1 By tradition this region is called the border in England and the borders in Scotland.

2 Here is another application for the Palmer-Godechot thesis, about the relative permeability of land and sea in the eighteenth century. Maritime communications had much improved since the middle ages, but travel over land was not much better than in the world of the Romans. The argument of Palmer and Godechot about the borders of the "Atlantic world" also applies to the edges of the Irish Sea. See Jacques Godechot and R. R. Palmer, "Le problŠme de l'Atlantique du XVllle au XXe sicle," Relazioni del X Congresso Internazianale di Scienze Storiche (Roma 4-11 Settemeqe 1955) (Florence, 1955), V, 175-239.

3 The Penrith beacon was built in 1719, within a year of the beginnings of the American migration. It was used in 1745, and repaired as late as 1780. Nikolaus Pevsner, The Buildings of England: Cumberland and Westmorland (Harmondsworth, 1967), 178.

4 Bouch and Jones, Economic and Social History of the Lake Counties, 2, 11, 16.

5 George Williams Diary, Ms. DX 124, CUMROC.

6 George M. Fraser, The Steel Bonnets, (New York 1972), 65.

7 The word reiving is from the ME reven, to take by force; for the Debateable Land, see T.H.B. Graham, "The Debateable Land," CWAAS n.s. 12 (1912), 33-S8. It would, of course, be chronologically more correct to say that American rustling was reminiscent of the traditional northern English model. See R.A.E. Wells, "Sheep Rustling in Yorkshire," NH 20 (1984), 127-84; J. G. Rule, "The Manifold Causes of Rural Crime: Sheep Stealing in England, circa 1740-1780," in J. G. Rule, ea., Outside the Law (Exeter, 1983).

8 Robert Newton, "The Decay of the Borders Tudor Northumberland in Transition," in Christopher Chalkin and Michael Haveden, eds., Rural Change and Urban Growth, 1500-1800 (London,1977) 2-31.

9 Joan Thirsk, ea., Agrarian History of England and Wales, (Cambridge, 1967), IV, 49.

10 Calendar of State Papers, Venetian, 1615-1617, 150.

11 Douglas L. W. Tough, The Last Years of a Frontier; A History of the Borders During the Reign of Elizabeth (Oxford, 1928), 38; Bouch and Jones, Economic and Social History of the Lake Countnes, 1 23.

12 Pevsner, Cumberland and Westmorland, 29.

13 Tough, Last Years of a Frontier, xvi; R. T. Spence, "The Pacification of the Cumberland Border, 1593-1628," NH 13 (1977), 62.

14 Sir William Hutton to the Earl of Cumberland, Dec. 1611, quoted in Spence, "The Pacification of the Cuinbcrland Border," 123.

15 The term blackmail, from the French mail for rent, is defined by the OED as "a tribute formerly exacted from farmers and small owners in the border counties of England and Scotland . . . in return for protection or immunity from plunder."

16 Fraser, The Steel Bonnets, 66.

17 A case in point was the "robber clan" of Graham, forcibly "transported beyond the seas." See J. Nicolson and R. Burn, The History and Antiquities of Westmorland and CumberZand (2 vole., 1977), 1, cxviii-cxxi; and Spence, "The Pacification of the Cumberland Border," 59-160.

18 Edward Hughes, North Country Life in the Eighteenth Century: The North East, 1700-1750 (London, 1952), 1, 3, 5, II, xx; see also J. D. Marshall, "The Rise and Transformation of the Cumbrian Market Town, 1660-1900," NH 19 (1983), 128-209; and idem, "Kendal in the Late Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," CWAAS 75 (1975), 188-257.

19 J.V. Beckett, "Absentee Land Ownership in the Later 17th and Early 18th Centuries: The Case of Cumbria," NH 19 (1983), 87-107.

20 S.H. Scott, A Westmorland Village: The Story of the Old Homesteads and "Statesman " Families of Troutoech by Windermere (Westminster, 1904), 21. A statesman whose papers survive in the Cumbria Record Office at Kendal was Benjamin Browne of Westmorland (1664-1748).

21 Paul Brassley, "Northumberland and Durham," in Thirsk, ea., Agrarian History of England and Wales, Vol. 5, Part I, 49.

22 Robert V. Remini, Andrew Jackson and the Course of American Empire, 1767-1821 (New York, 1977), 15; T.C.F. Darby, "The Agrarian Economy of Westmorland" (thesis, Univ. of Leicester, 1965).

23 J.Leopold, "The Levellers' Revolt of Galloway in 1724," SLHSJ 14 (1980) 4-29.

24 Hughes, North Country Life in the Eighteenth Century: The North East, . 700- i750. 16.

25 Hugh Boulton to Duke of Newcastle, 23 Nov. 1728, in Letters Written by His Excellency Hugh Boulton, D.D. (2 vole., Dublin, 1770), 1, 225-26.

26 Dickson, Ukter Emigration, 76.

27 Jonathan Dickinson toJohn Asher, 22 Oct. 1717, Dickinson Letterbook, 1715-1721, HSP. Charles A. Hanna, The Scotch-lrish; or the Scot in North Bntain, North Ireland and North Ar~erica (2 vole., New York, 1902), II, 63.

28 Jonathan Dickinson to John Asher, 22 Oct. 1717, Dickinson Letterbook, 1715-1721, HSP.

29 James Logan to John, Thomas and Richard Penn, 17 April 1731, Penn Papers, Official Correspondence, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Frederick B. Tolles, Quakers and the Atlantic Culture (New York, 1960), 126.

30 The evidence supports the McDonalds' conclusions that comparatively few Germans migrated more than 300 miles from Philadelphia. See McDonald and McDonald, "Commentary," 134. Other scholars have replicated these results. John Campbell (The Southern Highlander, 63) concluded from surnames in pension lists, muster rolls and census tracts that in North Carolina and Tennessee, the English and Scots-lrish were each about one-third of the population; in Kentucky, the English were 40% and the Scots- lrish 80%; in Georgia, English and Scotslrish were each about 40% of all names. He reckoned that Germans accounted for one- fifth of names in North Carolina, one-seventh in Tennessee and one-twelfth in Kentucky. Even this estimate overcounts the number of Germans. H. Roy Merrens (Colonial North Carolina in the Eighteenth Century (Chapel Hill, 1964), 53-81) reckons that Germans were between 2.8 and 4.7% of the population of North Carolina as a whole, but 22.5% of two counties near the Moravian Tract.

31 Bridenbaugh, who thought of them as Scotch-lrish, wrote, "Of all the national groups the Scotch Irish were the most numerous, and it is not surprising that in the long run they came to dominate" the backcountry. McDonald and McWhiney thought of them as Celts and concluded that they were dominant in North Carolina, South Carolina, and other settlements to the south and west. See Bridenbaugh, Myths and Realities, 132; McDonald and McDonald, "Ethnic Origins," 199; idein, "Commentary," 133; Schaper, Sectionalism in South Carolina, 43; Mitchell, "Upper Shenandoan Valley," 218.

32 Some called it "the frontiers" in the conventional 18th- century sense of a boundary between governments--a very different meaning from the Turnerian usage. An exception was Benjamin Franklin, who developed his own frontier thesis before 1760.

33 Hans Kurath, A Word Geography of the Eastern United States (Ann Arbor, 1949); Craig M. Carver, American Regional Dialects; A Word Ceography (Ann Arbor, 1987); Robert F. Dakin, "South Midland Speech in the Old Northwest,"JEL 5 (1971), 31-48; C. Williams, "Appalachian Speech," NCHR 55 (1978), 174-79.

34 Virginia Gazette, 22 Oct. 1772; Bridenbaugh, Myths and Realities, 169.

35 An early description of backcountry speech ways so early as to capture the language of the immigrants who had arrived in the 18th century was made by the American traveler Anne Royall, after a visit to the region which she fancifully called "Grison republic," and is now the state of West Virginia: "To return to my Grison republic," she wrote, "their dialect sets orthography at defiance, and is with difficulty understood; for instance, the words by, my, rye, they pronounce as you would ay. Some words they have imported, some they have made out and out, some they have swapped for others, and nearly the whole of the English language is so mangled and mutilated by them, that is hardly known to be such. When they would say pretence, they say lettinon is a word of very extensive use amongst them. It signifies a jest, and is used to express disapprobation and disguise; 'you are just lettinon to rub them spoons Polly is not mad, she is only lettinon.' Blaze they pronounce bleez, one they call waun, sugar shugger; 'and is this all it ye got?' handkerchief hancorchy, (emphasis on the second syllable); and 'the two ens of it comed loose'; for get out of the way, they say, get out of the road: Road is universally used for way; 'put them cheers, (chairs) out of the road.' But their favorite word of all, is hate, by which they mean the word thing; for instance, nothing, 'not a hate not wann hate will ye's do.' What did you buy at the stores ladies? 'Not a hate well you hav'nt a hate here to eat.' They have the hickups, and corp, (corpse), and are a (cute) people. Like Shakespeare they make a word when at a loss: scawin'd is one of them, which means spotted." Anne Royall, Sketch of the History, Life and Manners in the United States (New Haven, 1826), I, 53; for other early descriptions of this dialect see "Skitt," [H. E. Taliaferro], Fisher's Rover (North Carolina) Scenes and Characters (New York, 1859); and Ralph Steele Boggs, "North Carolina Folktales . . . ,"JAF47 (1934), 268-88.

36 Dial, "The Dialect of the Appalachian People," 463-71.

37 James Parton, Life of Andrew Jackon (3 vole., New York, 1859), I, 47.

38 Honey as a term of endearment was also occasionally heard in New England and the Chesapeake. But it was specially associated with North British and Irish speech, and in the 18th century came to be regarded as an "hibernianism."

39 J. H. Combs, "Old, Early and Elizabethan English in the Southern Mountains," DN 4 (1913-17), 283-97; Thomas Pyles, The Origins and Development of the English Language (New York, 1964).

40 W. Dickson, Glossary of Words and Phrases Pertaining to the Dialect of Cumberland (London, n.d.); see also an anonymous compilation, Westmorland and Cumb~ land Dialects, Dialogues, Poems, Songs ~ Ballads by Various Writers in the Westmorland and Cumbe land Dialect Now Collected with a Copious Clossary (London, 1839); and see W. Dickinson and E. W. Prevost, A Glossary of the Words and Phrases Pertaining to the Dialect of Cumberland (London, 1879); and Ann Wheeler, Westmorland Dialect . . . (London, 1840), 130. Also valuable are writings in dialect by the 18th century "Cumberland Bard," Robert Anderson. Early descriptive sources are more helpful for an historian's purposes than 20th-century speech studies, which, though more refined in their analytic tools, are less useful as a guide to past patterns.

Patterns of grammar were also very much the same. Hughes notes, for example, that the borderers "used the indefinite article freely, e.g., 'he had a one."' See Hughes, North Country Life in the Eighteenth Century: The North East, 37. An example of the Northumbrian double negative appears in Fraser, Steel Bonnets, 72.

41 Ferguson, Northmen in Cumberland and Westmorland, 152-53; see also Dickinson and Provost, A Glossary of the Words and Phrases Pertaining to the Dialect of Cumberland, xxv.

42 Woodmason, Carolina Bacicountry, 16.

43 See H. B. Shurtleff, The Log Cabin Myth (Cambridge, Mass., 1939). Log houses of various types appeared at an earlier date throughout the colonies, often for special purposes such as forts and jails and garrison houses, where walls of unusual thickness were desired. Instances appear in the Archives of Maryland, 11 (1884), 224; North Carolina Colonial Records, I (1886), 300.

Germans also introduced log buildings, but these structures differed from the classical log cabin in many ways. See C. A. Weslager, The Log Cabin in America (New Brunswick, NJ., 1969); Henry Glassie, "The Appalachian Log Cabin," MLW 39 (1963), 5-14; idem, "The Types of Southern Mountain Cabin," in The Study of American Folklore, ed. Jan H. Brunwand (New York, 1968), 338-70; Fred Kniffen, "Folk Housing: Key to Diffusion," AAAG 55 (1965), 549-77; Fred Kniffen and Henry Glassie, "Building in Wood in the Eastern United States," GR 56 (1966) 40-66.

44 John Aston, "Diary," in "Six North Country Diaries," Publications of the Surtees Society 118 (1910), 31; for modern discussions, see R. W. Brunskill, "The Clay Houses of Cumberland," AMST 10 (1962), 57-80; Christopher Stell, "Pennine Houses," FL 3 (1965), 5-24;James Walton, "Upland Houses: The Influence of Mountain Tenrain on British Folk Building," AA 30 (1956), 142-48; Caoimh¡n ¢ Danachair, "The Combined Byre-and- Dwelling in Ireland," FL 2 (1964), 58-75; Alan Gailey, "The Peasant Houses of the South-west Highlands of Scotland: Distribution, Parallels, and Evolution," C 3 (1962), 227-42; M. W. Barley, The English Farmhouse and Cottage (London, 1961); Henry Glassie, Pattern in the Material Folk Culture of the Eastern United States (Philadelphia, 1968); idem, Folk Housing in Middle Virginia (Knoxville, 1975); Carl Linsberg, "The Building Process in Antebellum North Carolina," NCHR 60 (1983), 431-56.

45 John Major, Historia Majoris Britanniae tam Angliae q. Scotiae ...(Paris, 1521); tr. in P. l lume Brown, ea., Scotland before 1 700from Contemporary Documents (Edinburgh, 1893), 44.

46 Martin Wright, "The Antecedents of the Double Pen House Type," AAAG 48 (1958).

47 Leyburn has collected impressive evidence of continuities in the vernacular architecture of the Scottish lowlands, quoting Froissart in the 15th century that "after an English raid, the country-folk made light of it, declaring they had driven their cattle into the hills, and that with six or eight stakes they would soon have new houses."

Of the 16th century, MacKenzie wrote that throughout Galloway, cottages and cabins were "constructed of rude piles of [drift]wood, with branches interwoven between them, and covered on both sides with a tenacious mixture of clay and straw."

A report in 1670 noted that "the houses of the commonalty are very mean, mud-wall and thatch, the best; but the poorer sort live in such miserable huts as never eye beheld.... In some parts, where turf is plentiful, they build up little cabins thereof, with arched roofs of turf, without a stick of timber in it; when the house is dry enough to burn, it serves them for fuel, and they remove to another."

Of the 18th century it was written that the houses were "little removed from hovels with clay floors, open hearths . . . only the better class of farmers had two rooms, the house getting scant light by two tiny windows."

Leybunn, The Scotch-lrish: A Social History, 18; P. Hume Brown, Earl7 Travelers in Scotland (Edinburgh, 1891), 12-16; William Mackenzie, History of Galloway from the Earliest Period to the Present Time (2 vole., Kirkcudbright, 1841), I, 232; Harkian Miscellany, Vl, 139; H. G. Graham, The Social Life of Scotland in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1899), 182-83.

48 Woodmason, Carolina Backcountry, 31; William Byrd, The London Diary (1717-1721) and Other Wntings (New York, 1958), 588-89; Edmund Morgan, Virginians at Home (New York, 1952), 73; similar observations were made two centuries later of Appalachian families in industrial cities such as Baltimore and Detroit.

49 Leyburn, The Scotch-lrish; A Social History, 151.

50 Michael J. O'Brien and Dennis E. Lewarch, "The Built Environment," in M. J. O'Brien ea., Grassland, Forest and Historical Settlement (Lincoln, Neb., 1984), 231-65. Terry Jordan Texas Log Building: A Folk Architecture (Austin, 1978); Wilbur Zelinsky, "The Log House in Georgia," CR 43 (1953), 173-93; Eugene M. Wilson, Alabama Folh Houses (Montgomery, Ala. 1975); Donald A. Hutslar, The Log Architecture of Ohio (Columbus, 1977); Charles McRaven Building the Hewn Log House (New York, 1978); Fred Kniffen, "Louisiana House Types," AAAC 26 (1936), 1 79-93.

51 Amos Long, "Fencingin Rural Pennsylvania," PF 12 (1961), 30-35; Arthur Dobbs in Glonial Records of North Carolina, V, 262.

52 Bouch and Jones, Economic and Social History of the Lake Countries, 33; Eugene Cotton Mather end John Fraser Hart, "Fences and Farms," GR 44 (1954), 201-23.

53 Ernest Hudson, Barton Records (Penrith, 1951), 56; W. G. Collingwood, The Lake Counties (London, 1902), 144; Scott, A Westmorland Village, 64-65, Bouch andJones, Economic and Social History of the Lake Countries, 108.

54 Shurtlelf, Log Cabin Myth, 185.

55 Bridenbaugh, Myths and Realities, 135.

56 Fraser, Steel Bonnets, 55-65 passim.

57 Robert Witherspoon, "Recollections," in H. Roy Merrens, ea., The South Carolina Scene: Contemporary Views, 1697-1774 (Columbia, S.C., 1977), 124. For another description of clan migration, see Parton, Life of Andrew Jackson, I, 46.

58 Charles G. Sellers, James K Polk, Jacksonian, 1795-1843 (Princeton, 1957), 8-9.

59 Gilmer, First Settlers of Upper Ceorgia, 168.

60 Landsman, Scotland and Its First American Colony, 46.

61 1bid., 160.

62 Bouch and Jones, Economic and Social History of the Lake Countnes, 30.

63 G.E. Braithwaite, "The Braithwaites," 10, LANCSRO.

64 Ibid., 153.

65 Woodmason, Carolina Bacico;untry, 39.

66 Arthur Dobbs to Board of Trade, 24 Aug. 1755, Colonial Records of North Carolina, V, 355; somewhat smaller households are reported in Alan D. Watson, "Household Size and Composition in Pre-Revolutionar,v North Carolina," MQ 31 (1978), 551-69.

67 Yasukichi Yasuba, Birth Rates of the White Population in the Uni¨ed States, 1800-1860 (Baltimore, 1962), 61-62, 131-32; Colin Forster and G.S.L. Tucker, Economic Opportunity and White American Fertility Ratios, 1800-1860 (New Haven, 1972), 40-41; for the persistence of large and complex households in this region during the nineteenth century, see William M. Selby, Michael J. O'Brien and Lynn M. Snyder, "The Frontier Household," in Michael J. O'Brien, ea., Grassland, Forest and Historical Settlement (Lincoln, Neb., 1984), 266-316. There is evidence of large &mikes in Ulster, with as many as five males each on the average; see Raymond Cillespie, Colonial Ulster: The Settlement of East Ulster, 1600-1641 (Cork, 1985), 55.

68 Miles, The Spirit of the Mountains, 13-14.

69 Edward C. Banfield, The Moral Basis of a Backward Society (New York, 1958), l 10.

70 W.D. Weatherford and Earl D. C. Brewer, Life and Religion in Southern Appalachia (New York, 1962), 9.

71 0tis K. Rice, The Hatfields and McCoys (Lexington, 1978).

72 Charles G. Mutzenberg, Kentucky's Famous Feuds and Tragedies (New York, 1917); S. S. McClintock, "The Kentucky Mountains and Their Feuds," AJS 7 (1901), 1-28, 171-87; O. O. Howard, "The Feuds in the Cumberland Mountains," 1 56 (1904), 783-88; Jenny Wormald, "Blood Feud, Kindred and Government in Early Modern Scotland," Past and Present 87 (1980), 54-97.

73 Patrick C. Power, Sex and Marriage in Ancient Ireland (Dublin and Cork, 1976), 42-47.

74 Leyburn, The Scotch-Irish: A Social History, 32; R. Chambers, Domestic Annals of Scotland (Edinburgh, 1858-61), I, 5.

75 David Ramsey, History of South Carolina from Its First Settlement in 1670 to the Year 1808 (2 vole., Charleston, 1809),11, 600.

76 Mark Kaplanoff obtained the following estimates of mean age at marriage from an ingenious analysis of the South Carolina census of 1800, for marriages contracted in the population living at that time.

District Males Females Greenville 22.3 19.4 Newberry 21.4 19.1 Sumter 20.9 19.8

Source: Unpublished research, communicated by the kindness of Mark Kaplanoff.

77 1n England before 1750, mean age at first marriage of women was 26.9 in twenty-six southern parishes, and 23.5 in sixteen northern parishes. Age at marriage was generally higher in all British regions than in the American colonies, but relative differences were much the same. See Michael W. Flinn, The European Demographic System, 1500-1820 (Baltimore, 1981), 124-25.

77 Kercheval, Valley of Virginia, 268.

78 Alan D. Watson, "Women in Colonial North Carolina . . . ," NCHR 58 (1981), 1-22.

79 John Oldmixon also wrote that, throughout the backlands, "the ordinary women take care of cows, hogs, and other small cattle, make butter and cheese, spin cotton and flax, help to sow and reap corn, wind silk from the worms, gather fruit and look after the house"; The History of the British Empire in America in Alexander S. Salley, Jr., Narratives of Early Carolina (I 911, New York, 1967), 372.

80 Gentlemen's Magazine 36 (1766), 582.

81 Woodmason, Carolina Backcountry, 30, 61.

82 Ibid, 32.

83 Kercheval, Valley of Virginia, 257.

84 Woodmason, Carolina Backcountry,7,100.

85 Peter Laslett, "Long Term Trends in Bastardy in England," in Family Life and Illicit Love in Earlier Generations (Cambridge, 1977), 142-46.

86 Salley, "The Grandfather of John C. Calhoun," 50.

87 OED, s.v., "tanistry."

88 Mackie, A History of Scotland, 33, 42, 65.

89 In the year 1806, Samuel Blodget estimated that annual crude death rates per thousand by region as follows: Southern highlands, 20-22; Boston, 20-21; Philadelphia, 20-23; Tidewater south, 26-29. Samuel Blodget, Economica: A Statistical Manual for the United States of America (Washington, 1806), 76.

90 1bid., 143.

91"lt is customary yet in some parts of the north of England to place a plate filled with salt on the stomach of a corpse after death." Charles Hardwick, Traditions, Superstitions and Folklore (London, 1872), 181; see also Lowry C. Wimberly, Death and Burial Lore in the English and Scottish Popular Ballads (Lincoln, Neb., Univ. of Nebraska Studies in Language, Literature and Criticism, no. 8, 1927).

92 William Rollinson, Life and Tradition in the Lake District (London, 1974), 56.

93 Parton, Arutrew Jackon, I, 42-43.

94 Scott, A Westmorlar~d Village, 78.

95 Will of John Wilson of Rosthwaite, 23 March 1763, ms. DX 241/108, CUMROC.

96 Daniel Fleming, Book ofAccounts, 15 April 1675, ms. 386, WD/R/box 199, CUMROK.

97 Hudson, Barton Records.

98 "1f the murderer touches the corpse of a murdered man, it will purge; therefore, have the suspect touch the corpse." North Carolina Folklore, Vl, 490.

99 North Carolina Folklore, 1,258.

100 Dyer Journal, 24 Aug. 1767, 7 dune 1769, Ms. HSP.

101 Johnson, Antebellum North Carolina, 145-48.

102"The Presbyterians are the most numerous," _Informations Concerning the Province of North Carolina..._ (Glasgow, 1773); reprinted in Wm. K Boyd, ed., _Some Eighteenth Century Tracts Concerning North Carolina_ (Raleigh, 1927), 450.

103 Thomas P. Ford, "Status, Residence and Fundamentalist Religious Beliefs in the Sourhtern Appalachians," _SF_ 39 (1960), 41-9.

104 George Williamson Diary, 18 January 1745, ms. CUMROC.

105 Witherspoon, "Recollections," 127.

106 Benjamin Ferris Journal, ca. 1777, ms HSP.

107"A Letter from a Blacksmith to the Ministers and Elders of the Church of Scotland," 1759, quoted in Robert T Fitzugh, _Robert Burns_ (Boston, 1970), 72.

108 Witherspoon, "Recollections," 127.

109 Woodmason, _Carolina Backcountry_, 95; Guion Griffis Johnson, "The Camp Meeting in Ante-bellum North Carolina," NCHR X (1933), 1-20; Robert Semple, _A History of the Rise and Progress of Baptists in Virginia_ (1810, rpt 1894), 23-4.

110 Wesley M Gewehr, _The Great Awakening in Virginia_, 1740-1790_ (Durham, 1930), 170.

111 Francis Asbury, _Journal_ I, 444, 447, 461, 493,612.

112 John B Boles, _The Great Revival, 1787-1805_ (Lexington, 1972); Dickson D. Bruce, _They All Sang Hallelujah_ (Knoxville, 1974).

113 Benjamin Ferris Journal, 1726, Ms., SWAR.

114Drake, _Pioneer Life in Kentucky_, 216.

115Kercheval, _Valley of Virginia_, 196, 253; Woodmason, _Carolina Backcountry_, 34, 173.

116Woodmason, _Carolina Backcountry_, 34, 173, 176, 196; Thomas Anburey, _Travels_ (2 vols, London, 1789), 340, 376; William Eddis, _Letters from America_ (1792, Cambridge, 1969), 57; "Observations on Several Voyages and Travels to America," WMQ3 15 (1958), 146.

117John Gough, _The Manners and Customs of Westmorland_ (Kendal, 1827), 20; also _Ulster Journal of Archaeology_ II (1854), 204; Woodmason, _Carolina Backcountry_, 176, 34, passim.

118Redcliffe N. Salaman, _The History and Social Influence of the Potato_ (Cambridge, 1985); potatoes were not unknown in other food-cultures of British America, but they were not staples.

119 Ferguson, _Northmen in Cumberland and Westmorland_, 149; Rollinson, _Life and Traditions in the Lake District_, 38-40, 49.

120 Sam biBowers Hilliard, _Hog Meat and Hoecake: Food Supply in the Old South, 1840-1860_ (Carbondale, Ill., 1972).

121 Kercheval, _Valley of Virginia_, 253.

122 Chastellleux, _Travels_, II, 409, 19 April 1782.

123 Hudson, _Barton Records_, 56; John C Campbell, _The Southern Highlander and His Homeland_ (New York, 1921), 203.

124 Gomme, _Traditional Games of England, Scotland, and Ireland_, 183; William Dodd, ed, _Edenhall and People Who Have Lived There_ (n.p., 1974), 19, CUMBROC; Ferguson, _Northmen in Cumberland and Westmorland_, 150; Scott, _A Westmoreland Village_, 18.

125 Rollinson, _Life and Tradition in Lake District_, 161-2.

126 Parton, _Andrew Jackson_ I, 66.

127 Jacob Robinson and SIdney Gilpin, _Wrestling and Wrestlers_ (n.p., 1893).

128 Hugh W Mackell, _Some Records of the Annual Grasmere Sports_ (Carlisle, 1911), 15.

129 Thomas Ashe, _Travels in America, Performed in 1906_ (New York, 1811).

Hening, _Statutes_, VI, 250; VIII, 520.

131 Greenfield _Gazette_, 12 July 1800

132 Anburey, _Travels_, II, 217-8.

133 Ibid, II, 201-2.

134 Thomas Pennant, _A Tour of Scotland_ (London, 1790); qtd. in Grady McWhiney and Perry D. Jamieson, _Attack and Die: Civil War Military Tactics and the Southern Heritage_ (University, Ala., 1981), 183.

135 Witherspoon, "Recollections," 125.

136 For cowpens in Northumberland see Thisk, ed., _Agrarian History of England and Wales_, IV, 17, 27.

137 OED, "cowpens."

138 Schaper, _Sectionalism in South Carolina_, 59; Forrest McDonald and Grady McWhitney, "The Antebellum Southern Herdsman: A Reinterpretation," _JSH_ 41 (1975), 147-66; idem, "The South from Self-Sufficiency to Peonage: An Interpretation," _AHR_ 85 (1980), 1095-118; idem, "The Celtic South," _History Today_ 30 (1980), 11-15; Grady McWhiney, "Antebellum Piney Woods Culture: Continuity Over Place and Time," in Noel Polk, ed., _Mississippi's Piney Woods: A Human Perspective_ (Jackson, Miss., 1986), 40-59.

139 Parton, _Andrew Jackson_, I, 45-6; James Elerton, 1740, published in Elizabeth Poyas, _olden Time of Carolina_ (Charleston, 1855), and excerpts in Merrens, ed., _The Colonial South Carolina Scene_, 130-7.

140 Landsman, _Scotland and Its First American Colony_, 31, 44; Gillespie, _Colonial Ulster_, 60.

141Those statistics do not include movement within the county, nor were they much affected by mortality; Beeman, _Evolution of the Southern Backcountry_, 29-30, 67-70, 81-2.

142 Miles, _The Spirit of the Mountains_, 177; Remini, _Andrew Jackson_ I, 37.

143 Schoepf, _Travels_, II, 103.

144 John Hill Wheeler, _Historical Sketches of North Carolina_ (rpt. Baltimore, 1964), 438.

145 Andrew Jackson to Rachel Jackson, May 9, 1796, _Papers of Andrew Jackson_, I, 91.

146 Andrew Jackson to Martin Van Buren, 4 Dec. 1838, _Jackson Correspondence_, V, 573; W.H. Sparks, _The Memories of Fifty Years_ (Philadelphia, 1882) 147-8; Remini, _Andrew Jackson_, I, 11-2, 429.

147_North Carolina Folklore_, I, 472.

148 Selwyn G Champion, _Racial Proverbs_ (London, 1938), 59.

149 Woodmason, _Carolina Backcountry_, 28.

150 Richard M. Brown, "The American Vigilante Tradition," in _The History of Violence in America_, 154-226.

151 Mathews, _Dictionary of Americanisms_, 1010; A. Matthews in _CSM_, 27, 256-71.

152 Charles L. Wallas, _Stories on Stone_ (n.p., n.d.), 62.

153 _ALAR_ 12 (1959), 92; Clarence E. Carter, _Territorial Papers of the United States_ (27 vols., Washington, D.C., 1934-69), VI, 243-46, 268-9.

154 Edward Steel, "Criminality in Jeffersonian America--A Sample," _Crime and Delinquency_, 18 (1972), 154.

155 Campbell, _The Southern Highlander_, 119.

156 Garland F. Hopkins, _Cumberland County, Virginia_ (Winchester, 1942), 31.

157 Edward L Ayers, _Vengeance and Justice: Crime and Punishment in the Nineteenth-Century American South_ (New York, 1984), 111.

158 _North Carolina Folklore_. I, 500.

159 Parton, _Andrew Jackson_ I, 112-3.

160 Bridenbaugh, _Myths and Realities_, 132.

161 William Byrd, _History of the Dividing Line_, ed. William Boyd (Raleigh, 1929), 207.

162 Parton, _Andrew Jackson_, I, 163.

163 Norris W Preyer, _Herzekiah Alexander and the Revolution in the Backcountry_ (Charlotte, 1987), 66.

164 Schoepf, _Travels_, 238-9.

165 Richard Trappes-Lomax, "The Diary and Letterbook of the Rev. Thomas Brockbank, 1671-1719," _CHSP_ n.s. 89 (1930), 44.

166 George Harrison, "Every Man at Nature's Table Has a Right to Elbow Room," _FHSL_ 21 (1924), 27-30.