The Postal Service as a Catalyst of Unification
in Victorian America: 1863-1910

Old Albany Post Office

Old Albany Post Office


Created by Anthony Hopper



Columbian Expo stamp

Endnotes


Before listing the Endnotes, I would like to say that I am indebted to Daniel J. Boorstin, The Americans: The Democratic Experience (New York: Random House, 1973) for a number of my ideas, even if these topics are not broached by Boorstin's book itself. Also, the image of the stamp to the right entitled Columbus at La Rabida is provided courtesy of the National Postal Museum.

Endnotes for: Cover Page:

     1. Photo of the Albany Post Office, National Postal Museum. The picture was taken before 1905 because there are no trolley lines according to "Old Photos of Albany New York," Hello Albany.com, http://www.helloalbany.com/albany-Old-Photos-Buildings.htm.
      2. 2¢ Half Moon and Clermont stamp (cover page), National Postal Museum. Identified using The Postal Service Guide to U.S. Stamps, 29th ed. (New York: Harper Collins, 2002), 68-69.
      3. 10¢ Map of Louisiana Purchase stamp (cover page), National Postal Museum. Identified using Postal Service Guide, 64-65.
      4. 4¢ Empire State Express stamp (cover page), National Postal Museum. Identified using Postal Service Guide, 62-63.




Endnotes for: Introduction

     1i. Wayne E. Fuller, The American Mail: Enlarger of the Common Life, ed. Daniel (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1972), 47.
     2i. Daniel J. Boorstin, The Americans: The Democratic Experience (New York: Random House, 1973); Gilbert C. Fite, "Agriculture," The Reader's Companion to American History, eds. Eric Foner and John A. Garraty (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991), 19-22; National Postal Museum; Thomas J. Schlereth, Victorian America: Transformations in Everyday Life, 1876-1915 (New York: Harper Collins, 1991), 142.
     3i. Henry Nash Smith, Virgin Land: The American West as Symbol and Myth (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1978), 19-22.
     4i. 5¢ John Charles Fremont on the Rocky Mountains, National Postal Museum. Identified using Postal Service Guide, 60-61.
     5i. Alan Trachtenberg, The Incorporation of America: Culture and Society in the Gilded Age (New York: Hill and Wang, 1982), 87.
     6i. Ibid., 54.
     7i. Ibid., 52.
     8i. Boorstin, 89.
     9i. Boorstin, 120; Schlereth, 7.
     10i. Boorstin, 121.
     11i. Schlereth, 186.
     12i. Miles Orvell, The Real Thing: Imitation and Authenticity in American Culture, 1880-1940 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989), 17-18.
     13i. Boorstin, 1.
     14i. From the "Pledge of Allegiance."



Endnotes for: The Early Years (1775-1862)

     1e. 10¢ Columbus Presenting Natives stamp, National Postal Museum. Identified using Postal, 55.
     2e. National Postal Museum; Ralph Enos, "The Louisiana Purchase," Senior Globe Resource Directory, http://www.seniorglobe.com/history/history1.htm; Emily Zimmerman, "On the Road in the New Republic," Let's Go America!: European Travelers in the United States, 1830-1840 by Emily Zimmerman, http://xroads.virginia.edu/~HYPER/DETOC/europeans/front.html.
     3e. Fuller, 47.
     4e. Enos, np.
     5e. Photograph and commentary from An American Postal Portrait: a Photographic Legacy (New York: Harper Resource, 2000), 23. Note, the image is from Alexis Clermont's 1893 reinactment of his 1830's route.
     6e. Fuller, 49.
     7e. Ibid., 48.
     8e. Mathew J. Bowyer, They Carried the Mail: A Survey of Postal History and Hobbies (Washington, D.C.: Robert B. Luce, 1972), 22.
     9e. Fuller, 48.
     10e. Clyde Kelly, United States Postal Policy (New York: D. Appleton and Company, 1931) 48-49, 56-57.
     11e. Fuller, 47.
     12e. Kelly, 45.
     13e. Photograph and commentary by Postal, 8-9.      
     14e. H. T. Newcomb, The Postal Deficit: An Examination of Some of the Legislative and Administrative Aspects of a Great State Industry (Washington, D.C.: W.M. Ballantyne & Sons, 1900) 8.
     15e. Kelly, 43.
     16e. Kelly, 46; Fuller, 86.
     17e. Kelly, 51.      18e. Map of Early Postal Expansion, Sandafayre On-line, http://www.sandafayre.com/atlas/usa.htm.
     19e. Fuller, 111; National Postal Museum.
     20e. Fuller, 116.
     21e. Fuller, 117.
     22e. Kelly 40, 57, 59 briefly discusses these changes, though he does not talk about the new postage rates' impact on the ability of lower class citizens to use the nation's mail service.
     23e. Kelly, 60.
     24e. Kelly, 122.
     25e. Kelly, 51, 123; Postal,16.      26e. $2 Mississippi River Bridge stamp, 2¢ Half Moon and Cleremont National Postal Museum. Identified using The Postal Service Guide, 60-61, 68-69.



Endnotes for: "One Nation" (1863-1910)

     1m. 8¢ Soldiers Guarding Train stamp, National Postal Museum. Identified using Postal Service Guide, 60-61.
     2m. Fuller, 345; Postal, 22.
     3m. Wayne E. Fuller, Morality and the Mail in Nineteenth-Century America (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2003) 51; Fuller, 248.
     4m. Fuller "Morality," 57.
     5m. Postal, 68.
     6m. Photograph of mailcarrier delivering a letter (1895), National Postal Museum. Date identified using Postal, 7.
     7m. RFD mailcarrier (undated), National Postal Museum.
     8m. Jerry Canavit, "How Fast Were They?" (Aug. 1999), http://members.tripod.com/~Write4801/aboutboats/howfast.html. Author says that the Robert E. Lee, one of the fastest steamboats to ever ply the rivers of the United States during the 1800s, maintained an average speed of around 15.42 miles an hour.
     9m. Fuller, 168.
     10m. Kelly, 125, 127.
     11m. Boorstin, 120; National Postal. Museum
     12m. Picture of train and steamboat carrying mail among other things (undated), National Postal Museum.
     13m. Photograph of railway postal workers (undated), National Postal Museum; Fuller, 346.      14m. Fuller, 167-168.
     15m. Fuller, 74, 346-347.
     16m. Newcomb, 7.
     17m. National Postal Museum.
     18m. Photograph of boy mailing letter (circa 1910), National Postal Museum.
     19m. Fuller, 81-83 is speaking about the 1830s, but his argument also applies to the Victorian age.
     20m. Fuller, 166.
     21m. National Postal Museum.
     22m. Schlereth, 181; also reference Boorstin, 520.
     23m. Grant & Colfax campaign postcard, National Postal Museum.
     24m. Fuller, 140.
     25m. Schlereth, 186.
     26m. Daniel Boorstin does not discuss magazines as progenitors of "everywhere communities," but the theme fits in with the overall argument posited in his book, The Americans: The Democratic Experience.
     27m. Fuller, 109 touches on the subject but limits his discussion to political information.
     28m. Schlereth, 186.
     29m. Ibid., 186.
     30m. Cover of the January 6, 1877 edition of Harper's Weekly, Online at HarpWeek, http://www.harpweek.com.
     31m. Fuller, 71, 74; National Postal Museum.
     32m. RFD NEWS cartoon (1903), National Postal Museum.
     33m. Postcard of New York (city?) post office (cancellation date on back is 1906), National Postal Museum.
     34m. Though Boorstin does not talk about postcards as means of educating people, my argument parallels Boorstin 128-129.
     35m. Schlereth, 181.
     36m. National Postal Museum states that the Postal Service controlled the design and sale of the first postcards.
     37m. Fuller, 345.
     38m. 24¢ Declaration of Independence stamp (iss. 1869), National Postal Museum. Identified by Postal Service Guide, 46-47.
     39m. 2¢ Landing of Columbus (iss. 1893), National Postal Museum. Identified by Postal Service Guide, 54-55.
     40m. 4¢ Andrew Jackson stamp (iss. 1883), National Postal Museum. Identified by Postal Service Guide, 52-53.
     41m. 1¢ Benjamin Franklin stamp (iss. 1870-1871), National Postal Museum. Identified by Postal Service Guide, 48-49.
     42m. None of the authors I have read have okensp of stamps in this way. My general ideas on this issue come from Boorstin, 128-129 and Fuller, 84-85.
     43m. Hires ad, ©2000 Denise Van Patten CollectDollsabout.com.
     44m. Trachtenberg, 130-132.
     45m. Boorstin, 89-90.
     46m. Boorstin, 148.
     47m. Harper's Weekly ad page from Harpweek; Fuller, 140-141.
     48m. Boorstin, 520; Fuller, 346. Boorstin says that the authorized the use of postcards in 1872 while Fuller gives 1873 as the date.
     49m. None of the authors that I have read discuss the ways in which postcards were used by companies to hawk their wares, but the National Postal Museum's picture archive indicates that many businesses found it profitable to advertise via postal cards.
     50m. National Postal Museum.
     51m. All three postcards pictured here are from the National Postal Museum's archives.
     52m. Tracthenberg, 59-60; Boorstin, 98-99, 189-193, 359-397.
     53m. 10¢ Columbus Presents Natives stamp (iss. 1893), National Postal Museum.
     54m. Photograph of Washington, D.C. postal agents, National Postal Museum.
     55m. Photograph of San Franciso postal agents, National Postal Museum.
     56m. Fuller, 74.
     57m. Ibid., 140-141
     58m. National Postal Museum provided information on numbers of pieces of mail per person per annum.
     59m. Postal, 20-21.
     60m. Fuller, 84-85.
     61m. Photograph of Victorian era mailcarriers, National Postal Museum.
     62m. I inferred this idea from the pics of the letter carriers that I reviewed at the National Postal Museum as well as in Postal.
     63m. Postal, 7.
     64m. Ibid., 7.
     65m. RFD carriers photograph, National Postal Museum.
     66m. Photographs of two Victorian era postal badges, National Postal Museum.
     67m. Photographs of Victorian era post offices, National Postal Museum.
     68m. 5¢ President Garfield stamp (iss. 1882), National Postal Museum. Identified by Postal Service Guide, 52-53.
     69m. 8¢ Soldiers Guarding Train stamp, National Postal Museum. Identified using Postal Service Guide, 60-61.
     70m. 5¢ John Charles Fremont on the Rocky Mountains and 4¢ Ultramarine Fleet stamp, National Postal Museum. Identified using Postal Service Guide, 60-61, 54-55.

 

 

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