Passer Niger, Oculis Rubris: The Towhe-bird.

This Bird is about the size of, or rather bigger than a Lark: The Bill black and thick: The iris of the Eye red: The Head, Neck, Breast, Back, and Tail, black; as are the Wings, with the larger Quill-Feathers edged with white. The lower part of the Breast and Belly white; which, on each side, is of a muddy red, extending along its Wings. The Legs and Feet are brown.


The Hen is brown, with a tincture of red on her Breast. It is a solitary Bird; and one seldom sees them but in Pairs. They breed and abide all the Year in Carolina in the shadiest Woods.


Passer Fusca: The Cowpen Bird.

This Bird is entirely brown, the Back being darkest, and the Breast and Belly the lightest part of it. In Winter they associate with the Red-wing'd Starling and Purple Jack-daw in Flights. They delight much to feed in the Pens of Cattle, which has given them their Name. Not having seen any of them in Summer, I believe they are Birds of Passage. They inhabit Virginia and Carolina.


Populus nigra maximo gemmis Balsamum odoratissimum fundentibus: The Black Poplar of Carolina.

This Tree grows only near Rivers, above the inhabited parts of Carolina. They are large and very tall. In April, at which time only I saw them, they had dropt their Seeds; which, by the Remains, I could only perceive to hang its Clusters, with a Cotton-like Consistence covering them. Upon the large swelling Buds of this Tree sticks a very odoriferous Balsam. The leaves are indented about the edges, and very broad, resembling in shape the Black Poplar, described by Parkinson.

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