Photo, 1924, by Edward Elcha, Courtesy of Macmillian Publishing Co., Inc.

Albertson, Chris. "1925-1927: Chris Albertson; Lesbianism in the Life of Bessie Smith." Gay American History. Ed. Thomas Y. Katz. New York: Crowell Company, 1976. 76-82.

Albertson, Chris. "Taint Nobody's Business If I Do." Bluesland. Eds. Pete Welding and Toby Byron. New York: Penguin Group, 1991. 50-67.

Antelyes, Peter. "Red Hot Mamas." Embodied Voices. Eds. Leslie C. Dunn and Nancy A. Jones. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press, 1994. 212-229.

Blee, Kathleen M. Women of the Klan: Racism and Gender in the 1920s. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Brooks, Edward. The Bessie Smith Companion. New York: De Capo Press Inc., 1982.

Dowd Hall, Jacquelyn. "The Mind that Burns in Each Body: Women, Rape and Racial Violence." Powers of Desire: The Politics of Sexuality. Eds. Ann Snitow, Christine Stansell, and Sharon Thompson. New York: Minthly review Press, 1983. 328-349.

Ducille, Ann. "Blues Notes on Black Sexuality: Sex and the Texts of Jessie Fauset and Nella Larsen." American Sexual Politics: Sex, Gender and Race Since the Civil War. Eds. John C. Fout and Maura Shaw Tantillo. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. 193-219.

Garber, Eric. "A Spectacle in Color: The Lesbian and Gay Subculture of Jazz Age Harlem." Hidden from History. Eds. Martin Bauml Duberman, Martha Vicinus and George Chauncey Jr. New York: NAL Books, 1989. 318-331.

Grimke, Archibald H. "The Sex Question and Race Segregation." (1915) The American Negro Academy Occasional Papers 1-22. New York: Arno Press, 1969.

Huggins, Nathan Irvin. Harlem Renaissance. New York: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Jones, Jacqueline. Labor of Love, Labor of Sorrow: Black Women, Work and the Family, from Slavery to the Present. New York: Vintage Books, 1985.

Meyerowitz, Joanne. "Sexual Geography and Gender Economy: The furnished room districts of Chicago." Gender and American History since 1890. Ed. Barbara Melosh. New York: Routledge, 1993. 43-71.

Miller, Kelly. "Surplus Negro Woman." Race Adjustment: Essays on the Negro in America. New York: The Neale Publishing Co., 1908. 168-178.

Simmons, Christina. "Modern Sexuality and the Myth of Victorian Repression." Gender and American History Since 1890. Ed. Barbara Melosh. New York: Routledge, 1993.17-42.

Watson, Steven. The Harlem Renaissance. New York: Pantheon Books, 1995.

New Amsterdam News The New York Public Library Collection, starting 1922. (Harlem)


Bessie Smith Songbook. Frank Music Corp. copyright 1994.

Bessie Smith: Empress of the Blues. Macmillian Publishing Co., Inc. New York: 1975.

I hope you have enjoyed this site please feel free to stop by anytime, or drop me a line:

|Down-Hearted Blues |Jailhouse Blues |'Taint Nobody's Biz-ness If I Do|Statement of Purpose |Biography| Bibliography|