Sources and Resources
| 1bell hooks, "In our Glory" in Picturing Us, ed. Deborah Willis (New York: The New Press, 1994) 47.|
2Alan Trachtenberg, Reading American Photographs: Images as History, Mathew Brady to Walker Evans (New York: Hill and Wang, 1989) 29.
3Eric J. Sundquist, To Wake the Nations: Race and the Making of American Literature (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1993) 447.
4 E. Barry Gaither qtd. in Reflections in Black: A History of Black Photographers 1840 to the Present, Deborah Willis (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2000) xi.
5Henry Louis Gates, Jr. "The Trope of the New Negro and the Reconstruction of the Image of the Black," Representations 24 (1988): 149.
|Representing the "New Negro"|
|1Qtd. by Henry Louis Gates, Jr., "The Trope of the New Negro and the Reconstruction of the Image of the Black," Representations 24 (1988): 135.|
2Charles Chesnutt, The Marrow of Tradition (New York: Penguin Books, 1993)238.
5Qtd. in Gates 140.
7Qtd. in Gates 142.
9Karen Halttuned qtd. in Susan S. Williams Confounding Images: Photography and Portraiture in Antebellum American Fiction, (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1997)47.
11Qtd in Miles Orvell The Real Thing: Imitation and Authenticity in American Culture 1880-1940 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1989) 84.
|1Howard W. Odum, Social and Mental Traits of the New Negro (New York: Columbia University Press, 1910) 163-65; Philip A. Bruce, The Plantation Negro as a Freeman (New York: Putnam's, 1889) 9: Nathaniel Southgate Shaler, "The Permanence of Race Characteristics (1890) in The Development of Segregationist Thought, ed. I.A. Newby (Homewood Ill.: Dorsey Press, 1968)61; all qtd. in Sundquist 394.|
3Willis, Picturing Us 15-17.
4Vertamae Smart-Grosvenor, "When You Meet Estella Smart, You Been Met" in Picturing Us, 29-30.
5Edward P. Jones, "A Sunday Portrait" in Picturing Us, 35-36.
|Representing Education and Labor|
|1Shawn Michele Smith, American Archives: Gender, Race and Class in Visual Culture (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999) 170-71.|
3The Face of Slavery & Other African American Photographs, 17 Dec. 2001, http: //www.photographymuseum.com/convictslg.html.
4Julie Browne, "The Labor of Doing Time" first published in Criminal Injustice: Confronting the Prison Crisis (Prison Activist Resource Center) qtd. in The Face of Slavery and Other African American Photographs.
|1Susan Sontag, On Photography (New York: Dell Publishing, 1973) 15.|
2Deborah Willis, J.P. Ball: Dagueerean and Studio Photographer (New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1993) xiii-xix for information on Ball; 127-203 for information and photographs relating to Biggerstaff.
|Useful Sites Related to Photographic Images of African Americans|
American Memory Site: Historical Digital Collections from the Library of Congress
The Face of Slavery & Other African American Photographs
The Holsinger Studio Collection
Without Sanctuary: Photographs and Postcards of Lynching in America