1. Poor, Henry V., Manual of the Railroads of the United States: 1870-1871 (New York: Adams Express Company), 1871. Return

2. Harnsberger, John L., Jay Cooke and Minnesota: The Formative Years of the Northern Pacific Railroad (New York: Arno Press), 1981. Return

3. Runte, Alfred, National Parks: The American Experience (Lincoln, Nebraska and London: University of Nebraska Press), 1979. Return

4.Anderson, Nancy K., Albert Bierstadt: Cho-Looke, The Yosemite Fall (San Diego: Timken Art Gallery), 1986. Return

5.Anderson, Nancy K., and Linda Ferber, Albert Bierstadt: Art and Enterprise (New York: Hudson Hills Press) 1990. Return

6.United States Department of Interior, The National Parks: Shaping the System (Washington: United States Printing Office), 1991. Return

7.Unknown, "The Yellowstone," in Harper's Weekly, January 7, 1893; Volume XXXVII, No. 1881. Return

8. Kinsey, Joni Louise, Thomas Moran and the Surveying of the American West (Washington and London: Smithsonian Institution Press), 1992; 58. Return

9. Haines, Aubrey L., Yellowstone National Park: Its Exploration and Establishment (Washington: United States Department of the Interior), 1974. Return

10. Wilkins, Thurman, Thomas Moran, Artist of the Mountains (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press) 1966; 6. Return

11. Pomeroy, Earl, In Search of the Golden West: The Tourist in Western America (Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press), 1957. Return

12. Runte, Alfred, Trains of Discovery: Western Railroads and the National Parks (Niwot, Colorado: Roberts Rinehart Publishers), 1990. Return

13. Demars, Stanford E., The Tourist in Yosemite, 1855-1985 (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press), 1991. Return

14. Harper's Weekly, March 18, 1893; Volume XXXVII, No. 1892. Return


Besides all of the above works, the following books provide excellent critical and historical background on the Railroads, Western Art, and Western Cultural Studies. I would like to give special recognition to the works of Alfred Runte, Trains of Discovery: Western Railroads and the National Parks, and National Parks: The American Experience as the two most relevant and interesting works on the subject of my thesis. Without Runte's meticulous research and extensive personal collection of railroad advertisements, I could not have completed this project.

~Lucius Beebe, The Central and Southern Pacific Railroads (Berkeley: Howell North) 1963.
A thorough corporate history of railway organization. Excellent source for photographs of railway activity from the 1870's to the 1940's.

~Katherine E. Early, For the Benefit and Enjoyment of the People: Cultural Attitudes and the Establishment of Yellowstone National Park (Washington: Georgetown University Press) 1984.

~The Henry Art Gallery, Myth of the West (Seattle: University of Washington Press), 1989.
Another exhibition catalogue which features an extensive examination of western myth through art, film, and popular culture. An excellent source of images, photographs, and criticism. Selected bibliography also provides information on the development of the myths of the west.

~Sig Mickelson, The Northern Pacific Railroad and the Selling of the West: A Nineteenth-century Public Relations Venture (Freeman, SD: Pine Hill Press), 1993.
Mickelson's Master's Thesis from 1940 details the other side of Railroad publicity: the schemes employed to attract settlers to farm, mine, and lumber the West for economic development.

~James D. Norris, Advertising and the Transformation of American Society, 1865-1920 (New York: Greenwood Press), 1990.

~Jules David Prown, et al,Discovered Lands, Invented Pasts: Transforming Visions of the American West (New Haven and London: Yale University Press), 1992.

~David Robertson, Yosemite As We Saw It: A Centennial Collection of Early Writings and Art (Yosemite National Park), 1990.

~Charles R. Wood, Northern Pacific: Main Street of the Northwest (Seattle: Superior Publishing Company), 1968.

The National Park Service

Union Pacific Historical Site An online history of the nation's first transcontinental railroad and only Pacific line still in operation.

Union Pacific Corporate Site where you can read about the current (Summer 1996) merger of Union Pacific and Southern Pacific and how UP plans to upgrade SP's "Sunset Line" in the coming years.

The Golden Gate Railroad Museum for information relevant to Southern Pacific in the Bay Area

The Northern Pacific Interest Page an individual effort devoted to archiving information about Northern Pacific on-line. Includes a bibliography of works related to Northern Pacific's corporate and political history.

Northern Pacific BondsA commercial site with images of Northern Pacific Bonds. Railway bonds were often as artistically intriguing as railway advertising, and images that appeared on these bonds were yet another way the railroads relied on the public's affinity for images of the West to entice them to invest and travel.

The Railroad-Related Internet Resource Page Collection of links to railroad sites, historical analyses and exhibits, collections of images and maps, and information about railroads around the world.

The Yosemite Valley Railroad, by Jack Burgess, a long-time enthusiast of the line. An in-depth historical view of this small but popular rail line.

The Yellowstone Journal Online, an independent newspaper dedicated to Yellowstone and geared to visitors and enthusiasts of Yellowstone National Park.

Yellowstone National Park, an unofficial web site devoted to the Yellowstone Park and environs

Photographs of the American West

Gallery of the Open Frontier

The Brooklyn Museum of Art: Albert Bierstadt

The National Museum of American Art: Albert Bierstadt

Relevant Projects at UVA

Tuomi Forrest, Western Photography and Henry Nash Smith's Virgin Land

Michael Kidd, Frederick Jackson Turner: The Frontier in American History

Joshua Johns, Nature and the American Identity: Paintings of Nature in the United States Capitol

Eric Gislason, Imaging the Civil War, part of a hypertext of Stephen Crane's The Red Badge of Courage

Julie K. Rose, The World's Columbian Exposition: Idea, Image, Aftermath

Joshua Johns, Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show