neath the mountains westward, Colonel Crozet cut a railroad tunnel that was the longest in the world when opened in 1856. The highway crosses the Blue Ridge through ROCKFISH GAP (i,goo alt.), at 25 m., which in clear weather commands magnificent views of farm\_filled \_valleys on both sides of the ridge. The gap played an important part in the early settlement of western Virginia especially after a buffalo path through the gap had become a well-known travel route. In the gap is a junction with Skyline Drive (see Tour 4A). By the Drive junction is the entrance (L) to huge SWANNANOA, built of white marble in Italian Renaissance style. Once the home of Major James H. Dooley, Richmond philanthropist, and then used as a country club, the estate is about to be converted 0939) into a center for the promotion of world\_wide peace. On the grounds is the SITE OF LEAKE TAVERN, where a commission met in 1818 to decide upon a location for the nascent University of Virginia. Wesiward the highway uncoils itself precipitously down the mountain\-to WAYNESBORO, 29 m. (1, 295 alt., 6,2 26 pop.), sprawling before a hill\-side stripped by extensive gravel operations. The town retains some of an earlier pleasantness despite current industrial developments. A small ham\-let had gathered here before the Revolution on this early road to the West. Chastellux found a tavern here, 'the worst in all America . . . Mrs.Teaze, the mistress of the house, was sometime since left a widow; she appears also to be in fact the widow of her furniture, for surely never was a house so badly furnished.' On March 2, 1865, General Philip H. Sheridan, with a force of Union cavalry, drove General Jubal A. Early and i,ooo Confederates from their strategic position near by. Early's force was captured almost to a man, but the general and his staff escaped to the woods. This was one of the last contests of the war in western Virginia. About 1895, citizens of Waynesboro were victims of an oil hoax. A group proclaiming it had found oil in the vicinity began to sell stock and made a show of drilling. As the work progressed with no signs of oil, the sale of stock began to lag. One night several barrels of oil were poured into the drilled hole. The next day this hopeful evidence stimulated sales, and several business men retired to enjoy their oil royalties. The only product of the well was good drinking water.
FiSHBURNE MILITARY SCHOOL, occupying a large red brick building and several smaller structures, is a boys' preparatory school established in 1879. At present (1939) the enrollment is 176.
FAIRFAx HALL, a girls' preparatory school and junior college housed in a large towered building on a shaded campus, was named, with uninten\-tional irony, for Thomas, Lord Fairfax, the staunchest misogynist of Virginia history (see Tour 5A), In Waynesboro is a junction with State 12. West of Waynesboro the highway passes extensive apple orchards in the warm valley, rimmed by mountains.
FISHERVILLE, 34.1 m. (150 pop.), a rural shopping center that grew up as a stagecoach station, has a plant for the manufacture of fruit containers. Left from the village on State 273 to TINKLING SPRING CHURCH (R), 1.2 m., a log bodied, weatherboarded structure built about 179o and since remodeled. The first church, built here in 1740, was the place of worship for settlers from a wide area that included the settlement at Staunton, John Craig, first Presbyterian minister to settle in Virginia, preached here on alternate Sundays. The spring at the edge of the churchyard gave the church its name. Craig favored another site for the church and refused to drink water from the spring, bringing a bottle of water, which he placed beside him in the pulpit.
Right here to MT.PLEASANT, 0.3 m., a brick house with end chimneys and octagonal bay windows. The house was built by Colonel George Moffett, soldier in the French and Indian War and commander of a company of militia at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse during the Revolution. Some of the Virginia legislators, fleeing from Charlottesville at the approach of Tarleton in 1781, found refuge here. US 250 crosses Middle River, at 47.3 m., near which in 1764 was the home of John Trimble. Indians, led by a white man or half breed, killed Trimble and carried off his son, his sister-in-law, and a Negro boy. Neighbors, led by Colonel Moffett of Mt.Pleasant, surprised the Indians in camp and rescued young Trimble and the sister-in-law. The Negro was killed in the fray.
CHURCHVILLE, 49.5 m. (303 pop.), is appropriately named for the number of churches on its short main street LOCK WILLOW PRESBYTERIAN (1781), ST.JAMES METHODIST CHURCH (1826), ST.PETER's LuTHERAN (1850), and UNITED BRETHREN CHURCH (1878). In the middle of the nineteenth century two brothers, Jed and Nelson Hotchkiss, came to Churchville from New York. Jed Hotchkiss established a school for boys, while the wife of Nelson Hotchkiss opened a school for girls. Jed Hotchkiss, a captain and topographical engineer on Stonewall Jackson's staff in the War between the States, made maps of the State for the Confederate army. Through JENNINGS GAP, 53.6 m., ran the old Staunton-Warm Springs road. The highway crosses the eastern boundary of the GEORGE WASHINGTON NATIONAL FOREST at 53.9 m. This mountain area of timber reserves and watersheds is under the protection of U.S. Forestry Service.
BUCKHORN TAVERN, 56.5 m., a two\_story frame building with a long double veranda, is the remnant of a much larger building that was once a popular shopping place for travelers. The crest of the Shenandoah Mountains, 66.9 m., is a vantage point (2,950 alt.).
Right along the ridge ioo yards from the crest parking space to FORT EDWARD JOHNSON, occupied by General Edward Johnson's Confederate command Of 3,000 men in February 1862. This unit, a remnant of the Army of the Northwest, had been left at Camp Allegheny, 25 miles west, to guard against invasion of the Shenandoah Valley by means of the Staunton-Parkersburg turnpike. Upon withdrawal of other Confederate forces west of the Alleghenies, Johnson retired to this position. He was followed by General R.H.Milroy, whom he had defeated at Camp Allegheny on December 13, 1861. When General T.J.Jackson retired from Harrisonburg on April io, Johnson withdrew toward Staunton, and Milroy, acting now as General John C. Fr6mont's advance force, occupied this position. Jackson, before attempting his larger plan in the valley, combined half of his army with that of Johnson and, on May 7, advanced against Milroy, who, retreating, was reinforced. On the following afternoon the combined force, under Schenck, attacked Jackson.\par On the west side of the BULL PASTURE MOUNTAIN, 75 m., the Battle of McDowell was fought between the forces of Jackson and Schenck. The two small forces met on May 8. Because field pieces could not be brought into action over the rough ground, the fight was almost entirely with small arms. During the night the Union forces, followed by Jackson, withdrew northward toward Franklin.
McDOWELL, at 76 m., is a mountain hamlet.
Left from McDowell, 6.5 m. on State 269, to the SITE OF FORT GEORGE (L), an early refuge in Indian attacks. Its outlines are remarkably well preserved in the meadow between the river and a brick house (R). Clearly outlined also are two bastions, a hole for the powder magazine, and a tunnel or trench by which water could be brought from the river in case of a siege. Settlements were established in this valley prior to 1743. The brick house, on land near the old fort, was built about 1844. The mill, on the opposite side of the river, was built about 1840. MONTEREY, 85.4 m. (3joci alt., 290 POP.) (see Tour 21a). From Monterey the highway crosses the Allegheny Mountains. The CREST, 99.7 m., was fortified in 1861 by forces under General Johnson to guard the Staunton Parkersburg turnpike. Here US 250 crosses the West Virginia Line (see West Virginia Guide) at a point 7 miles east of Bartow, W.Va.