Of Things Exactly as They Are: American Poetry of the 1930s. American poets, clockwise from left, Stephen Vincent Benet, Hart Crane, Countee Cullen, E.E. Cummings, Robert Frost, Langston Hughes, Archibald MacLeish, Marianne Moore, Charles Reznikoff, Muriel Rukeyser, Wallace Stevens, Allen Tate, William Carlos Williams, Marya Zaturenska, Louis Zukofsky.

Primary Sources

Benét, Stephen Vincent. Selected Works of Stephen Vincent Benét: Volume One: Poetry. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc, 1942.

Crane, Hart. The Complete Poems of Hart Crane: The Centennial Edition. Ed. Marc Simon. New York and London: Liveright, 2001.

Cullen, Countee. My Soul's High Song: The Collected Writings of Countee Cullen. Ed. Gerald Early. New York: Doubleday, 1991.

Cummings, Edward Estlin. Poems: 1923-1954. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1968.

Frost, Robert. Collected Poems, Prose, & Plays. New York: Library Classics of the United States, Inc., 1995.

Hughes, Langston. The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. Ed. Arnold Rampersad. New York: Vintage Books Random House, 1995.

MacLeish, Archibald. Collected Poems: 1917-1952. Cambridge, MA: Houghton Mifflin, 1952.

Moore, Marianne. The Poems of Marianne Moore. Ed. Grace Shulman. New York: Viking, 2003.

---. Reznikoff, Charles. Poems 1918-1975: The Complete Poems of Charles Reznikoff. Ed. Seamus Cooney. Santa Rosa: Black Sparrow Press, 1989.

Rukeyser, Muriel. The Collected Poems. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1978.

Stevens, Wallace. Collected Poetry and Prose. New York: Library Classics of the United States, Inc., 1997.

Tate, Allen. Collected Poems: 1919-1976. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1977.

Williams, William Carlos. The Collected Poems of William Carlos Williams: Vol 1, 1909-1939. Ed. A. Walton Litz and Christopher MacGowan. New York: New Directions, 1986.

Zaturenska, Marya. Collected Poems. New York: Viking Press, 1965.

Zukofsky, Louis. "A". Berkeley: U of California Press, 1978.

---. All: The Collected Short Poems. New York: Norton and Co., 1971.


Benét, Stephen Vincent. "Litany for Dictatorships." in Caedmon Poetry.

Caedmon Poetry Collection: A Century of Poets Reading Their Work. Caedmon, 2000.

Cummings, Edward Estlin. E.E. Cummings Reads His Collected Poems, 1920-1940. Caedmon, 1975.

Davis, Ossie and Ruby Dee. To Make a Poet Black: the Best Poems of Countee Cullen. Caedmon, 1971.

Frost, Robert. "The Road Not Taken." in Caedmon Poetry.

MacLeish, Archibald. Archibald MacLeish Reads His Poetry. Caedmon, 1972.

Moore, Marianne. "What Are Years." in Caedmon Poetry.

Stevens, Wallace. "The Idea of Order At Key West." in Caedmon Poetry.

Williams, Tennessee. The Poems of Hart Crane. Caedmon, 1966.

Williams, William Carlos. William Carlos Williams Reads His Poetry. Caedmon, 1972.

Critical & Secondary Sources

Broer, Lawrence R. "Stephen Vincent Benét: Overview." in Reference Guide to American Literature, 3rd ed.. edited by Jim Kamp. St. James Press, 1994.

Brooks, Cleanth. "Allen Tate's Poetry." in Squires. pp. 151-162.

Combs, Robert. Vision of the Voyage: Hart Crane and the Psychology of Romanticism. Memphis State UP, 1978.

Cullen, Ida. "Photograph of Countee Cullen." in Shucard.

DePlessis, Rachel and Peter Quartermain, ed. The Objectivist Nexus: Essays in Cultural Poetics. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: U of Alabama Press, 1999.

"E.E. Cummings." Contemporary Authors Online, Gale, 2003. http://galenet.galegroup.com

Erickson, Darlene. Illusion is More Precise than Precision: The Poetry of Marianne Moore. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: U of Alabama P, 1992.

Faggen, Robert. The Cambridge Companion to Robert Frost. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2001.

Feder, Lillian. "Allen Tate's Use of Classical Literature." in Squires. pp. 172-192.

Gregory, Horace and Marya Zaturenska. A History of American Poetry 1900-1940. New York: Harcourt Brace, 1946.

Jacobi, Lotte. "Photograph of Marya Zaturenska." in Diaries of Marya Zaturenska.

Johnson, Bob. "A Whole Synthesis of His Time:Political Ideology and Cultural Politics in the Writings of William Carlos Williams, 1929-1939." American Quarterly Vol. 54, No. 2, June 2002. pp. 179-215

Kertesz, Louise. The Poetic Vision of Muriel Rukeyser. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1980. pp. 98-99. Quoted in Modern American Poetry Website by Cary Nelson. http://www.english.uiuc.edu/maps/index.htm

Levine, Lawrence. The Historian and the Icon. Berkeley: U of CA P, 1988.

MacLeish, Archibald. Reflections. Ed. Bernard Drabeck and Helen Ellis. Amherst: U of Massachusetts Press, 1986.

"Marya Zaturenska." Contemporary Authors Online. Gale, 2003. http://galenet.galegroup.com

McElvaine, Robert. The Great Depression. New York: Three Rivers Press, 1993.

Miller, Joseph. "Wallace Stevens." Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 54: American Poets, 1880-1945, Third Series. Ed. Peter Quatermain. The Gale Group, 1987. pp. 471-505. http://galenet.galegroup.com

Morris, Adalaide Kirby. Wallace Stevens: Imagination and Faith. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1974.

Nelson, Cary. Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910-1945. Madison, Wisconsin: U of Wisconsin Press, 1989.

Pater, Alan F. ed. Anthology of Magazine Verse for 1938-1942 and Yearbook of American Poetry. New York: Paebar Co, 1942.

Pinkser, Sanford. "Charles Reznikoff." Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 28: Twentieth-Century American-Jewish Fiction Writers. ed. Daniel Walden. The Gale Group, 1984. pp. 244-248. http://galenet.galegroup.com

Shucard, Alan. Countee Cullen. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1984.

---. "Langston Hughes." Dictionary of Literary Biography, Volume 51: Afro-American Writers from the Harlem Renaissance to 1940. Ed. Trudier Harris, University of North Carolina: The Gale Group, 1987. pp. 35-46. http://galenet.galegroup.com

Spaulding, John. "Poetry and the Media: The Decline of Popular Poetry." Journal of Popular Culture. 33:2, pp. 147-153

Squires, Radcliffe, ed. Allen Tate and His Work: Critical Evaluations. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota Press, 1972.

Stanley, Sandra Kumamoto. Louis Zukofsky and the Transformation of a Modern American Poetics. Berkeley, California: U of California Press, 1994.

Steinman, Lisa. Made in America: Science, Technology, and American Poets. New Haven: Yale UP, 1987.

Tracy, Steven, ed. A Historical Guide to Langston Hughes. Oxford, UK: Oxford UP, 2004.

---. "Introduction." in Tracy. pp. 1-22.

Zaturenska, Marya. The Diaries of Marya Zaturenska: 1938-1941. Ed. Mary Beth Hinton. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse UP, 2002.

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